Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

. (page 203 of 203)
Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 203 of 203)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

visited hurriedly, or in passing elsewhither; others be knows like a native. For exam-
ple, his accounts of Greece, particularly the Pelopomu sus, are meager in the extreme,
and of many of the obscurer regions he writes chiefly from hearsay, "lie makes copious
use of his predecessors, Eratosthenes. Artemidorus, Polybius, Posidonius, Aristotle,-
Theopoinpus, Thucydides, Aristobulus, and many other writers now lost to us, but he
strangely depreciates the authority of Herodotus, and quotes few Roman writers except
Fabius, Pictor, and Julius Caesar. The Geography comprises 17 books, of which the
first two are introductory, the next eight are devoted to Europe, the six following to
Asia, and the last to Africa. The style is pure and simple. The editio prince] s of
Strabo appeared at Venice in 1516; the latest and best is that by Gustaf Kinmer (I3er.
1844, ett(j.).

STRACIIKY, AViu.iAM, b. England, 15S5; secretary of the colon}' of Virginia,
1610-12. lie was shipwrecked on the Bermuda islands in 1609 with sir T. Gates,
Somers, and Newport. His. True Ifeportory of the Wruckc and Redein]'ti<>n <>f $ir T/>//ntx
Gaft'ft, upon and from the Inlands of Bermudas, is supposed to have suggested to Shake-
speare the storm in the Tempest, and the allusion to the "still vext Bcrii.oothes." He
collected For tl>.e Colony in Virginia Britannia Lawes Divine, Morall, and Nartiall (1612;)
and wrote a JIitone of Travaite into Virginia.

STRADELLA, a city of northern Italy, 10 m. s.e. of Pavia. with 7,193 inhabitants.
It is situated on the slope of a hill. Stradella was formerly a fortified city, depending
on the bishops of Pavia.

STEADPLIA, A I.KPSANDRO, a Neapolitan musical composer, b. about 1645; he is
famous both iu respect of his influence on the music of that age and of the tragical his"-
tory of his life and death. His works, which consist of numerous airs, duets, cantatas,
madrigals, an oratorio, and an opera, contributed largely to form the taste of the suc-
ceeding composers, particularly Purcell, I Ian, Steffani, and Alessandro Scarlatti.
Stradella was renowned for his exquisite voice and polished manner; and when engaged
in Venice, instructing a young lady of rank, v\ho lived in a criminal intimacy with a
noble Venetian, the musician and his pupil became mutually enamored, tied to Rcme,
and were married there. They were traced thither by two bravos in the employ of the
Venetian, who discovered them in the church of San Giovanni Laterano, where Slradella
was assisting at the performance of an oratorio of his own, and both assassins, it is said,
were so captivated with his voice and strains, that they at once abandoned their object
and betrayed to him the plot in which they had been engaged. Pursued by other bravos
to Turin, Stradella was stabbed, but not mortally, when lodged in the palace and under
the protection of the duchess of Savoy. Some years afterward, however (about 1687),
he went to Genoa, in pursuance of an engagement to compose an opera, and the day
after his arrival both lie and his wife were mortally stabbed in their bedchamber by the
emissaries of their unrelenting persecutor.

STRADIVARIUS, ANTONIO, 1C44-1737; b. Cremona; was a pupil of Nicolo Amati,
and at first reproduced violins in the style of his master. In 1G86 he acquired his own
peculiar style, which subsequent makers of violins have deemed a model. He produced
violins, violas, and violoncellos. He also made some viols of 6 and 7 strings, mando-
lins, guitars, and lutes. One of his violins, La Pucelle. has been preserved under glass,
and has never been touched by the bow. Another specimen, the Dnlphin, so called
from the veined wood of its back, is the best Stradivarius violin in existence, and for-
merly belonged to the marquis de la Rosa.

STRAFFORD, a co. in s.e. New Hampshire, adjoining Maine, wrtered by the Lam-
prey, Cocheco. Piscataqua, and Salmon rivers; traversed by the Boston and Maine, the
Eastern, the Dover and Winnipiseoiree, and the Nashua and Rochester railroads; about
500 sq.m. ; pop. '80. 35,559 29,326 of American birth. The surface is irregular. The
soil is not fertile. Hay, butter, and potatoes are principal productions. There is much
water-power and manufacturing. Co. seat, Dover.

