Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

. (page 202 of 203)
Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 202 of 203)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

an hour, the centrifugal force would depress the barometer at tho center only ^ ff in.;
whereas half an inch, or even a whole inch of depression often occurs. Again, if
cyclones arose from the flowing of the polar and equatorial currents side by side, the
rotatory motion would not nl\vays be in one direction, but Avould be determined by the
relative position and strength of the two currents. The whole facts of the rotation of
the wind are explained when it is considered as caused by air currents flowing toward a
low barometer jil.-mg the globular surface of the earth rotating eastward.

The rotatory character of storms has been denied by Espy, who maintains that the irind
blows from ever}' quarter toward the center of the storm, and that the central depression i

O h O Stornoway.

5 ' " Story.

caused by the development of heat which occurs whenever the vapor of the atmosphere is
condensed into cloud or rain; the heat thus developed rarefying the surrounding air, and
causing an upward current. The most valuable part of this theory lies in directing the
attention of meteorologists to tlie heat, of condensation, which must play an important
part in the movements of the atmosphere. It is, however, insuflicicnt, since it leaves
sonic important points unexplained. Thus, more heat being set free when vapor is con-
verted into snow than rain, u greater depression ought to follow a fall of snow than of
rain, which is not found to be the case; it also leaves unexplained the appearance of
high pressures, sometimes suddenly appearing on the scene, and seeming to divert the
storm from its course, or drive it before them. But the weak point of this theory is the
centripetal direction of the winds. Kspy worked from imperfect data, and never bring
able to lay down the isobarometric lines, he could only guess at the true center of the
storm ; and further, he was misled by a peculiar characteristic of American storms, which
being generally in the form of rather elongated ellipses moving eastward, many of the
winds blow directly to the center.

It will be seen that much yet requires to be done before a complete and satisfactory
theory of storms can be propounded. The most important desideratum is a large addi-
tion to existing meteorological observatories over the globe, by which, the weather being
as it. were photographed from day to day, storms with their attendant phenomena may
be traced from the beginning to the end of their career; and then, the whole facts being
known, the explanation or theory will doubtless soon follow.


STORKS, CHARLES BACKUS, 1794-1833; b. Mass.; studied at Princeton college, but
prevented by ill-health from graduating; graduated at Andover theological seminary,
1820; went to South Carolina and was ordained, 1821, by the Charleston CongregutiouaJ
association; settled at Ravenna, Ohio, 18,2-28; elected professor of divinity m Western
Reserve college, 1828, and president, 1831.

STORKS, RICHARD SAI/TER, D.D., IJ,.D., 1789-1873; b Mass.; studied at Yale col-
lege, 1802-03; taught in Clinton academy, East Hampton, L. I., 1804-06; graduated at
Williams college, 1807; studied theology a year at Andover, ordained pastor of the
First church (Congregational) at Braintree, Mass., 1811, where he preached (52 years. He
published Miinoir <>f Rev. Samuel Green; -A Discourse on the Fiftieth Anniversary of Mil
Ordination ; and 20 single sermons. lie edited the Boston Recorder, was co-editor of the
Cungregatwnal&st, and contributed to the Panoplist, Home Monthly, etc. He had wide
repute us a vigorous thinker and preacher.

STORKS. RICHARD SALTER, D.D., LL.D. : b. Mass., 1821; graduated Amhcrst college,
1839, and Andover theological seminary, 1845; was ordained pastor of the Harvard Con-
gregational church, Brookline.Mass., the same year; pastor of the church of the Pilgrims,
Brooklyn, N. Y.. 1846. He was co-editor of the Independent. 1848-61. He has pub-
li<hed w'aham Ln-tnreson Hie Wisdom, Purer, and Goodness of Qod as Manifested in the
Constitution of the Human Soul ; lectures on The Conditions of Success in Preaching With-
out A"fr'.N,- L(f<' ami Tstters of the Rev. Daniel Temple; Report on the Rcrixion of the I-'mj-
lixh Version of the Bible, undertaken, by the American Bible Society; SLv Liclun-x 1)> lire red
at thf Bro'ildj/ii Tuxfititte; Annual Address before the Society of Inquiry, Union T; <"l<>fjical
Seminar;/. 2\~eir Yrk ; and several occasional discourses, sermons, and orations. He
ranks ainonir the foremost pulpit orators in America, being unsurpassed for rhetoric-si!
magnificence and affluent and splendid diction in unwritten address.

