Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

. (page 200 of 203)
Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 200 of 203)
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20,000
17,000


161.8
189.5

Mils

170.
166.2


1.167
1.600


Light


St. Cloud, Minn


16,000


168.2


1.239



GNEISS.

Sachemshead, Conn 1 14,000

FALSE GRANITE.



. 1 Chaumont Bay, N. Y.
. ( Ch&umont Bay, N. Y.



GRAVWACK.



.| Greenwich, Conn.



22.000
17,000



12,000



163.7



165.
167 6



177.



1.162



1.500
1.350



863



Stone.



LIMESTONES.



Color.


Place.


Strength
per feq.in.


Weight per


Absorption.


B'ack Lake Champlain, N. Y


25,000
14,000

18,000
12,000
11,01)0
14.000
12,000
16,000
18,000
t.u
20,000
7,000


172.
168.2
164.7

1U5.
1.5.).
15'.).
1(15.3
167.
159.
140.3
173.8
145.


1.30
1.91
1.89
1.80
1.90
1.23
1.8)90


I, a rk Kiii'sti.n N. Y


Lighter. . . rrison's. X. Y
B'ue Wiiliamsville, N". Y


White Marblehead. O
White Joliet 111




Dark Bardstown. Ky.




Bluish-drab
Dark-drab


Sturgeon bay. Wis
Cooper co., Mo



White


Dorset Vt


White
Dr.ib
Drab


Tuckahoe. N. Y
Quincy, ill
Door co., Wis



6A.VDSTOXE3.





Little Fall's N Y


Brown


i. X. Y


Gray


Belleville \ J


Red


Haverstraw. X. Y


Pi iik


Medina X Y


Drab


Berea O


Drab


Vermilion. O










Olive-green


Cleveland, O




Berlin




M't~-ilon O


Purple


Mar'juc'tte, Mich




Fond du Lac Wis


Pink


Le Sueur co.. Minn


Light-buff


Fiv intenac. Minn


Bluish-drab


War.vuluirg, Mo


Whitish




Grav


Dorchester, N. B


Olive . . .


Dorchester, X. B....



12,000
8,000

13,500
9,500

20,000



7.000
9,500
13,500
11,500
4,000

:7,uoo

8,000
8,000
6,000

10.000
7,000

14,000
9,000
7,000
6,000

11,000
6,000
5,000

12,000
9,000
6.000



168.2

165.

176.

160.
175.



1.180



148.5 ' 1.40


140.6 1.34


151.2


1.44


141.


1.27


188.


1 23


150.6


1.55


188 .6


1.20


185.


1.19


134.


1.19


149.3


i.aa


140.


1 37


w.


1.18


142.


1.33


139.


i.aa


16-1.4


1.56


145.:)


1.28


184.


1.20


141.3


1.34



Yellow-gray Caen, France.



3,500



119.



1.19



Rod, purple, and orreen slate are found on lake Champlain and in Vermont; black
and deep purple in ]X~ew Jersey and Pennsylvania: fine colored ra >rbk's are found near
lake Champlain and the St. Lawrence river, in \Vest Virginia, in Tennuss re, ami in Cali-
fornia. In the above table all crushing strength is taken on tii.- V-d. \\~nen that taken
on edge is greater very rarely it slmws a formation like that of a gir/is-i. A heavy
stone, of high crushing strength and no absorption, is sure to be a good building-stone,
unless it contain iron. If not homogeneous, like the Chaiimont lim.'si<>:ie. usually
called a granite, which shows shells when rubbed, it should nesvr be more than tine-
worked." All stones are bettered by a certain exposure before laying a weathering;
and for sandstones it is indispensable. Chalks, which harden by exposure, can be eut
with a light mallet when built in the wall.

STONE-CHAT. >" '.>/< :>,V rubicola (see CHAT), one of the most common of the British
syhiinhr. a pretty little bird, rather smaller than the redbreast, black on the upper parts
and throat in summer; the breast of a dark reddish color; some white on the sides of
the neck, the wings, and the tail. It makes its nest on the ground, or on a low branch.
Some stone-chats spend the winter in Britain, but the greater number migrate to more
southern regions.

STONECKOP. See SEDOI.

STONE-CUTTING AND DRESSING MACHINES. Stone is a substance which in none of
its varities is easily operated on by machinery, owing chiefly to its brittleness, its unequal
hardness, and the natural cracks which so frequently impair its solidity. Accordingly,
though many ingenious machines have been invented for working sto:i>-. it is as yet only
in some of the plainer kinds of work that they can be said to have entirely superseded
hand operations.

