Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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beauty the usual features of valley, mountain, and lake. The vales are clothed with a
rich verdure, and arc studded with clumps of fruit and forest trees; the mountains are
covered with beeches and oaks; higher up with pines and larches, and in some instances
are topped with everlasting snow. The highest peak. Grosse Priel, reaches an altitude
of 7,'Jol feet. But the district derives its reputation for beauty chiefly from its lakes,
Hie larii'c.-t and most famous of which are the Hallstadt and the Traun, or Gmuuden
lakes. They are bordered with lofty mountains, which rise sheer from the surface of
the water; and their pit-like character, and the strong light and shade thrown on them
IK mi the mom: tains, combine to render the scenery, of which they form the center,
unusually sublime. The llalisladt and Traun lakes are connected, and indeed formed
by the river Trauu. The district of Salzkammergut derives its name from the salt which
is obtained in enormous quantities from its springs and mines. Salt being a government
monopoly in Austria, the works are under the management of the Kamiuer, or exchequer.
From 0,000 to 7,000 of the inhabitants are employed in the salt-works, and the amount
annually obtained is near 50,000 tons. The chief seats of the salt-works are Ischl (q.v.)
and Hallstadt. Little or no agriculture is carried on in the Salzkammergut and the
inhabitants not engaged in the main industry of the district are engaged in cattle-
breeding and iu the timber trade.

SALZWEDEL, a small manufacturing t. of Prussian Saxony, 54 m. n.n.w r . of Magde-
burg, on the Jeetze. It carries on sugar-refining and manufactures of linen, woolen,
and cotton fabrics. Pop. '75, 8,205.


SAMANI AND 3ILEMI were two dynasties which divided between them the kingdom
of Persia toward the beginning of the 10th century. They both rose to power through,
the favor of the caliphs, but they speedily threw off the yoke. TheDilemi, divided into
two blanches, exercised sovereign authority in Kerman, Irak, Fars, Khuzistan, and
Laristan. always acknowledging their nominal dependence on the caliph; and during the
whole period of their rule, one of the southern branches of this family was vested with
the dignity of enur-ul-omra,. or vizier, and managed the affairs of the caliphate. Several
of the Dilemi were able and wise rulers, as the remains of their works of irrigation and
other structures amply testify; but Mali mud of Ghizni put an end to the rule of the
northern branch in 1029, and the Seljuks subjugated the southern one in 1056, by the
capture of Bagdad, their last stronghold. Their more powerful rivals, the Samaiii, had
obtained from the caliph the government of Transoxiana in 874A.D. ; and to this, Ismail,
the most celebrated prince of the family, speedily added Khaurezm, Balkh, Khoni>sai:.
!Sci>tan, and many portions of Northern Turkestan. Rebellious of provincial governors
distracted the Samanidc monarchy toward the end of the 10th c., and in 999 A.D. their
dominions n. of Persia were taken possession of by the khan of Kashgar, the Persian,
provinces being added by Mahmud of Ghizui to his dominions.

SAMAR, one of the Philippine islands (q.v.).

SAMARA', a frontier government of Russia, bounded on the e. by the Kirghiz steppes,
and on the w. by the governments of Saratov, Simbirsk, and Kazan. Area, 64,953 sq.
m. ; pop. '70, 1,887,081. It was erected into a government by ukase of Dec., 1850, and
was formed out of portions of the governments of Simbirsk, Orenburg, and Saratov.
The Volga, which forms the western boundary, and its affluent, the Samara, are the chief
rivers. The country is very fertile, and agriculture and fishing are among the chief
employments of the inhabitants. Only a comparatively small portion of the country is
colonized. Chief town Samara (q.v.).

SAMARA, capital of the Russian government of the same name, on the left bank of the
Volga, at the junction of that river with the Samara. It is the chief grain-market on the
Volga, and it contains numerous store-houses, especially for grain. A good trade in salt,
fish, caviare, and tallow is also carried on. From Samara comes a great number of
lambs' skins, which are famous for their fineness. Pop. '67, 34,494.

