Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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Chief city. Sambalpur.


SAMBOO, or SAM;;I ::. See RUSA.

SAMBOK, Ni;\v, a t. of the Austrian empire, in the province of East Galicin. It is
a thriving and well-built town, with manufactures of linens and extensive salt-works.
Pop. ()!).' ! i


SAMMATIYA is one of the four divisions of the VailJidshika system of Buddhism; its
reputed founder was I'jxi'i, a disciple of the Buddha, S'akyamuui. See C. F. Koeppen,
Die Religion cte* Buddha (Berlin, 1857); and W. Wassiljew, I)cr Buddhismm, seine Dogtnen,
Gewhichte und Literatur (St. Petersburg, 1860).

SAMNITES, an ancient Italian people of Sabine origin, who occupied an extensive
and mountainous region in the interiorof southern Italy. They were surrounded on the
n. by the Peligni, Marsi, and Marrueini; on the \v. and s.w. by the Latins, Volscians,
Sidicini, and Campaaiaus; on the s. by the Lucauians; and on the e. by the Apuliaus
and Freniaui. The Sammies were divided into four nations: 1. The Caraceni \\\ the u.,
whose capiial was Aulidena. 2. The Ptintri'm the center, whose capital was Bovianum,
and who constituted the most powerful nation of the Samnite stock. 3. The Caadini,
in the s.w. 4. The llirpini in the s., whose capital was Beneventum. For an account
of their origin, ethnological affinities, and history, see ROME, HISTORY OP.


SAMOS (Mod. Gr. 8amo; Turk. SusnmAdaxxi). an island in the ^Egean sea, is situated
about a m. oil' the coast of Asia Minor, in the bay of Scalanova, about 45 m. s.s.w. of
Smyrna. Its length is 30 m. ; its mean breadth about 8 miles. A range of mountains,
which may be regarded as an^usular continuation of mount Mycale, on the mainland,
runs through the whole island, whence its name Samos, being an old Greek word for
any height in the neighborhood of the sea. The highest peak, mount Kerkis (anc. Cercf-
teus), reaches an elevation of 4,725 feet. Samos is still, as in ancient times, well
wooded. Between its eastern extremity and the mainland lies the narrow channel
of Mycale (called by the Turks the Little Boghaz), where, in 479 B.C., the Persians were
totally defeated by the Greeks under the Spartan Leotychides. Between the island and
Nicaria (anc. Icariii). on the w. is the Great Boghaz, from 3 to 8 m. broad, and much
frequented by vessels sailing from the Dardanelles to Syria and Egypt. Samos is well
watered and very fertile, exporting considerable quantities of corn, grapes, wine, oil,
valonia, etc.; its mountains furnish quarries of marble. The present capital, called
Khora (" the town"), is situated on the s. side of the island, at the base of the hill (about
2 m. from the sea), on which ruins of the ancient acropolis (Atti/p<iJi/t'') are still visible.
On the n. coast lies Vathy or Bathy, which derives its name from its deep (Gr. bathys)
harbor. The pop. of the island in '77 was 35,878.

Anciently, Samos was one of the most famous isles of the ^Egean. At a very remote
period, it was a powerful member of the Ionic confederacy, and (according to Thucyd-
ides) its inhabitants were the first, after the Corinthians, who turned their attention to
naval affairs. Their energy and resources were soon seen in the numerous colonies
which they established in Thrace, Cilicia, Crete, Italy, and Sicily. But the celebrity of
the island reached its acme under Polycrates (q.v.) 532 B.C., in whose time it was mistress
of the archipelago Subsequently, it passed under the power of the Persians, became
free again after tin 1 battle of Mycale, stood by Athens during the Pelopounesian war,
and after several vicissitudes, became a portion of the Roman province of Asia. 84 B.C.
Its later history is but the melancholy record of continuous decay, nor till the rise of the
modern Greeks against the Turks did it ever again acquire distinction. When the war
of independence broke out none were more ardent ami devoted patriots than theSamians;
and deep was their disappointment when, at the closeof the sharp and brilliant struggle,
European policy assigned them to their former masters. They are not, however, incor-
porated, so t<> speak, with the Turkish empire, but are semi-independent, being governed
by a Fanariot Greek, who bears the title of prince of Sumos, and pays tribute to the

