Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

. (page 201 of 203)
Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 201 of 203)
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vendee the sole use (without consideration) ti.e control of the corporation had ceased,
and the right, of stoppage in transit ii no longer existed. So where the goods are stored
in a bon led warehouse and the usual bonds are given by the vendee, the vender's right
no Lmger exists. If the consignee have assigned the bill of lading regularly indorsed
and forwarded by the consignor, the bill is now regarded ns a owai negotiable instru
meat; and it seems well established that the right of stoppage is destroyed by the assign-
ment. The method of exercising the right is by notice to the middleman or common
carrier, forbidding him to deliver the goods to the vender, and demanding their return.
If this be disregarded a right of action accrues to the vender as against the middleman,
separate from his right to recover the goods, from the vendee or his assignee. The right
of recovery is subject, to the common carrier's lien.

STOPPAGES, MII.ITAKY AND NAVAL, are certain deductions made from the pay of
officers and men, in consideration of supplies made to them, or in aid of certain institu-
tions. These stoppages were formerly more numerous than now. Thus, every officer
and man had to pay toward Chelsea and Greenwich hospitals, and a soldier had to pay
for his kit by a stoppage from the bounty. These stoppages have been remitted. Those
now remaining are. under ordinary circumstance*, limited in the navy to payment for
slops (i.e., clotliing) issued to men, or for willful damage: in the army, for forage. (S4d.
each ration by cavalry officers, and 6d. for artillery officers (though their horses eat the
same): for messing "on board ship; for diet in hospital, if sick through the man's
own fault; for cost while in prison; for damages to barracks; and as a tine for drunken-
ness.

STO RAX, a fragrant resinous substance, the stf/m.r of the ancients, obtained from the
storax-tree (ntyra.r <ifffcin!ix}. a native of the countries around the Mediterranean sea. and
belonging to the natural order styrararece, an order of exogenous plants, containing more
than 100 known species. The species of this order are found in the tropical and sub-
tropical parts of Asia, extending also into Europe and Africa, and the warm parts of
America. Styra.r ofiiciiniUx, which produces storax, is a tree of 15 to 20 ft. high, a native
of the Levant. Storax is obtained by wounding the bark, when it exudes and hardens
in the air. It appears in the form of reddish-yellow tears about the size of a pea, opaque,
soft, and adhesive; or in dry brittle masses, wrapped in the leaves of a kind of reed,
when it is called & calamita. Storax has a fragrant odor and an aromatic taste, and is
stimulating and expectorant. It was formerly "much more iu use in medicine than now.



S'orey. QAQ

Storm*.

Benzoin (q.v.) is the produce of a species of styrax. The liquid C'orax of the r'lop^ is
doubtfully regarded either as produced by ntyrux ojjlcinalc, or by a specie of U^ <ud uiubur
(q.v.). if seems probable that there are two kinds.

STOREY, a co. in w. Nevada, drained by the Carson and Trackee river:, traversed
by the Central Pacific railroad; about 450 sq.m. ; pop. '80, 16,115 O.ll>3 i;f A'.ucricaa
birth. The surface is mountainous. The soil is poor. The gold and s-ilv; . ; mines of
this county are very rich, including the great Comstock lode. Co. scat, Yi:gin:a City

STOREY, WILBUR F., b. Vt., 1819; entered into the printing hm.Iness in which he
served an apprenticeship, and went to New York, where he obtained a position in the
office of the Journal of Commerce. He removed to Eaporte, and <uler.vard to Mishr.waka,
Ind. ; the first in 1838, the second three years later; in both towns attempting to estab-
lish a democratic Weekly newspaper, hut without success. In 1843 he made a similar
venture at Jackson, Mich.; and in 1854 bought the Detroit l-'rce Prem, which he con-
ducted until 1861, when he bought the Chicago Times. The latter paper i.c succeeded
in establishing on a firm basis, making it one of the most successful pepcrs in the west,
u position which it continues to sustain under his management.