SAMARANG , an important seaport on the n. of Java, 385 m. (by steamboat course) e.
of Batavia, in G 57' 20" s. lat., and 110 26' 30" e. long., is the capital of the residency,
and the point to which the produce of Middle Java is brought for exportation to Europe.
Pop. 50,000. The city lies on the right bank of the river Samarang. A railway to the
Vorstenlanden (princes' lands). 126 m. long, was completed in 1874. The Chinese, Malay*-,
and Arabians have their own captains, and quarters of small, dark, dirty houses. The
Europeans dwell partly along the seashore, but chiefly on the left of the river, by the
ehady road to Bodjong, the resident's house, which is 2 m. from the city. The Protest-
ants and Roman Catholics have each a church, orphan-house, and school. There are 3
public and 12 private schools, an excellent hospital for 550 patients, and other charitable

Only small vessels can enter the river. The roadstead is exposed to the west wind,
and is dangerous the rainy season. Besides the usual trades, the natives work iu
gold, silver, copper, and tin. Coffee, rice, sugar, tobacco, and indigo are the chief
exports, ;.n agent of the Netherlands trading company (q.v.) beintr established at. San:a-
rang to attend to the government trade. In 1874 the pop. of' the residency of Sama-
rang amounted to 1,319,978 souls, 3,050 being Europeans, and 15,185 Chinese.

Samaria. Of*


SAMARIA (Heb. Shomeron, Chald. Shamrayin, Septuagint, Samareia, Semeron, etc.),
anciently a city of Palestine, the chief seat of the Ephrai'mitic Baal worship, ami from
the seventh year of Omri's reign, the capital of the kingdom of Israel. It was beauti-
fully situated on a hill about 6 m. n.w. of Shechem, and probably derived its name
(which maybe interpreted "pertaining to a watch" or a " watch-mountain") from the
position of the hill, which rises from the center of a wide valley, and commands aa
extensive prospect; but an eponymous etymology is adopted by the writer of 1st Kings,
who says (chap. xvi. verse 24): " And he [Omrij bought the hill Samaria of Slimier for
two talents of silver, and built on the hffl, and called the name of the city which lit
built after the name of Shemer, owner of the hill, Samaria." The date assigned to Omri's
'purchase is 925 B.C., from which time Samaria became the seat of government, which
had been formerly at Thirsa. It was twice besieged by the Syrians (901 B.C. and 892
B.C.), under Ahab and Joram, on both occasions unsuccessfully; but in 721 (720) B.C.. it
was stormed by Shalmaneser, king of Assyria, after a three* years' siege. Its inhabitants,
together with those of all the other "cities of Samaria" (which had become the general
name for the country itself in which the city stood), i.e., the kingdom of Israel or the
"ten tribes" were then carried off into a captivity from which they never returned.
Their place was supplied, after a time, by colonists, planted there 'by Shalmaneser and
Esarhaddon, from Babylon, Cuthah, Ava, Hamath, and Sepharvaim (according to 2d
Kings, chap. xvii. verse 24; Media and Persia, Josephus's Antiquities, x. 9, 7), who con-
stituted the original body of the people subsequently known as Samaritans, but whose
bulk was gradually increased by accessions of renegade Jews and others. The question
has been much, and on the whole unprofitably, discussed, whether these so-calle;l " Samar-
itans" were a mixed race of remanent Israelites and heathen Assyrians, or whether they
were exclusively the latter. The mere language of Scripture, strictly construed, seems
to favor the second of these views, unless the term "cities" of 2d Kings, xvii. 24. is
intended to imply that the ancient inhabitants dwelt in the open country. On the other
hand, we find, apart from the other reasons against so unparalleled a wholesale deporta-
tion, Israelitish inhabitants under Hezekiah and Josiah, both in Ephraim and Ma:iass;:li.
Modern authorities therefore assume that they were, to a certain extent, what they
always insisted on being, Israelites (not Jews), i.e., a people largely intermixed with
Israelitish elements, that, during the exile, had adopted the worship of Jen >vah. Th
returning Jews, however, would not recognize their claims to the participation in tha
national cultus and temple, and a bitter antagonism sprang up between the two nation-
alities. In 409 B.C. a rival temple was erected on Alt. Gerizim, and a rival priesthood
and ritual organized, and henceforth the breach, for some perio Is at least, becama
apparently irreparable " the Jews had no dealings with UK Samaritans," and vice versa.
At other periods, however, a more friendly intercourse seem-; to have taken place
between them. The rabbinical laws respecting the " Kushites" (Cuthim), as they wens
called by the later Jews, are therefore strangely contradictory, and their discrepancies
can only be explained partly by the ever-shifting phases of their mutual relations, aiul
partly by the modifications brought about in the Samaritan creed itself. The later his-
tory of the city of Samaria is somewhat checkered. It was captured by Alexander the
great, when the "Samaritan" inhabitants were driven cut, and their place supplied by
Syro-AIacedonians. It was again taken (109 B.C.) by John Hyrcanus, who completely
destroyed it. Soon rebuilt, it remained for the next 50 years in possession of the Jews;
but Pompey, in his victorious march, restored it to the descendant* of tlu expcllej
Samaritans, who had settled in the neighborhood, and it was refortified by Gabinius.
Herod the great rebuilt it with considerable splendor, and called it Sebaste. in honor of
the emperor Augustus, from whom he had received it as a present. In the 3d c. it became
a Roman colony and an episcopal see. Its prosperity perished with the Mohammedan
conquest of Palestine; and at present it is only a small village called Sebu-tich, an Arab
corruption of Sebaste, but contains a few relics of its former greatness. " Samaritans,"
s a religious sect, still exist at Nablus (anc. Shechem), as they have existed in the dis-
trict uninterruptedly through all the vicissitudes of war and conquest from the time of
Christ. Their present creed and form of worship agree in many particulars with that
of the so-called "rabbinical" Jews, although the Samaritans pretend utterly to reject the
" traditions." They alone, however, have retained the paschal sacrifice of a lamb. The
language of the ancient Samaritans is a Hebraeo- Aramaic dialect, but contains a number
of non-Semitic (Cutluean) words. It only survives in a few fragments of ancient litera-
ture, a translation of the Pentateuch, and some liturgical pieces. The present inhabit-
ants speak Arabic. See Dr. Robinson's Biblical Researches, liaumer's Paldatina, and Dean
Stanley's Sinai and Palestine, etc.