STORKS, WILLIAM Lrnus. T.T, r>.. 1795-1861; b. Middletown. Conn.: brother of
H. R. Storrs. lie graduated at Yale college, 1814; studied law at Whitcstown. X. Y. ;
admitted to the bar, 1817; resided in Middletown: member congress. 1829-33, and 1839-
40. In the hitter year he was appointed associate judge of the state supreme court of
errors; chief-justice, 18-">6; professor of law in Yale college, 1846^17. His decisions are
printed in the Connecticut Reports.

STORTHING (from xtor, great, and thing, court), the legislative assembly of Norway
(q.v.). Its members are elected by certain deputies, who, in their turn, are chosen by a
constituency comprising every native Norwegian of 25 years of age. who is a hunress of
any town, or possesses property in land to the value of 33, the qualification for b< ing
elected, if 30 years of age, being the same. When the storthing is in session every
member is paid an allowance equivalent to about 13s. 4d. per day. When elected, the
storthing meets of its own authority, without any writ from the king, and divides itself
into two chambers, the hit/thing and the odt'l*thin(i, the former composed of one-fourth,
the latter of the remaining three-fourths of the members. Since 1869 the s-iitings have
been held annually.

STORY, a co. in central Iowa, drained by Montgomery and Indian creeks and the
Skunk river; traversed by the Des Moines and Minneapolis and the Chicago and North-
western railroads: 575 sq.m. ; pop. '80, 16,906 13,927 of American birth. The surface
is rolling. The soil is fertile. The principal productions are corn, wheat, oats, and
hay. Co. seat, Nevada.

STORY, .Tos!:!-ii. an American jurist and judge, was b. at Marblehead, Mass., Sept.
18, 1779; was educated at Harvard college, and, though admitted to the bar in 1801,

Story. o>-4


gave his attention chiefly to general literature and poetry. Having published a volume
in 1804, The Potccr of /Solitude, a:;d oilier poems, which met with no success, lie Lade
farewell to the muses, and devoted himself to law and politics. Elected lo the slate
legislature in 180.3, he became a leader of the republican, or, as it was afterward culled, the
democratic party, and defended the measures of Jefferson. In 1808 lie was elect wl :o
congress, where he gave a moderate support lo the war measures of Mr Madison, who,
however, in 1811, appointed him associate justice of the supreme court of the United
States, a place lie filled with great credit for 34 years. In 1820, as a member of the
Massachusetts constitutional convention, he advocated a property basis fur the senate.
In 182U he became law professou at Harvard. His later politics were of the federalist
school of Washington and Hamilton, and these tincture his C'lin/nui'ury on Di

/nui'ury on Die

tion of the United States. His Conflict of Laws, and other legal treatises, have pulsed
through many editions. His legal writings and decisions are among those oltenest
quoted in the higher courts of law. He died Sept. 10, 1845. In 1854 appeared Stcry's
Miscellaneous Writings; and in 1851 a life of him by his son, WILLIAM V\'I:TMOKE S'IOKY
(b. 1819), also educated as a lawyer, but belter known as a sculptor and poet. Ruin dl
Roma (1862; is the most successful prose work of the latter; the Tragedy of Nero (1875)
his most notable poem.