STRAFFOED, THOMAS WENTWORTH, Earl of. eldest son of sir W. TVcntworth of
Wentworth, Woodhouse, Yorkshire, was b. April 13, 1593. In 1611 he married lady
Margaret Clifford, eldest daughter of the earl of Cumberland. Subsequently he was
chosen member of parliament for the co. of York. In 1615 he was appointed cvntos
rotulorum for the West Riding of the same county. Being again returned to pnrlia
meat for Yorkshire iu 1621, shortly after his election he took up his residence in Lou-



don. Slighted by the duke of Buckingham, who then ruled the court and cabinet of
Charles I., Wentworth signalized himself as an opposer of the administration. In 1626
he was made sheriff of his county, with the view of preventing him from attending
parliament. So resolutely did he oppose the arbitrary royal loan, exacted in the follow-
ing year, that the government deemed it advisable to put him in prison. But Bucking-
ham was little aware of the energy of his opponent. Strafford, having obtained his
release, came to the following parliament, resolved to make his power felt both by
king and minister. He spoke'eloquently on the question of grievances, and was con-
spicuous in obtaining the royal assent to the petition of right. He was obviously a man,
worth gaining; and his patriotism, if it had any genuine element, was, unhappily not
strong enough to withstand the temptation now held out to his personal ambition.
With his elevation to the peerage as baron Weutworth, in 1628, he seems not only to
have lost all solicitude for popular liberty, but openly to have become its most deter-
mined enemy. As president of the " council of the north," he seems to have abused his
Eowers not only for political purposes, but often simply to gratify his own pride. The
Jgality of the jurisdiction exercised by the council created by Henry VIII. was alto-
gether very doubtful, and interdicts against it were at various times applied for from
the courts'at Westminster. Strafford declared openly that he would "lay by the heels"
any judge presuming to interdict the council from the exercise of such powers as he
chose to hold that it possessed. Nevertheless, this was done by judge Vernou. In 1681
Stratford was made deputy of Ireland, and iti 1639 earl of Stratford and lord lieutenant
of Ireland. According to his views, that country belonged to the crown by right of
conquest, and neither the natives nor the descendants of the conquerors themselves had
any rights which could interfere with its sovereignty. His government was of despotic
violence, but the administration of justice, in ordinary cases, was prompt and vigorous.
Outrage was suppressed and commerce flourished under his strong hand. Understand-
ing fully the feelings, policy, and resources of the party to which he hail originally
belonged, Straffoid had matured a vast political scheme, to which, in his confidential
correspondence, he gave the expressive name of " thorough." His object was to do in
England what Richlieu was doing in France to make Charles as absolute as any con-
tinental monarch; to put the estates an 1 personal libertv of the whole people at the dis-
pos d of the crown; to deprive the courts of law of all independent authority; and to
punish with merciless severity all who murmured against the government, or who applied
to any tribunal for relief from its despotism. Happily tin 1 , people of England were too
' strong for him. On his entering the 'house of peers on the meeting of the long par-
liament in 1640. the message from the house of commons was called in and Mr. Pym,
in the namn of the commons of England, impeached "Thomas, earl of Strafford," of
high treason. This course was afterward abandoned, and the commons proc'.'edjd by
bill of attainder. It passed the house- 0:1 April 21, 1641. Immediately after it passed
in the house of lords and received the royal assent. Strafford certainly merited his fate,
but nothing can excuse the cowardice of the king. The earl was executed on May 12,
1641. Tho attainder was reversed in the reign of Charles II., and his son succeeded to
the honors. See Hallam's Constitutional History ; Macaulay's History of England, with,
authorities cited in these works.

STRAIGHT UNIVERSITY, in New Orleans, was founded by Mr. Seymour Straight
exclusively for colored students. It was organized in 1869 under the auspict-s of the
Congregation aiists. It had (1878) 7 instructors and 243 pupils. Rev. W. S. Alexander,
A.M., president.

STRATN, the name given to any one of the periods into which a musical composition
is divided by double bars, the strain being further subdivided into periods, sections,
phrases, and feet.

STRAIN. ISAAC C., 1821-57; b. Pens. ; entered the navy. In 1845 he explored
Brazil, in 1848 Lower California, and in 1849 South America between Valparaiso and
Buenos Ayu-s. He afterward k-d an expedition across the isthmus of Panama to find
a route fora ship canal. This expedition suffered greatly from hardships. In 1856 he
made soundings to show the feasibility of an Atlantic cable.

STRAITS SETTLEMENTS are the British settlements in the straits of Malacca, com-
prising Singapore (q. v.), Malacca (q.v.), and the Prince of Wales island (q.v.), or Penang,
including the province of Wellesley. Each of these settlements is described in its own
place, and its area and population given. The Straits Settlements were transferred from
the control of the Indian government to the colonial secretary in 1867. The seat of
government is at Singapore. Area, 1350 sq. miles. Pop. '71, 306,775.