Some stones and slates are soft enough to be cut with ordinary toothed saws much in
the same way as wood is cut. More generally, however, the sand-saw is emp.
which we shall presently describe in noticing marble-cutting. For the cutting of com-



Stone.
vStoiieiiian.

mon kinds of stone, which are not to receive a fine polish, a machine, which promises to
be very efficient, has been recently patented by Mr. George Hunter of Maent \vrog, Caer-
narvon, and is now in operation at various large quarries, both of stone and slate. The
cutting portion consists of a circular disk, round the circumference of which a number
of pointed steel tools are fixed into sockets, thus giving it the appearance of a large
toothed saw. This machine will cut sandstone at the rate of 5 to 6 in., slate at 3 in.,
and soft limestone at 3 in. per minute, supposing these to be in blocks each 2 ft. thick.

So far as the sawing or slicing of stones is concerned, the tendency of late years is to
rely on the use of the diamond the dull black variety which is of no use as a gem.
Some American stone-cutting machines have saws with teeth set with these diamonds,
and are said to cut ordinary sandstone at the rate of 75 sq. ft. per second for each saw.
Machines for dressing the face of stones by means of a series of chisels in imitation of
the handwork of the mason have recently been tried and have giv^n fair results.

It is considerably more than a century since machinery for sawing and polishing
marble was first established at Ashford, near Bakewell, in Derbyshire, that county being
still the seat of the principal marble manufacture of England. Marble is cut into slabs
by means of a series of thin plates of soft iron used like saws, but having no teeth. The
saw-blades are fixed into a rectangular frame, to which a reciprocating horizontal motion
is given. The block of marble to be cut rests on a carriage below the frame, and a
small rill of mixed sand and water is constantly falling into the saw-cuts.

After the marble has been sawn into slabs if is cut up into narrow pieces, when so
required, by means of small circular saws with smooth edges, sand and water being
employed as above.

The sawn slabs are next submitted to the grinding process. This, for pieces of
moderate size, is usually done upon a large circular cast-iron plate, called a sanding-bed
or grinding-bed, mounted upon an upright spindle, and supplied with sand and water.
The workman places the piece of marble with its face downward upon the grinding-bed,
and exerts the proper amount of pressure. The marble is held in its place by means of
guide-rods stretched across the plate. Slabs too large to be manipulated iu this way are
ground with plates of iron operating upon their surface.

The marble, when properly ground, is polished on a polishing bed or table, with an
arrangement for securely fixing it while the rubbing is being proceeded with. The
polishing rubbers are sometimes blocks of wood faced with felt, and sometimes
bunches of hemp compressed between two side-plates. They are attached to a sowing-
frame with a pendulum-like motion, which draws them backward and forward over the
surface of the marble. Flour emery is used to charge the rubbers in the first instance,
and putty-powder (oxide of tin) for the finishing polish. Instead of emery sometimes
the fine-grained stone known as water of Ayr stone is used to prepare the marble for tha
putty- powder.

Cylindrical objects, such as columns or vases, are first formed roughly into shape
with a hammer and chisel, and then turned, with a pointed steel tool, upon a lathe, to
which a slow motion is given. When thus brought to an accurate form, a rapid motion
is given to the lathe*, and the tool-marks ground away by the use of coarse, and then fine,
and still finer sandstones the polishing being completed with emery and putty-powder
while the object is stffl upon the lathe.

Machinery is also applied to the production of flat objects with curved and molded
outlines. The machine for this purpose operates by the use of a rotatory cutter, which is
guiied in its action by a template formed accurately to the intended shape of the article.

The cutter is of steel or stone, and is attached to the lower end of a spindle driven by
beveled wheels. There is a flange which allows the cutter to penetrate the marble till
it reaches the template and no further. In the process of cutting the marble is con-
stantly drawn up against the cutting-tool by two weights, the one pulling the table in
one direction, the other the carriage on which the table rests, in 4 a direction at right
angles to the former, thus compelling the cutter to follow the outline of the template.
The shape of the cutting-tool is, of course, exactly the reverse of the molding to be
formed.

In the cutting and polishing of granite, the machinery and processes are so nearly
the same as those employed for marble, that it is unnecessary to describe them sepa-
rately. Suffice it to say, that all objects to which the sawing apparatus cannot be ap-
plied, require to be worked to shape with great care by means of steel chiselfc and iron
mallets, which only .remove small portions at a time. Owing to the great hardness of
the material, any defect in the chiseling greatly increases the labor of polishing. So
slow, indeed, are the operations with granite, that a saw-blade will not cut through an
inch in depth during a whole day, and a good-sized sawn slab will take a week to
polish.