STORY, WILLIAM WETMORE, b. Mass., 1819; son of Joseph; educated at Harvard
college, and admitted to the bar. After the publication of several legal treatises lie
devoted himself to literature and sculpture. Among his sculptures are the marble sianie
of his father at the chapel cf Ml. Auburn cemetery, statues of Edward Everett and
Josiah Quincy. busts of Theodore Parker and James Ilu.ssell Lowell, and many ideal
works and groups, including a " Semiramis," a "Sibyl, "a "Sappho," a ''Cleopatra,"
and " Jerusalem." Among his prose writings are Life and Letters of Joseph Story (Ittl);
Roba di Roma (1862); Proportions of the Human Figure (1866); and GraJJiti tfluditi (1869).
Among his works inverse are Poems (1847); The Roman Lawyer in Jerusalem (1810);
Tragedy of Nero (1875); and Stephanie (1877.)

STOSCH, Ai.BREcriT VON, b. Prussia, 1818; received a military education, and was
commissioned lieut. in 1835; displayed great proficiency in the technical and econom-
ical branches of the service; rcse in rank and became tutor of the crown prince. In
1806 he was appointed director of the economy department in the war ministry, and in
the war with France, 1870-71, was superintendent of the Prussian commissary depart-
ment. and chief of staff in the army left in France after the conclusion of peace. In
1872 he was appointed chief of the naval department, then first separated from the
army; and in 1875 received the title of admiral.

STOTHAHD. THOMAS, R.A.. an eminent designer and painter, was the son of a Lon-
don publican, who kept the Black Horse in Long Acre, and was b. there in 1755. He
received a respectable education in different boarding-schools, and on his father's death,
l.fxvinsr shown a predilection for the use of the pencil, was bound apprentice to a pattern-
drawer in the city, but was released from his engagement before the term of expiry, and
V.etook himself to" more artistic work. His first notable effort was a series of designs for
the Toirn and Country Magazine, which was followed by his imaginative compositions
for Bell's British Poets and the Novelist's Magazine. The popularity of these was so
great that for many years his services were constantly in request by the leading pub-
lishers in London. His earliest pictures exhibited at the royal academy were "The
Holy Family." and "Ajax defending the Body of Patroclus." In 1791 he was chosen
an associate', in 1794 a member, and in 1813 librarian of the academy. He died April 27,
1834. Slot hard was really an admirable and facile illustrator. Not less than 3.000 of
1m dcsiirns are known; but his paintings, although gracefully enough "composed" and
finely colored, are destitute of the originality that comes from a study of nature, and
painfully resemble enlarged " illustrations" 'for books. Perhaps the best known and
the mot agreeable of the set is his " Canterbury Pilgrims," eng;aved in 1817; others are
the " Flitch of Bacon," the "Fete Champgtre," and the paintings executed for the s- lair-
case at Burleigh. the seat of the marquis of Exeter. See Mrs. Bray's Life of T!.
8'otJ,a;-d. If.A.^, trith numerus IIJ nut rations from his Works (1851). His son, CHARLES
ALKKKD STOTHARD (b. 1786, d. 1821), acquired a great reputation as an antiquarian

STOUGHTON, EDWIN W., LL D., b. Vt.,"l818: studied law in New York city and
was admitted to the bar in 1840. He soon acquired an extensive practice in the metrop-
olis. especially in patent cares. In the argument before the electoral commission fol-
lowing the presidential election of 1876, he was counsel for the republican side. In 1877
he was made U. S. minister to Russia by president Hayes, and returned in 1879.

STOUGHTON. ISRAEL, about 1580-1645; b. England; one of the first settlers of
Dorchester. Maes., and member of the first general court. 1634. He was disabled from
holding office for publicly denying the powers of the governor in certain matters. He
commanded the expedition of 1637 against the Pequots, was in 1641 a commissioner to
carry on the government of New Hampshire, and was governor's assistant, 1637-42. and
in 1(544. In the last year he returned to England and became an officer in the English

O"T~ Story.

O 9 Siowo.