STORK, Ciconia, a genus i birds of the same family (artleidce) with herons and bit-
terns; large birds; with long legs, four-toed, the three front toes wel:bed to the first
joint; the tail short; the wings large; the bill longer lhan the head, straight, strong,
pointed, and without any groove, the nostrils pierced longitudinally in the horny sub-
stance; the eyes surrounded by naked skin. The species are not'numerous, but they
are of very wide geographic distribution. The COMMON STORK, or WHITE STORK (U.
alba), is a native of the greater part of the Old World, a migratory bird, its range extend-
ing even to the northern parts of Scandinavia. It is common in most parts of Europe.
It is about 3^ ft. in length. The head, neck, and whole body are pure white; the wings
partly black; the bill and legs red. The neck is long, and generally carried in an arched
form; the feathers of the breast are long and pendulous, and the bird often has its bill
half hidden among them. The stork frequents marshy places, feeding on eels and other
fishes, batrachians, reptiles, yoiing birds, and small mammals. It makes a rude nest of
sticks, reeds, etc., on the tops of tall trees, or of ruins, spires, or houses. In many parts
of Europe, especially in Holland, it is a very common practice to place boxes for storks,
and it is considered a fortunate thing for a household that the box on the roof is occu-
pied. Storks are protected by law in some countries, on account of their good services
not only in destroying reptiles and other troublesome animals, but in the removal of
offal from the streets of towns, in which they stalk about with perfect confidence, even
in the midst of throngs of people. They have been celebrated fromflncient times for the
affection which they display toward their young; and have also had the repu'ation
not so well founded of showing great regard to their aged parents. Rcfc/re they lake
their departure from their summer haunts, they congregate in large flocks, which make
a great noise by the clattering of their mandibles, and are popularly regarded as holding
consultation. The stork has no voice. Its flight is powerful, and very hisrh in the air.
It is a very rare bird in Britain, and was so even when the fens of England were
undrained. The flesh of the stork is rank, and not fit for food. Another species, the
BLACK STORK (G. nigrd), rather smaller, tha plumage of the upper parts glossy Mack,
the under parts white, is also common in many parts of Europe, Asia, and Africa. The
AMERICAN STORK (C. maguari) is very similar to the common stork.

STORMONT. a co. in e. Ontario, having the St. Lawrence river for its s. boundary;
drained in t..e n.w. by the Little Nation river; 260 sq.m.; pop. '71, 11,873. It is
traversed on the St. Lawrence shore by the Grand Trunk railway. The surface is
uneven, diversified by small streams, and thinly timbered, except in the neighborhood of
the water-courses. Co. seat, Cornwall.

STORMS are violent commotions of the atmosphere, occurring in all climates, partic-
ularly in the tropics, and differing from other atmospheric disturbances in the extent
over which they spread ihemselves, their destructive power, and the sudden changes
which take place in the direction of the wind. There is, perhaps, no question in science
in which there has been so large an admixture of speculation with fact, as in the
attempts made to reduce the phenomena attendant on storms under general laws; the
reason being, that meteorological observatories were too few in number, and too wide
apart, to enable any one to give the barometer pressure, the general course of the winds,
and tlie rainfall, without drawing largely on conjecture. Now, however, owing to the
growing popularity of meteorology, and the countenance happily given to it by most
civilized nations, sufficient data may be obtained for a fuller and more satisfactory state-
meiit of the facts.

We subjoin two charts of Europe, showing, from actual observations made at upward
of 100 localities scattered over that continent^ the barometric pressure, and direction and
force of the wind, at 8 A.M. of the 1st and 2d of Nov., 1863, during part of the course of
two storms which passed over Europe at that time. Tlie isobarometric lines, or lines
showing where, at the above hours, the height of the barometer was the same, arc given
for every two-tenths in the difference of the pressure. Hence, where these lines approach
near each other, or crowd together, the difference of pressure, or the atmospheric disturb-



869



Storey.
Storms.



ance, was the greatest; and the least where they are most apart-^-a distinction of
the utmost importance in determining where the storm may be expected to rage in
greatest fury. The arrows show the direction of ths



t



gl'C

wind, being represented flying with it. The force of
the wind is shown (1) by plain arrows, which repre-
sent light and moderate winds; (2) by arrows feathered
on one- side only, which represent high winds; (3) by
arrows feathered on both sides, which represent strong gales, storms, or hurricanes.

The mean atmospheric pressure, at the level of the sea, may be stated to be 29.9
inches. When, therefore, the barometer falls below 29.9, the equilibrium of the atmos-
phere is more or less destroyed, according to the amount of the fall, and it is within this
area of low barometer that a storm may be expected to occur. Hence, while we trace
tnese low pressures, as they advance over the earth's surface from day to day, we trace
at the same time the progress of the storms.