SAMARITAN PENTATEUCH, a recension of the commonly received Hebrew text of
the Mosaic law, in use with the Samaritans, and their only canonical book of the Old
Testament. Some vague allusions in some of the church fathers (Origen, Jerome, Euse-
bius), and one 'or two more distinct, but less generally known Talmudical utterances
respecting this recension, were all the information available up to the early part of the
17th c. (1616), when Pietro della Valle acquired a complete codex from the Samaritans
in Damascus. Since then, the number of manuscripts of the Samaritan Pentateuch, with
and without translations (in Arabic), has considerably increased in European libraries;

O* Samaria.


and fragments, consisting of special books or chapters, are of the most frequent occur-
rence. In fact, writing portions of Samaritan Pentateuch on the oldest of skins, would,
in the face of the great demand for the article on the part of ignorant European, espe-
cially English, travelers, appear to be a favorite and lucrative pastime, if not an established
trade and business, among the modern Samaritans.

These MSS. are written in. the Samaritan character, a kind of ancient Hebrew writ-
ing, probably in use before, and partly after the Babylonish exile, and vary in MZO from
octavo to folio, the writing being proportionately smaller or larger. Their material is
vellum, or cotton paper, and the ink used is black, with the exception of the Nablfis
MS., which is written in gold. There are neither vowels, accents, nor diacritical points,
the single words arc divided from each other by dots. None of the MSS. that have
reached Europe are older than the 10th century. The Samaritan Pentateuch was first
edited by J. Morinus in the Paris Polyglott (pt. iv. 1632) from one codex (whence it found
its way into Walton), and was last re-edited, written in the square Hebrew characters,
by B. Blayuey, Oxford, 1790. The first publication of this strange document, and prin-
cipally the Ki-ciritnti'Hit'* 7vvA .vV/MV-v?, with which J. Morinus accompanied it, mark a
certain epoch in modern biblical investigation; for, incredible as it now appears, it was
placed by Morinus and his followers far above the received Hebrew text, which was
said to have been corrupted from it. As reasons for this, were adduced its supposed
superior " lucidity and harmony," and its agreement with the Septuagiut in many places.
This opinion, which could only have been entertained by men devoid of knowledge, was
zealously cherished, and fiercely combated for exactly 200 years, when the first proper
and scientific investigation (by Gescnius) set it at rest, once for all, among the learned
world at least. This absurd notion chiefly owed its popularity to the anti-Jewish as well
as anti-Protestant tendency of its supporters, to whom every attack against the received
form of the text that text upon which alone the reformers professed to take their stand,
was an argument in favor of the liomaii Catholic dogma as to the "rule of faith" (q v.").
This boasted superiority en blue, gradually dwindled down to two or three passages, in
which the Samaritan reading seemed preferable, and even these have now been disposed
of in favor of the authorized Masoretic text. The variants, which Gesenius was the first
to arrange systematically, present simply the ordinary aspect of partly conscious, partly
unconscious corruptions. They arose, for the greatest part, from an imperfect knowl-
edge of the first elements of grammar and exegesis. Others owe their existence to a
studied design of conforming certain passages to the Samaritan mode of thought, speech,
and faith, more especially to show that Mt. Gerizim was the spot chosen by Jehovah for
his temple. There are, however, only two essential alterations respecting the Mosaic
ordinances themselves to be found, one, Exod. xiii. 7. where the Samaritan Pentateuch
has "six days shall thou eat unleavened bread." instead of "seven"; and Deut. xxiii. 17,
where our "shall be no'' is altered into "shall not live." A chronological peculiarity
deserves special mention viz., that no one in the antediluvian times begets his first son in
the Samaritan Pentateuch after the age of 150, either the father's or the son's age being
altered in proportion; after the deluge, however, the opposite method is followed of
adding 50 or 100 years to the father's years before the begetting of a son. We will only
further add that anthropomorphisms, as well as anthropopathisms, are most carefuly
expunged, and that in Deut. xsvii. 4, Gerizim is wilfully substituted for Ebal.