STOUGHTON, WILLIAM, 1631-1701; b. England; graduated at Harvard in 1650.
Studying theology he went to England; was a fellow of ^New college, Oxford; lost his
fellowship at the restoration, and returned to Massachusetts in 1GG2. lie; was agent in
England for the colony, 1676-79, and was elected governor 1689, but refused ihe office.
He was a member of the council of sir Edmund Andres, 1686-89, when he joined the
council of safety which deposed Andros. In 1692 he was, and the same year
was appointed chief-justice of Massachusetts. Stoughton hall at Harvard college is
named after him.

STOUGHTOX, WILLIAM L., b. N. Y., 1827; studied law and practiced in St urges,
Michigan. In 1861 he was U. S. district attorney. lie became col. >f a .Michigan regi-
ment, and fought with distinction at Stone river, Chickamaupi, and Atlanta, losing a
leg at the last place. He attained the rank of brev. maj.gen. of volunteers, and at the
close of the war became attorney general of the state of Michigan.

STOURBRIDGrE. a market t. in the co. of Worcester, and 20 m. n.n.e. of the town of
that name, on the left bank of the Stour. It contains iron-works and glass, earthenware,
and tire-brick factories. " Stourbridge clay," upon which the action of fire has less
effect than upon most varieties of clay, is an article of export. Glass-house pots, cruci-
bles, etc., are made of it. Pop. '71, 9,876.

STOTJT32IEFF, in the law of Scotland, means robbery committed in a dwelling-

STOVE, a fireplace in which the fire is generally quite shut in. The term is also ap-
plied to a room or closet heated for the purpose of drying and other operations, and to
hot-houses, in which the artificial heat is constantly maintained at a high temperature.
Stoves for domestic purposes will bo noticed under the head of WAKMI.VG AND VSNTI
LATIOX. Particular kinds of hot-house stoves are already noticed in the an ides BARK-
STOvt; ami DRY STOVE. Stoves are also used for Jorcin;/ fruits, so a* to procure them
in winter or spring. In the management of stoves, the general rule is that the tempera-
ture must never be allowed to fall below 60 1 Fahr. The free access of air i>, of course,
desirable-, but the windows are not opened unless the temperature reaches 70' Fahr.,
and care must be taken that cold blasts do not enter, which are often very injurious.

STOW, or STOKE (A.-S. toc-. a stockaded place), a component element of mauy names
of places, as Bristow or Bristol, Stockholm.

STOW, BAUON. D.D., 1801-69; b. N. H.; graduated Columbian college, D. C., 1S25;
ordained pastor of a Baptist church, Portsmouth. N. H., 1827; pastor of Baldwin-place
church, Boston, 1SJ2. and of liowe street church. 1843-67. He published D.ii'-ij .\fanna
for diris' Pi-yrim.i; Christian Brotherhood; T.i Wii'e Fumi'y in iLnrcn and Earth;
Memoir of Harriet Dow; History of the Danish Minions on the Coait of Goromandelj His-
tory of the Eii^ixh llaptixt Mission to India; First Thing*; Helorin Pilgrimage; Missionary
E>t'f!'i>ri.-'. He edited Columbian Star, 1825-27; was recording secretary of missionary
conventions, 1838-46.

STOW, JOHN, one of the earliest and most diligent collectors of English antiquities,
was b. in London in the year 1525. He was brought up to his father's trade of a tailor
in Cornhiil, but ultimately abandoned it for antiquarian pursuits. Writing in 1575, he
says: " It is now ten years since I, seeing the confused order of our late English chron-
icles, and the ignorant handling of ancient affairs, leaving mine own peculiar gains, con-
secrated myself to the search of our famous antiquities." A patriotic sacrifice, which
ought to have insured to the devoted antiquary from his king and country an old age of
ease and honor, but which only brought him to want and beggary! In his 7'.):n year,
Stow obtained letters-patent from James I. authorizing him to become a mendicant, or,
as it is expressed in the state document, "to collect amongst our loving subjects their
voluntary contributions and kind gratuities." He died April 5, 1605, and was buried in
the parisli chuivh of St. Andrew t'ndershnft. in Aldgate ward, where his monument of
terra-o.otta. erected at the expense of his widow, may still be seen. The principal works
of Stow are his S'lunn/ir}/ of English Chronidf.*, first" published in l.~61. and sul><< qrentl-
roprinted every two or three years, with a continuation to the date of each new publicay
tlm; A: i lala of Ei/yland, 1580, and reprinted in 15',I2. to which year the annals are
brought down; &n& A Saroey of London, the most important of his writings, published
in 159-*. Besides these original works. Stow assisted in the continuation of Holinshed's
Chronicle, Speght's edition of Chaucer, LeTand's Col't'-t/inm. etc. lie hail collected or
transcribed a vast number of MSS., and much valuable information which might other-
wise have perished; and in the use of his stores he was liberal to others, while as an
original historian he was faithful and impartial.