FJQ. 1. At 8 A.M., Nov. 1, 1863.

Form and E.r1ent of Storm Areas. The circular isobarometric lines on the charts repre-
prcsent very accurately the general shape storms assume. The area of almost every storm
is either circular or slightly elliptical, and when elliptical, the major axis of the ellipse sel-
dom exceeds twice the length of the minor axis. Rarely in Europe, but in America less
rarely, the form of storms is much more elongated. The outline is occasionally very irreg-
ular, but in all such cases the storm will be found to have parted into two or more distinct
storms, which remain separate for some time and then reunite. This circular form of
storms, which an examination of some hundreds, especially in Europe, has shown to be
their general characteristic, is a most important feature, whether as determining the
practical rules for the guidance of sailors in storms, or for the forecasting cf storn.s at
particular sea-ports, in respect of the direction from which they may be expected to come,
and the veerings of the winds during their continuance. The extent over which storms
spread themselves is very variable, being seldom less than 600 miles in diameter, but



Storing.



870



often two or three times that amount, or even more. Almost the whole of Europe is
sometimes overspread by a single storm at one time. The area of storms is by no means
constant from day to day, but varies in size, sometimes expanding and sometimes con-
tracting. And it is worthy of remark that when a storm contracts its area, the central
depression gives signs of filling up, and the storm of dying out. On the other haud,
when it increases in extent, the central depression becomes deeper, the storm increases
in violence, and occasionally is broken up into two, or even three, depressions, which
become separate storms, with the wind circling round each.

Direction in -which Storms advance. It may be premised that by the direction of a
storm is meant, not the direction of the wind, but the path followed by the center of dis-
turbance. The direction in which their progressive motion takes place differs in differ-
ent parts of the world, being determined by the prevailing winds. See WINDS. Thus,
about half the storms of middle and northern Europe travel from the aw. toward the




Fio. 2.-At SAM, Nov. 2, 186a

n.e., and 19 out of every 20, at least, travel toward some point in the quadrant trom the
n.e. to the s.e. Observation shows that the. longer axis of the storm is almost always
coincident with the direction in which the storm appears to be moving at the time.
Storms do not always proceed in the same uniform direction from day to day, and
though the change which occurs in the directon of their progressive motion is generally
small, yet occasionally it is very great. Thus, of the many interesting features peculiar
to the storm which passed over Europe in the beginning of Dec.. 1HG3, none .vere more
remarkable than the sudden changes of its progressive motion. It was first observed on
the w. of Ireland, from which it advanced e. to Liverpool, then turmi.1 s. through Wor-
cester and Oxford to Cherbourg in France; it thence retreated n. through Oxford to
Shields, from which it proceeded e. to Copenhagen. By the time it arrived at Copen-
hagen its extent was only a fourth of what it had been the previous day, and the central
depression half an inch less. Twelve hours later, the atmospheric equilibrium was
restored, the storm having died out on reaching the Baltic sea. The storms of the Med-



O < 1 Storms.

iterranean follow a different course. Many of them proceed from the n. to the s., influ-
enced prolKib.y by the heated air rising- from the Sahara; a considerable numi.er pi
from the e., and pass to the westward over Greece and Italy to the Alps; \\hile very few
are observed to travel in an easterly direction. By far the greater Dumber of the storms
of North America take their rise in the vast plain which lies immediately to the
e. of the liocky mountains, and thence advance in an eastern direction over tie United.
States; some oi them, crossing the Atlantic, burst ontiie western shores of Europe. But
the relation of the American to the European storms is not yet established, nor will be
till observation has collected more facts, and discussion has sifted their significance. If
once the connection be fully established, the system of forecasting storms to European ports
will become much more (eriaiu and complete than it is at present. The storms of the
We<t Indies generally take their rise from near the region of calms, and tracing rut a
parabolic course, proceed first toward the n.w., and then turn to the n.e. about 'M u.
Int., many of them traversing the e. coasts of North America as far as Nova S-otia.
South of the equator they follow an opposite course. Thus, in the south Atlantic and
Indian oc-ean they lirst pioceed toward the s.w., and then gradually cir.ve round to
the s.e. The hurricanes .f Hindustan usually purMie a parabolic- path, tiist t: a versing
the eastern coast toward Calcutta, anel then lurniiig to the n.w. up the valley of the
Ganges. The typhoons of the Chinese seas resemble, in the course they take, the hurri-
- of the- \Ve>t Indies. Observations are wanting from other parts of the world to
determine the course of storms.