SAMOTHRACE', or THRACIAN SAMOS (Mod. Gr. Sxmothraki). an island in the n. of
the ^Egean, u.c. of Lemnos (Stall 'me tie). It is a ragged and mountainous mass, about 8

Samoyedes. QA


m. long by 6 m. broad, towering to the height of 5,240 ft,, and forming the loftiest land
in the whole Greek archipelago. The traveler on the plains of Troy can sue its white
summit shining afar in the ii.w. over the intervening hills of Imbros a proof that Homer
drew from personal observation when he made Poseidon watch from his Samothracian
throne the events of the war. The island has not a single good port, whence Pliny calls
it " the most harborless of all isles" (wttfortudtuirima omnium), but there are some good
anchorages. Its history is quite unimportant, and all the interest attaching to it is
derived from its connection with the mysterious and gloomy worship of the Cabeiri
< v.). . Pop. 5,000, almost all Greeks.

SAMOYE DES, the name of a race widely spread over the extreme n. of Europe and
Asia, and forming one of the four families of the great Altaian stock. Originally, the
Samoyedes inhabited the whole of the vast Siberian plain from the Altai to the Aictic
sea, but for many hundred years Mongolian peoples have forced themselves in among
them. Their chief seat at present is the region lying between the Obi and the Yenisei.
They have been very little influenced by Russian civilization or Christianity, retain in
great measure their old manners and customs, and live by fishing, or the rearing of
reindeer. The most important researches concerning their ethnographic and linguistic
relations have been made by Castreu (q.v.).

SAMPHIEE Crifftmum, a genus of plants of the natural order umbettifera ; having
compound umbels, and an oblong fruit, rather flattened at the back, with five winged
ridges, and many vittae spread all over the seed. COMMON SAMPHIRE (C. maritimum)
is a perennial, native of Europe, growing chiefly on rocky cliffs near the sea. It is
common in the s. of England, but is rare in Scotland. Its radical leaves are triternate;
those of the stem have lanceolate and fleshy leaflets. The stem is about 1^ ft. high, the
flowers yellow. Samphire makes one of the best of pickles, and is also used in Salads.
It has a piquant, aromatic taste. It is generally gathered where it grows wild, but is
sometimes very successfully cultivated in beds of sand, rich earth, and rubbish, occa-
sionally supplied with a little salt. Inula Crithmoides, a perennial plant, allied to elecam-
pane (q.v.), and of the natural order composite, a native of the sea-coasts of England, is
used in the same way as samphire, and is often called GOLDEN SAMPHIRE. The young
shoots of Saiiconiia herbacea (see GLASSWORT) are also substituted for it as a pickle, and
sold under the name of MARSH SAMPHIRE.

SAMPSON, a cp. in s.e. North Carolina, bounded by South river on the w., and
drained by Black river and its affluents; 940 sq.m.; pop. '80, 22,892. The surface U
undulating, covered with Large forests of pitch-pine. The soil is sandy; the main pro-
ductions are corn, cotton, sweet potatoes, tobacco, rice, honey, wool, sheep, and swine.
Co. seat, Clinton.

SAMPSON, DEBORAH, 17GO-1827; b. Plympton, Mass.*; shouldered a musket in the
revolutionary war, and joined the 4th Mass, regiment with the pseudonym of Robert
Shurtleff. She fought at Tarrytown, was wounded; took the field again at Yorktown;
and when the war was over retired with a pension, and married Benjamin Gannett.
Her residence from that time was a farm in Sharon, Mass. She published 1797, The
Female Review, new edition 1866.