STOWE. CALVIN- ELLIS, D.D., b. Mass., 1802; graduated Bowdoin college. 1824;
Andover theological seminary, 1828; assistant professor at Andover. and assistant editor
of It >ston Recorder. 1828-30; professor of languages at Dartmouth college, 'i 830-33; of
Biblical fiterature, Lane theological seminary, 1833-50. In 1836 he visited Europe in
behalf of Ohio, to examine the German prHic-school system, and on his return published
a report on Elementary Education in Europe, and subsequently reports on Education />f
Im^n ir/rants; The Course of Instruction in tfif Primary !<<-hi>1* of 7V*/.W -i ; Kit //// itiir ;/
Instruction in Prussia; divinity professor in Bowdoiu college, 1850-52; professor of

Stowe. RTfi


sacred literature in Anclover, 1852-64. Among his works arc History of the Hebrew
Commonwealth, from the German of Jahn; Lectures on tJie Sacred Poetry of the Hebrews
from the Ptwlectione* of Loutli; Introduction to the Criticism and Interpretation of the
Bible; Origin and History of the Books of the Bible. He published papers iu Spirit of the
Pilgrims, Biblical depository, BibUotheca Sacra, Atlantic Monthly.

STOWE, HARRIET ELIZABETH BEECHER, American authoress, daughter of l he Rev.
Dr Lyinau Beecher, and wife of Rev. prof. Calvin Ellis Stowe. was b. at Litehfield,
Conn., June 15, 1813. At the age of 15, she was engaged with her elder sister, Catherine,
as teacher in a girls' school iu Hartford. She was married to prof. Slowe in 1836, and
became a frequent contributor to periodicals, published some stories in a volume en tit led
The, May-Jloicer, and other spirited juvenile stories for the Sunday-school libraries. The
ability of Mrs. Stowe as a delineator of character, and especially of New England char-
acter, was known to many; but her full power was scarcely suspected until, iu 1851, she
commenced in The Rational Era, an anti-slavery paper at Washington, a serial tale,
entitled Uncle Tom's Cabin. When completed in 1852, it was published at Bos; on, and
its popularity was so im'mense, that it soon sold in lour stereotype editions to the extent
of 400,000 copies. The English reprints are estimated to have circulated 500,00*). and it
was rapidly translated into all European and some Asiatic languages, and was extensively
dramatized and illustrated. In 1853, she published a Key to Uncle Tom's Cabin, and
made a visit to Europe, where she was received with distinguished consideration. The
events and impressions of this triumphant tour are recorded in her Sunny Memories of
Foreign Lands (2 vols. Boston, 1854). In 1856 she published Dred, a Tale of the Di*mal
Swamp, another anti-slavery story, which had a wide circulation. This was followed in
1859 by The Minister's Wooing, a story of New England life in the 18th c., etc. In 1861),
Mrs. Stowe contributed to Macmillan's Magazine an article entitled The True Story of
Lady Byron's Life, some statements in which, rifiecting on the character of lord Byron,
gave rise to much stormy criticism, and occasioned her writing (1870) Lady Byron Vindi-
cated, in which she replied to her critics. Mrs. Stowe was in 1868-70 joint editor of
Hearth and Home, and contributes to the Independent and other journals. Among her
more recent works are Little Foxes (1865); The Chimney Corner (1868;; Men of Our "j'tmes
(1868); Pink and White Tyranny (1871); My Wife and 1(1872); Poyanuc People (1878).