It is, in the absence of a critical edition, exceedingly difficult to do more than specu-
late on the age and origin of the Samaritan Pentateuch, and opinions remain indeed
widely divergent. The principal opinions on the subject are, briefly, either that it came
into the hands of the Samaritans as a natural inheritance from the Jewish people, whom
they succeeded at the time of the Babylonish exile; or that it was brought to them by
Manasse (Jos. Ant. xi. 8, s. 2, 4), when tlie Samaritan sanctuary on Mt. Gerizim was
founded: or, again, that the Israelitish priest sent by the king of Assyria to instruct the
new settlers in the religion of the country, brought it with him. Of other more or less
isolated opinions, only that one deserves further notice, that it was a late and faulty
recension, into which glosses from the LXX. (Septuagint) were received. This agreement
between the LXX. and the Samaritan Pentateuch, to which we have already alluded,
has likewise given rise to many speculations and suggestions. The foremost of these are
that the LXX. bave been translated from the Samaritan Pentateuch; that mutual inter-
polations have taken place; that both versions were formed from Hebrew codices, differ-
ing among themselves, a* well as from the authorized recension; and that many wilful
corruptions have been superadded at a later time; finally, that the Samaritan has been
altered fom the LXX. There is also a translation of the Samaritan Pentateuch (which
is Hebrew) into the Samaritan idiom; it is ascribed by the Samaritans to their high-
priest, Nathaniel, who died 20 years before Christ. It was probably a kind of popular
version, like the Targums (q.v.), and was composed, very likely, shortly before the
destruction of the second temple. The translation ?s done in the most slavish and
incompetent manner. Another Arabic version is due to Abu Said, in Egypt (1070),
based on Saadiah's translation; and to this Samaritan-Arabic translation, a Syrian,
Abu Barachat. wrote, in 1208, a commentary, which is some:iir,rs erroneously taken
to be an independent Syriac version of the Samaritan Pentateuch. Among the
principal modern writers on the Samaritan Pentateuch are Gesenius, Kirchheim, and

Samaritan. oo


the Aramaic and the Hebrew, and sometimes uses forms of both in close connection.
The alphabet contains 22 letters, arranged in the Hebrew order, resembling in form the
ancient Hebrew and Pheniciau, and pronounced like the Hebrew, except that the
gutturals, being quiescent and weak, interchange freely with one another. The words
are the same as in the Hebrew and Ghaldee, with additions from the Arabic, Latin, and
Greek. U. The literature is of small extent. 1. The Samaritan Taryum, ascribed to
Nathannel the high-priest, who died B.C. 20, and probably written about the same time
.s the Targum of Oukelos, which it somewhat resembles. The translation is close and
iteral. It is printed in the Paris and Walton polyglots, and in several recent German
ditions. 2. Chronicles; (1) The Samaritan chronicle, or book of Joshua, ascribed by
critics to the 13th c., taken in part from the canonical book of Joshua, with legendary
additions, that charge the Jews with being oppressors of the Samaritans, and, after the
time of Eli, apostates from the faith. The narrative is continued to 350 A.D., when it
abruptly ends. (2) The chronicle of "the generations" professedly written by Eleazar
ben Amram, 1142, and afterward continued by many hands gives a calculation of
sacred times, the age of patriarchs, and a list of high-priests. (3) The chronicle of
Abulfath, written about the middle of the 14th c., is drawn from the two previous
works, with additional legendary matter. 3. Liturgies and hymns belonging to different
periods, the earliest being ascribed to the angels. There are 19 vols. of them in the
British museum, besides collections in other places. 4. Commentaries, theological tracts,
and recent grammatical works, written in Arabic.