STRALSTTND. a fortified t and seaport of Prussia, province of Pommern, is situated
on a narrow si rait called the Strela Sundc, which divides the mainland from the island
of Ri'igf-n. It forms an island, partly surrounded by the sea. and partly by large pools
of salt water, and is connected with the mainland by three bridges. The natural strength
of the placi- is greatly increased by formidable fortifications. Right in front of !he har-
bor lies the fortified island of Danholm. Stralsund has narrow, but pretty regular
streets, and many of the houses are finely gabled, which gives the town a quaint and
ancient look. IStralsuud carries on a large export trade, especially in malt and corn,

m Straight.


and has manufactures of leather, sugar, starch, mirrors, and cards. In 1872, 242 ships
entered the port. Pop. '71, 26,781. Stralsuud was founded in 1209 by prince Jaroinar
of Rligen, been me a member of the Hansa, and rapidly rose into importance. During
the thirty years' war, it was unsuccessfully besieged (1628) by Walleustein; and alter
being, with some alierations of fortune, in the possession of Sweden for about 200
years, it passed to Prussia in 1815, but still retains much of its ancient muni-
cipal independence.

STRAMONIUM, the specific as well as common name of datura stramonium, other-
wise called Jamestown weed, jimson weed, and thorn-apple. The datura is a genus of
toUinace<je, or the nightshade tamily, which includes the common potato, tomato, egg-
plant, bitter-sweet, common nightshade, horse nettle, ground cherry, and tobacco. Stra-
monium, or Jamestown weed, is very unequally distributed, being common in some locali-
ties, and rare in others; but it generally grows in abandoned gardens and waste places,
especially where ashes have been dumped, or where the soil is rich in potash, for this is
the mineral ingredient in which it delights, as do the other members of the solana< <!',
especially the potato. In the suburbs of some cities (e.g , Brooklyn) it grows luxuriantly
alongside old piles of ashes. Generic characteristics: calyx prismatic. 5 toothed ; corolla
funnel form, with a large and spreading 5 to 10 toothed, plaited border; stigma two
lipped; pod globular, prolate, one and a half to two inches long, prickly, 4 valved, 2
celled, with thick placentae, projected from the axis into the middle of the cells, and
connected with the walls by an imperfect false partition, so that the pod is 4 celled,
except near the lop; numerous flat, angular, black seeds, which contain a powerful nar-
cotic poison, having peculiar properties. Its native country is not known, but most
botanists believe it to oe Asia. De Candolle refers it to the countries bordering on the
Caspian sea; others regard it as coining from northern India. It is a coaise, strong,
vigorous, branching weed, growing from two to 6 feet high (in rich ground), leaves ovate,
sinuate toothed, or angled. The alkaloid (hduria was found in the seeds by Geiger and
Hesse in 18oo, and subsequently in other parts of the plant. Von Planta in 1850 pro-
nounced this alkaloid to be identical with atropia in composition, solubility, and fusi-
bility; but the physical experiments of Von Schroff in 1852 showed that the two alka-
loids, though acting qualitatively alike, are very unequal in their effects, datura being
about twice as strong as atropia (the active principle of belladonna). Tromm.sdoiff ob-
tained straiHottin as a white, tasteless powder, insoluble in water, soluble in ether,
sparingly soluble in alcohol. The other constituents of the seeds are about 25 per cent
of a bland, fixed oil, mucilaginous, resinous, and other common principles. The physi-
ological action of stramonium varies with the animal to which it is given. Several kinds
of caterpillars devotir it without injury, and goats browse upon it. A decoction of the
leaves applicAl to the skin of a young rat has produced alternate debility and convulsions.
Large do>es given to horses have produced drowsiness and even death. On man, stra
monium and belladonna are almost identical in their action. ' The powdered leaves of
stramonium in two grain doses increase the fullness and frequency of the pulse, make the
skin warm and the hands and face moist. Five-grain doses produce dilatation of the
pupils, difficulty of speech, nausea, thirst, dryness of the throat, catharsis, increased tlowof
urine, and feverishness. Larger doses cause 'high fever and delirium, the patient sometimes
becoming violent. There is dizziness, and the face is much flushed and oftei. swollen, the
eyes bright, the conjunctiva red. the pupils dilated and the sight confused. Sometime.- the
skin is covered with a bright red eruption, which may be followed by minute vesicles, or
have the appearance of erysipelas or of measles. Sometimes there are hydrophobia phe-
nomena, and convulsions will occur on attempting to drink. In rare fatal cases, the
phenomena of excitement are succeeded by stupor, insensibility, and sometimes paraly-
sis. There is, in no case, any tendency to sleep but, on the contrary, persistent insom-
nia. Among the perversions of the senses, is that of all black objects appearing green.
At one time stramonium was believed to be a valuable remedy in insanity, but not now,
although there are isolated cases where its use has been attended with benefit. In some
cases of epilepsy it is useful. In spasmodic asthma there is no doubt of its frequent
beneficial action. The skepticism in regard to this has no doubt arisen from failure to
diagnose the variety of asthma. To be of use it must be given in the purely spasmodic
cases. The common method of administration is smoking the dried leaves in a tobacco-
pipe, or mhalingthe smoke from a chating-dish. It lias been used internally to relieve
whooping-cough, dysnienorrlura. and retention of urine. In the absence of belladonna,
or atropia, it may be used to produce dilatation of the pupil in ophthalmoscopic opera-
tions. The physiological and clinical antidote to stramonium is opium or its alkaloid
morphia. Sometimes 15 grs. of muriate of morphia have been given, saving the life of
the patient, a dose which otherwise would be fatal. Conversely, the antidote to opium
is stramonium, or better, because more active, belladonna, or its alkaloid atropia.