STOWELL, WILLIAM SCOTT, Lord, the eldest brother of lord Eldon (q.v.). was h. at
Heworth, Durham, Oct. 17, 1745. He was educated at Newcastle; went to Oxford in
1761, and became a college tutor. In 1779 he took the degree of D.C.L. , removed to
London, was called to the bar (1780), and admitted to the faculty of advocates at doctors'
commons. Dr. Johnson introduced him to the Literary club, and he became well known
in the most intellectual society of London As an advocate he at onre obtained a large
practice, and his promotion was rapid. In 1788 lie w T as appointed judge in the consi-tory
court, knighted, and nominated a privy councilor. In 1798 he became judge of the
court of admiralty, the highest dignity to which he could attain in his own branch of
the profession. Both as an ecclesiastical and admiralty judge he won high distinction.
He wrote no systematic treatise or text-book, but his judgments were admirably
reported, and supply the best evidence of his extensive legal learning, his sagacity, and
his great literary ability. He is the highest English authority on ecclesiastical law
and the law of nations, and his judgments those especially relating to the rights of
belligerents and neutrals have been described as the most, valuable contribution made
by an English judge to general jurisprudence since the time of lord Mansfield. As a
politician sir William Scott, was not remarkable. He represented Oxford in the house
of commons for '20 years, but he took no part in the business of parliament, although like
his brother he was a zealous supporter of the conservative party and the established
church. At the, coronation of George IV. he was raised to the peerage under the -title
of baron Stowell of Stowell park. In 1823 he relired from the bench, and in 183;) he
died. Lord Stowell was twice married, but only one child, lady Sidmouth, survived

STOW MARKET, a small market t. of Suffolk, on the Gipping. * \ m. n. w. of Ipswich.
Iron, leather, paper, and gun-cotton are manufactured. The Gl^ping is navigable to
Stowmarket. Pop. '71, 4,097.

STRABANE, a market t. of the co. of Tyrone, Ireland, on the river Mourne. ISO m.
n.n.w. from Dublin, with which it communicates by railway. It communicates with
Londonderry, and thus with the sea, by cnml anrl river. The chief industry is con-
nected with the linen trade, and there is also a valuable fishery. Strabune has four
churches one Protestant Episcopal, two Presbyterian, and one Roman Catholic
besides two Methodist meeting-houses. The pop. in 1871 was 4,309.


STRABO, an ancient geographer, b. at Amnsea in Pontus. about the middle of the
1st c. B.C. By the mother's side he was of Greek descent, and also closely connected with
the Mithridalida": of his father or his father's family nothing is known. How the name
Strabo (" squint-eyed") must have originated is obvious, but whether any of the family
were so called before him is uncertain. Strabo was well educated under the gramma-
rians, Tyrannic of Amisus in Pontus, and Ansiodemus of Nysa in Caria, and the phil-

8 1 - *7 Stowe.

' ' StruttuFd.

osopher Xcnarohus of Scleucia in Cilicia. lie does not appear to have followed any
professional culling, but to have spent his life in travel and study, from which it may
safely be inferred that he was possessed of wealth, or at least <>f considerable means.
Jle died some time after 21 A.D., but how long we have no evidence to show. Strabo's
Geography is a work of great value, iu those p;,rts especially which record the results of
his own extensive observation. " Westward," he says in a passage in the 2d book, "I
have traveled from Armenia to the parts of Tyrrhcnia adjacent to Sardinia; toward the
south, from the Euxine to the borders of Eihiopia. And perhaps there is not one
among those who have written geographies who has visited more places than I have
between these Hunts." Yet it, must not be supposed that he describes with equal accu-
racy or fullness all the countries of whose geography he treats. Some he seems to have

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 202 of 203)