STONE-FLY, Perla, a genus of ncuropferous insects, of the tribe or family plant-
pennes. The hind wings are broader than the fore-wings, and folded at, the inner edge.
The body is elongate, narrow, and flattened; the wings close horizontally on the body;
the abdomen is generally terminated by two bristles (seta). The Iarva3 arc aquatic, and
much resemble the perfect insect, except in the want of wings. A number of species
are common in Britain, and are well known to anglers as an attractive lure for fishes.



Stone.
Stoiieir.an.

STONE F2TJITS, in popular language, are those fruits which are botanically desig-
nated dm pcx. and in which the rind is lleshy, and the putamen bony. Many of li.c
finest dessert fruits are of this description. Those best known hi temperate climate's
generally belong to the natural order n>sacc<, sub-order a//n/g( laha, the order drupacui',
of Lindk-v, as the peach and nectarine, plum, cherry, apricot, etc. In tropical coun-
trie^, many si one-fruits occur, belonging to chrysobalanacea and other natural orders.

STONEHAM. a t. in e. Massachusetts, co. of Middlesex; pop. 'b'O, 4,891. It is on a
branch of the Nashua and Lowell railroad; also having a station 1-i in. from the village
on the Boston and Maine railroad, which is reached by a horse railroad through the
country along a beautifully shaded highway. It is alo connected with Boston by a
horse railroad. It is nine in. n. of Boston and contains 5 churches, a public library, a
savings bank, public schools, and 2 newspapers. It has a box factory, a .-team planin*
mill, machine shops, and 22 shoe factories, doing a business of about 3,000,000.

STONEHA TEN, a sea port t. of Scotland, capital of the co. of Kincardine, and a
station on the railway from Dundee to Aberdeen, is situated on a rocky bay at the
mouth of Carron Water. It is divided into an old and uew : town, on different sides of the
river, and connected by a bridge. The harbor can admit only small vessels. Stonehaven
has very considerable haddock and herring fisheries, and some slight manufactures. Pop.
'71.3,396. Two miles s., on a projecting rock, stands the famous castle of Dunnot-
tar, once the residence of the Earls Marischal.

STONEHENGE (Sax. Stanfietigixt, hanging or uplifted stones), a very remarkable
structure, composed of large artificially raised monolith?, situated on Salisbury plain,
two miles from the town of Amesbury, in Wiltshire. Its neighborhood abounds ill
sepulchral tumuli, in many of which ancient British remains have been found. The
fabric of Stouehenge, which was comparatively entire in the early part of the present cen-
tury, has been so much defaced in recent times as to be at first view little more than a con-
fused pile of moss-grown stones; but a minute inspection will still enable one to tracs
its original form. When entire, it consisted of two concentric circles of upright stones,
inclosing two ellipses, the whole surrounded by a double mound and ditch circular in
form. Outside the boundary was a single upright stone, and the approach was by an
avenue from the n.e., bounded on each side by a mound or ditch. The outer c^
cie consisted of 30 blocks of sandstone, fixed upright at intervals of 3 ft., and con-
nected at the top by a continuous series of imposts, 16 ft. from the ground. The
blocks were all squared and rough-hewn, and the horizontal imposts dovetailed to eaeh
other, and fitted by mortise-holes in their under sides to knobs in the uprights. About 9
ft. within this peristyle was the inner circle,composed of 30 unhewn granite pillars, from
5 to 6 ft. in height. The grandest part of Stoneheuge was the ellipse inside tfee circle,
formed of 10 of 12 blocks of sandstone, from 16 to 22 ft. in height, arranged in pairs,
each pair separate, and furnished with an impost, so as to form 5 or 6 triliihons.
Within these trilithons was the inner ellipse, composed of 19 uprights of uranite similar
in size to those of the inner circle; and in the cell thus formed was the so-called altar, a
large slab of blue marble.

There has been much speculation regarding the origin and purpose of Stonehenge, which
are still involved in much obscurity. A curious legend, first found in ibe Hniirh Chroni-
cle of the 10th c., and repeated by Geoffrey of JUonmouth and Giraldus Cambrensis,
ascribes it to Emrys or Ambrosius, the last British king, who, in the 5th c.. aided by
the incantations of the magician Merlin, is said to have erected it in nu mory of 400 Brit-
ons, who were murdered by Hengist the Saxon. In modern times, the most prevalent
opinion has been that, in common with other similar structures elsewhere, it was a tem-
ple for Druidical worship; but this belief has been somewhat shaken by the di>covery
of the sepulchral character of many other monuments, which had been also presumed to
be Druidical. The circular form has suggested the idea of a connection with the worship
of the sun; and Stonehenge may possibly have been used for the religious rites of vari-
ous successive races and creeds; and also r.s a court of justice or battle-ling for judicial
combats. The outer circle is evidently of a much later date than the lest, and seems to
belong to a period when iron tools were in use. See STANDING STONES.