Probably the course tracked out by storms is determined by the general system of
winds which prevail, modified by the unequal distribution of land and water on the sur-
face of the globe. Facts see-m at present to point to tins general conclusion, viz., Storms
follow the course of the atmospheric current in uhic/i the condensation of the vapor into tlie
rain which a>-c:>mpana:-< tin' in take* place,

lialc at irhich ^tarrn* tracd. If the position of the center of Storm I. on Nov. 2 he
compared with its position on the 1st on the charts, it will be found to have traveled 4^0
m. in 24 hours, or at the rate of 17^ m. an hour. Similarly Storm II. "will he found to
have traveled in the same time 400 m., or at the rate of 16 m. an hour. This is about
the average rate of the progressive movement of European storms. Srm; times, how-
ever, it falls as low as 15 m. an hour, and sometimes increases to 30 m. an hour.
"Within the tropics the onward motion of storms sometimes rises to 40 m. an hour.

Relations of Tempt rnt tin'. Rain, and Cloud to Storms. The temperature iue-:e- se s a fe-w
degrees at places te>ward which and over which the front part of the storm is advancing,
and fails at those places over which the front part of the storm has already passed. In
other words, the temperature rises as the barometer falls, and falls as the ban aider
rises When the b: rometer has been falling for some time clouds begin to ovci.-pre ad
the sky. and rain to fall at intervals; and. as the central depression approaches, tbe rain
becomes more general, heavy, and continuous. After the center of the storm has passed,
or when the barometer has begun to rise, the rain becomes less heavy, falling more in
showers than continuously; the clouds break up, and tine weather ushered in with cold
breezes ultimately prevails. It should be here remarked that, if the temperature begins
to rise soon and markedly after the storm lias passed, a second storm may be cspceted
shortly. The rainfall is .generally proportioned to the suddenness and extent of the
barometric depression at the place where it falls.

Obsfrratioits of the Wind. First as to the direction of the wind. If the winds in Storm
II. on Xov. 2 be- attentively examined they will be observed whirling round the area of
low barometer in a circular manner, and in a direction contrary to the motion of the
hands of a watch, with and be this particularly noted a constant tendency to turn
inward toward the center of lowest baiometer. The wind in storms neither blows
round the center of lowest pressure in circles, nor does it blow directly toward that
center, but takes a direction nearly intermediate, approaching, however, nearer to the
direction ai.d course of the circular curves than of the radii to the centtr. The greater
the force of the wind is at any place it will be observed to approach the more nearly the
direction here indicated. Anel where the direction of tbe wind differs to any mat< rial
degree from this general law, it is light, and consequently more under local inl'.ueiu es,
which turn it from its course. Thus, the center of the storm being near Lherpnol, the
direction of the wind is s.w. at Paris, s. at Yarmouth, n.e. at Billow, n. at Dublin, and
n.w. at Cork instead of s. at Paris, s e. at Yarmouth, n. at Sillolh, n.w. at Dublin, ai.d
w. at Cork, if it had blown directly to the area of lowest pressure: and w. at lY.ris. s.w.
at Yarmouth, e. at feilloth, n.e. at Dublin, and n. at Cork, if it had circulated in ihc
direction of the isobar. >mctrie' curves. He'iice in this storm the winds cirrula;c round
the center of least pressure, or, to speak more accurately, tlie whole atu'o.-pheiic s\ s < m
flows in upon the center in a spiral course. This rotatory peculiarity is comnii n to all
storms in the northern hemisphere that have ye-t been examined. In the southern hi mi-
sphere, a rotatory motion is also observed round the center of storms, but it t;.kes place
in a contrary direction, or in the direction of the motion of the hands of a watch, instead
of contrary to that direction, as obtains n. e>f the equator

Prof. Taylor lias the merit of having tirst applied love's law of rotation to explain
the direction of the rotation of storms round their center. This may be explained by
referring to Storm II. on Nov. 2. On that morning, the pressure over England being



S t or noway. O H f)