SAMARCAND' was in the 14th c. the capital of the great Tartar empire of Timur. It
has since remained the center of Mohammedan learning in Central Asia. It was till
1868 the second city of the khanate of Bokhara, and since that period annexed to the
dominions of the czar, it has become one of the chief towns of Russian Turkc.-um. It
is in lat. 40 2' n., and long. 67 r ' 3' e., 4 English in. s. of the Zer-Afshan (a river which
** loses itself in the sands"), and 145 m. nearly e. by n. from Bokhara. It is situated at
the foot of mount Chobanata, in a plain of exuberant fertility; and when seen from a
distance, its glittering minarets, lofty domes, and prominent edifices and ruins, relieved
by the brilliant green of the closely planted gardens interspersed within the walls, pre-
sent an imposing effect. The river for centuries has been changing its course, and
Samarcand has followed it so that it consists of a "IH.W city," and the ruins of thos
* which preceded it. The "new city" is surrounded with walls, pierced with six gates,
and is filled with narrow streets and lanes, which have, however, undergone many
.improvements since the Russian occupation. The population, which in the 14th c.
exceeded 100,000, has dwindled to 20,000. The inhabitants consist chiefly of Tajiks and
Usbeks. They are chiefly employed in the manufacture of silk, wool, and leather. The
old or " ruined city" is the portion most interesting to Europeans, as the capital of that
mighty conqueror who wielded the scepter of Asia from China to the Hellespont. Many
of the ruins belong to this epoch, among which are the Hazreti Shah Zinde, at one time
supposed to have been a summer palace of Timur, but now shown to have consisted of
tombs and chapels only. In the center of the city, separated from each other by a wide
open space, stand three medresses, or sacred colleges. Each consists of a large quad-
rangular court, surrounded by a range of two-storied buildings, with chambers occupied
by teachers and pupils, One of the objects of interest in Samarcand is the palace of the
emirs of Bokhara, built within the citadel, where, before the Russian conquest, they
were in the habit of spending the summer months with their harem suite. In one of
the courts is the famous Kuk-tash, or green-stone, which served as Timur's throne. The
palace has now been converted by the Russians into an hospital. Samarcand was the
ancient Maracanda, the capital of Sogdiana. It was seized by the Arabs 707 A.D., and
from this time belonged either to the caliphate or to some of the dynasties which were
offshoots from it, till 1219, when it was taken by Genghiz Khan. In 1309 it was cap-
tured by Timur, and ten years afterward became the capital of his empire. It remained
the chief town of Turkestan till 1468, when it declined in importance with the rise of
the Usbeks. It retained, however, its position as the chief seat of Mohammedan learning
in Asia. Until recently it had been visited b$ only four Europeans in 1404 by the
Spaniard Clavijo. in 1841 by Lehmann and Chanykow, and in 1863 by Yambery. But
in May, 1868, the gates of Samarcand were opened to the Russians (see BUKHARA), and
they have since retained possession of the city. The inhabitants have manifested les
antipathy to the rule of the infidel than might have been expected, from the reputation
of Samarcand as a seat of Mohammedan fanaticism. The Jews have prospered by the
encouragement given to trade; and the Tajik population have shown, as in the other
cities of Turkestan annexed by Russia, good-will toward their conquerors, and a desire
to adopt European ideas. See Vambery's Tmrel* in Central Asia (Loud. 1864), and
paper on "Ruins of Samarkand," by Prof. Fedcheuko, in Proceedings of lloyal Geo-
graphical Society, Dec., 1871.

SAMAR'RAH, at. in s.e. Asiatic Turkey, on the e. bank of the river Tigris, 65 m.
n.w. of Bagdad; containing about 250 houses. It is a walled town, and among tha
objects of interest are two Mohammedan tombs surmouuted by cupolas, visited by multi-

CQ Samaritan.


tudes of votaries of the Shecah sect. It contains a spiral tower, the ruins of a college, a
palace, and the Median wall.

8AMAVEDA is the name of one of the four Vedas. See VEDA.

SAMBALPl'R, a province in e. central British India; drained by the Mahanadi and
smaller rivers; -1,000 sq.m.; pop. '66, 812,348 of which 666,960 were Hindus. Aline
of railroad has recently been built between Sambalpur and JX'agpur. The climate is
unhcalthl'ul and fatal to foreigners. The aboriginal people, of whom there are nearly
150,000, are of the Ghond and Dhangar tribes. Iron, rice, cotton, and silks are the
ehief exports. The rajahs of the district were maintained in power against the Mahrattaa
until 1849, when the country came under British rule and is now governed by a deputjl
commissioner. The success of educational efforts in this district has been remarkable.

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 20 of 203)