STONEHOUSE. EAST, a parish of Devonshire, included within the limits of the par-
liamentary borough of Devonport (q.v.), and forming in effect a portion of Plymouth
(q.v.). Among other government establishments, it contains the Royal William victual-
ling vard, naval hospital, and marine barracks capable of accommodating 1000 men.
Pop.'of parish '71, 14,585.

STOXEMAN, GEORGE, b. N. Y., 1822: graduated at West Point, 1846, and wr.s
commissioned in the cavalry. In 1861 he was in command of fort Brown. Texas, and
refused to obey gen. Twigg's order to surrender the government property in his charge
to the secessionists, but evacuated the place and brought his command to New York on
a steamer. He took part in the battle of Williamsburg and the second battle of Bull
Run, and commanded the 3d corps at Fredericksburg. In the Richmond campaign gen.
Stoueihan had command of the Oliio cavalry. He was also engaged in the movement on
Atlanta, commanded the mil'tary district of e. Tennessee, and captured Salisbury, N. C.,
and Asheville. He retired from the army in 1871 with rank of col. and brevet rank of
maj.gen., given him for gallantry at the capture of Charlotte, N. C., and elsewhere.
U. K. XIII. 55



Stone.

Storax. ,.. - _

STONE PERIOD. See BRONZE, AGE OP.

STONE-POCK, an old name for a variety of modified small-pox, in which the vesicles
dried up into hard tubercles instead of proceeding onwards to maturation.

STONE, PEESEEVATION OF. The mechanical preservation of stone can be effected
to a great extent by coaling the surface with boiled linseed oil, or with oil-paint; but
these methods are not much in favor, as they destroy the crystalline appearance which
constitutes Jie beauty of most natural stones. As promising a better result, many experi-
ments have been tried, especially of late, with certain chemical solutions that are not
likely to mar the inherent beauty of a stone. The substances which have been most
used are those soluble silicates which we have referred to under ARTIFICIAL STONE.
The earlier process of Kuhlmann consisted in coating the surface with a soluble silicate
of soda or potash, which is also known by the names of soluble glass, water-glass, and
flint liquor. This was applied with a brush, and silification was produced by the silica
of the solution entering into combination with the lime of the stone; but tins took a con-
siderable lime, so that, on an exposed front, it was liable to bo washed out before the
proper hardening took place. The later process of Ransome consists in cleaning the sur-
face of the stone from extraneous matter, and then applying alternate solutions of the
above alkaline silicate and chloride of calcium, which forms an insoluble silicate of lime
in the pores of the stone. This plan has been tried with a portion of the new houses of
parliament many years ago, and is now extensively used in London, Edinburgh, Glas-
gow, and elsewhere. Rausome's process is indeed practically the only one in use. But
the preservation of the houses of parliament has been the subject of inquiry since this
invention was applied to them; and the committee which sat did not succeed in discov-
ering any preserving agent which they felt justified in proposing. The chemists engaged
in this inquiry selected, from a vast number of proposals tlien made, the following pro-
cesses, as claiming a careful investigation: 1. Application of silicates of the alkalies, in
various states of concentration; 2. Application of silicates, in conjunction with various
saline compounds, intended to produce double decomposition; 8. Application of hydro-
fluoric or hydrosilicic acid, or their saline compounds; 4. Application of phosphoric acid
and acid phosphates; 5. Applications of solutions of the alkaline earths, or their bicar-
bonates, in water.

STONE RIVER, BATTLE OF. See MURFREESBORO.

STONE-WARE. See POTTERY.

STO NINGTON, a t. and port of entry of Connecticut, U. S., at the eastern extremity
of Long Island sound, 63 m. e. of New Haven, and at the junction of one of the railroad
and steamer routes between New York and Boston. It has a fine harbor, with 17,000
tons of shipping, engaged in coasting trade and fisheries, and numerous manufactories.
Stoningtaa was settled in 1649. Pop. '70, 6,813.

STO'NY POINT, a small rocky promontory on the right bank of the Hudson river,
at tlie entrance of the Highlands, 4J m. n. of the city of New York. This and the
opposite (Verplanck's) point were fortiJcd in the war of the revolution, and were the
scene of several contests.