Story. O t V

much less than in surrounding countries, if the earth had been at rest, air-currents
would have liowed from all directions to England, to fill up the deficiency, in straight
lines. The earth, however, is not at rest, but revolves from w. to e. ; and as the velocity
of rotation diminishes as the latitude increases, it is evident that the current which set
out, say from Lyon to the n., would, on account of its greater initial velocity when it
arrived at Paris, blow no longer directly to the n., but to a point a little to the e. of n. ;
in other words, it would no longer be a ., but a s.w. wind. Again, sine* the current
from the n. of Scotland had a, less velocity than those parts of the earth's surface on
which it advanced, it lagged behind, and consequently, by the time it arrived at Silloth
in the u. of England, had changed from a n. to a u.e. wind. Similarly the n.w. current
changed to a n., the s.w. to a w., etc. The w. and e. currents, since they continued in
the same latitude, would have blown in the same direction, i'f they had not been dis-
turbed by contiguous currents. Hence in a storm the whole system of winds rotates
round the center. As a further confirmation of the truth of this theory, it is observed
that when a high barometric pressure covers a limited space the wind is always observed
gently whirling out of this area of high barometer, but in exactly opposite directions in
both hemispheres from those assumed when it blows round and in upon an area of low
pressure. It follows in the northern hemisphere that, as storms advance, the general
veering of the wind at places lying u. of the path of their center is from n.e. by n. to w. ;
and at places s. of their center from n.e. by e. and s. to n.w., and conversely in the
southern hemisphere.

Next, as to the force of the wind: The rule is simple, and without exception viz.,
the wind blows from a high to a low barometer, and with a force proportioned to the
difference of the barometric pressures. Hence, where the isobarometric lines crowd
together, the violence of the storm is most felt, and where they are far asunder, the
winds are moderate and light. We thus see the importance of observations from a
distance in forecasting the weather. To take an illustration: the importance of obser-
vations from Norway and Sweden to all sea-ports on the e. coast of Great Britain cannot
be overestimated. For if the pressure be high in Norway and low iu Great Britain, vio-
lent easterly gales will sweep down on North Britain, and, unless foreseen and provided
against, strew the coast with wrecks; whereas, if the pressures be nearly equal, little
danger need be apprehended, even though the barometer be low in Britain. As the
wind nears the center of the storm it gradually abates, till on reaching the center a lull
or calm follows. Calms and light winds also prevail along the ridge of highest barom-
eter, or the region where the pressure is greatest, and on receding from which the pres-
sure diminishes on each side. It may not inaptly be compared to the water-shed in
physical geography, since from it the wind flows away toward the places where the
pressure is less.

We have stated that the progressive motion of storms varies from 15 to 40 in. per
hour, which measures the time taken in passing from one place to another, but it gives
no indication of the violence of the storm. This is determined by the rotatory velocity of
the wind round the center of the storm, which in Europe and America frequently
amounts to 60 or 80 m. an hour continuously for some time. In intermittent gusts, a
speed of 120 in. an hour has been several times observed in this country a velocity which
is pern i ps sometimes surpassed by storms within the tropics.

Of tiie different theories hitherto proposed, we need only refer to the rotatory and the
centrip-.'tal theories The rotatory, or, as it is commonly called, the cyclonic theory, was
first proposed by Piddington, and has since been elaborated by Kedfield, Reid, Dove,
and o tliers. By this theory storms are considered as revolving round an axis either
upright or inclined to the horizon, while at Ihe same time the body of the storm has a
progressive, motion over the surface of the globe; the barometric depression, as caused
by the centrifugal force, driving the air from the center to the circumference of the
storm. Dove, certainly the ablest advocate of this theory, holds that cyclones are
formed when two atmospheric currents, the equatorial and polar, flow side by side, they
being, as it were, the eddies formed at the line of junction. To this theory several
objections may be urged. Observations from the numerous observatories recently estab-
lished in Europe and America, in no case exhibit a true cyclonic movement of the winds
round the center of the storm; that is, they do not rotate in circles returning on them-
selves, even when the barometric depression is deepening and the storm expanding, but
invariably exhibit, along with the rotatory motion, a constant tendency to blow in upon
the center of the lowest pressure. Hence it is clear that the barometric depression is
not caused by the centrifugal force of the storm. The same may be shown from theory;
for though the wind were to blow round a circle 400 m. in diameter at the rate of 70 in.



Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 201 of 203)