STRANGE, Sir KOIJKRT, eminent as an engraver, was born in Pomona, one of the
Orkney islands, July 14. 1721. After some little abortive smdy of law at Edinburgh, he
was apprenticed to an engraver there of the name of Cooper, under whom he made rapid
progress. In 1745 he deserted art for arms, joining the army of Charles Kdwurd, not so
much from enthusiasm in his cause, as to find favor with a miss Isabella Lumisden, who
would only consent to be gracious to him on that romantic cuudition. The only exploit



recorded of him in this relation is not one of glorious battle. After the final collapse of
the adventure, he was in hiding in the house where miss Lumisden resided; and on occa-
sion of its being searched by the soldiery, he shrouded himself under the folds of her
ample petticoat, and thus cleverly evaded detection It is extremely satisfactory to know
that very soon after the lady requited his heroism by marrying him. He now went
abroad with his wife, and at Paris he prosecuted his art under the tutelage of the cele-
brated Le Bas, and afterward of Descamps. In 1T51 he returned to Britain, and settling
himself in London, speedily attained the very highest rank in his profession. On again
going abroad in 1760 to execute plates of the most famous pictures of the old masters,
his eminence was recognized by the academies of Paris, Koine, Florence, Bologna, and
Parma, all of which conferred on him tiie honor of membership; and subsequently in
1787, the distinction of knighthood testified to the high favor he found in his own coun-
try. After a life of honorable and successful industry, he died on July 5, 1792, leaving
a handsome fortune to his fariiiy. To ihis day, Strange is ranked at the very head of
British engravers, and his reproductions of the nobler specimens of the old masters are
much prized by the connoisseur. In the very amusing work entitled Memoirs of Sir
Robert Strange, Knight, Engraver, and of his Brother-in-law, Andrew Litntixden, Piivale
Secretary to the Stuart Princes (2 vols., 1855), by James Dennistoun of Dennistoun, a full
account will be found of him, with an intelligent criticism of his chief works.

STRANGLES is a contagious eruptive disorder peculiar to young horses. It is ush-
ered in by sore throat and cough, a muco-purulcnt nasal discharge, and the eruption of
a swelling in the space between the branches of the lower jaw. In al out ten days, this
swelling comes to a head, bursts, and in favorable cases the patient is soon well again.
From exposure to cold, poverty, or other causes, the swelling, however, occasionally
appears in less favorable situations, as about the glands lying within the shoulder, in
those of the groin, or even in those of the mesentery. Such irregular cases are apt to be
protracted, accompanied by much weakness, and sometimes prove fatal. Bleeding,
physic, and irritant dressings are injurious. Good food and nursing, with fomentations
to the throat, and steaming"of the head, favor the healthier maturation of the swelling.
When there is debility, coax the anima! to eat by offering him at short intervals small
quantities of scalded oats, malt, bran, or green food, and allow him several times daily
a pint of sound ale.



University of California


Return this material to the library

from which it was borrowed.


JUL 3 '.3



JUL 2 6 T3






A 000 441 942




Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 203 of 203)