STONY POINT (ante) in Rockland co., N. Y., at the head of Haverstrawbay; having
a light-house and fog bell-tower, built on the magazine of the old forl; a marsh con-
necting it with the shore. It is 42 m. from New York. It was fortified by Ameri-
cans early in the revolutionary war, captured by sir Henry Clinton, 1779, and garri-
soned; retaken by gen. Anthony Wayne, July 16, 1779, with 1200 men in his command, by
a sudden midnight attack, cutting off the sentries, and carrying the fort at the point
of tlie bayonet, under a heavy fire of musketry and grape shot, cipturing r>43 officers
and men; American loss 15 killed and 83 wounded; British, 63 killed. This was
called by gen. Charles Lee not only the most brilliant assault in the whole war on either
side, but the most brilliant in history; the assault of Schiveidnitz by marshal Laudon he
considered inferior to it. The simultaneous attack on Verplanck's point beinij; unsuc-
cessful, the Stony Point works were destroyed and abandoned in obedience to Washing-
ton's orders.

STOOL OF REPENTANCE, the namn ordinarily given in Scotland to a low stool con-
spicuou -ly placed in front of the pulpit in .churches, on which persons who had become
subject to ecclesiastical discipline for immoral conduct were required to sit during pub-
lic worship, iu profession of their penitence, or on which they stood at the close of the
serviee to be " rebuked" by the minister. It was also familiarly called the cully stool, a
term applied to small stools of similar form, common in houses, but which came to be
often employed ia conversation and in humorous verses with special reference to that
which stood in the church. Transgressions of the seventh commandment being far
more frequently the cause of occupying the stool of repentance than offenses of any
other kind, the' jokes which abounded on the subject of this piece of church-furniture
were neither indicative of a pure morality nor calculated to promote it; and the stool of
repentance, although used in some places within the present century, has now fallen into
complete disuse; while the practice of formal public rebuke, as a part of church disci-
pline (q.v.), luis also generally been laid aside.



8^7 Stone.

Storax.

STOP, or REGISTEK, a name given to the different ranges of rjipes in an organ. Each
stop cousins of a scries of pipes, of the same quality of tone, extending throughout the
whole, or a large part of the compass of the instrument, and furnished by a draw-stop or
knob, on drawing which out, the air is admitted to the ^articular slop, so that thcjceys
will play on pipes of that enaracter. Some of the stops do not give tiie note which cor-
responds in pitch with the key struck, but a note an octave or two octaves lower, or one
of tae harmonics higher in pitch. Compound or mixture stops consist of more than one
row of pipes to each key, corresponding to the different harmonics of the ground
tone. The stops of different organs vary much in number and kind; a very large
number are to be found in many of the organs in Germany and Italy. See OHUAX.

STOPPAGE IN TEANSIi'U is a valuable right or privilege of a vender of goods to
resume possession, alter he has parted with them under a contract of sale, and before
the goods have reached the vendee. It occurs when goods are consigned eLtirely or
partly on credit from one person to another, and the consignee becomes bankrupt
before the goods arr: ; ve. In this event, the consigner has a right to direct tL3 captain
of the ship or other carrier to deliver the goods to himself or his agent instead of
the consignee, who has thus become unable to pay for them. This ngLt was riisc
allowed as equitaole by the court of chancery, and the courts of common law fol-
lowed the exar.ple. There are certain circumstances, however, in which the right to
step in tranxitv- may be defeated, as where the consignee of the goods indorses the bill
of 1 .ding to a bond fide indorsee. When the vendee lias appointed the carrier who is to
receive tiie goods, their delivery to the carrier is treated tor many purposes as delivery
to the- vendee himself; yet it is not too late for the vendor to stop the goods so long us
they have not come into the actual possession of the vendee. The right to stop in irun.^hl
is not allowed to a vender unless in case of the bankruptcy of the vendee or his stop-
page of payment. The same rule extends to Scotland.

STOPPAGE IN TRANSIT U ({<) is in reality an extension of the right of lien,
and is a remedial right of a vender. The stoppage in tranntu does not do away with the
sale, nor does the seller reacquire absolute ownership in the property. If, alter the
return of the property to the hands oi the vender, the vendee demand that the contract
be carried out he may enforce such demand. It is not necessary that the insolvency
should occur after the sale; if, at the time of the bargain the vendee was in fact insolv-
ent and the vender WHS ignorant of that fact, the right of stoppage accrues. The power
may be exercised so long and only so long as the goods remain within the custody of
middlemen employed to complete the transit, or agents of the vender. When the goods
come within the custody of the vendee or l.is agent, the vender comes into the position
of any other creditor. It has been held that where coal w r as delivered by a railroad com-
pany on a wharf belonging to itself, but of which it had been accustomed to allow the



Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 200 of 203)