SAMPSON, EZRA, 1749-1823; b. Mass.; graduated at Yale college. 1773; settled at
Plympton, Mass., 1775, and chaplain in the army at Cambridge in the first revolutionary
campaign, 1775-76; settled at Hudson, N. Y., in 1797; associated, 1801-4, with the rev.
Harry Croswell in the editorship of the Balance; editor in 1804 of the Hartford Courant;
judge of the Columbia co. court in 1814. He published Beauties of the Bible; The Sham
-Patriot Unmasked; j. he Brief Remarker; j. he Historical Dictionary, of ten republished.

SAMSOE, a small island belonging to the kingdom of Denmark, is situated in the
northern entrance to the Great B-elt, between Zealand and Jutland. Area, 42 sq.m. ;
pop. 5,875. There are no towns, and the inhabitants owe the considerable comforts they
enjoy entirely to the unusual fertility of their island.

SAMSON (Heb. Shimxhon, compare Shemesh, sun), the son of Manoah, of the tribe of
Dan, for 20 years " judge" over the south-western tribes of Israel perhaps only of
Dan. It would appear, however, as if this title had only been bestowed upon him as a
kind of reward for his daring and extraordinary exploits against the neighboring Phil-
istines, who at his birth held a great part of Palestine tributary. There is in the whole
account of his deeds no sign of any superior authority vested in him. His history bear*
altogether more the general character of a popular tale, or saga, than that of a real his-
torical account. His whole life is surrounded by a marvelous halo from his birth to his
death. To his mother, long barren (cf. Gen. xviii. 10, 1 Sam. i. 2, etc.. Luke i. 7, etc.),
there appeared an angel, who promised her a son on the condition that lie should become
a Nazarite. He is born: his mother abstaining from all strong drink and unclean food
before his birth. His hair, left to grow to its full length, in accordance with the Naza-
rite rules, endows him with a supernatural strength, which apparently increases with
each manifestation. His first T?at is his tearing a lion, when on his way to ask a Phil-
istine woman in marriage. Returning the same road, to celebrate his wedding, he finds
a swarm of bees in the lion's carcass, and forthwith propounds a riddle, which, through
bis wife's treachery, costs 30 Philistines their lives. We need not here recapitulate the

ft-f Samoyedes.


many similar exploits composing his well-known career, which he ended by pulling
down the house upon himself and his enemies the Philistines, so that "the dead which
he slew at his death were more than they which he slew in his life."

It has been matter of most contradictory speculations, how far his existence is to
be taken as a reality, or, in other words, what substratum of historical truth there may
be in this supposed circle of popular legends, artistically rounded off, in the four chap-
ters of Judges (xiii.-xvi.) which treat of him. To begin with, difficulties are raised
respecting the time in which he is said to have lived. While some hold him to be a con-
temporary of Eli and Samuel, others see in Eli his successor; others again suppose an
Interregnum between him and Eli. Next comes the question how he, a Nazarite, could
eat honey out of the lion's carcass a fact, by the way, entirely ignored by Josephus.
The miraculous deeds he performed have taxed the ingenuity of many commentators,
and the text has been twisted and turned in all directions, to explain " rationally" his
slaying those prodigious numbers single-handed ; his carrying the gates of Gaza, in one
night, a distance of about 50 m., the probable distance from Hebron to Gaza, and some
have indeed assumed that he did not carry them there all at once, but piecemeal. But
the principal difficulty seemed to lie in the well that sprung out of the jaw-bone, and the
early Jewish interpreters (Targum, Josephus) take the word Lehi to be the name of a
place; a notion countenanced, so far, by Gesenius, as he allows that it might have been
"derived etymologically from this myth."

The close parallel between the deeds of Samson and those of Hercules has caused
some to identify the two heroes; yet whose might be the priority, is matter of contest
between the different schools of biblical criticism. It is not necessary to enlarge upon
this point. It is well known how Hercules slays the Nemean lion ; another formidable
lion at the mount of Citharon; how he catches the stag of Diana and the Cretan bull;
how he is kept prisoner in Egypt; how he comes to his death by the agency of a woman;
not to mention the'extraordinary circumstances of his birth, and the like. See HERCU-
LES. This once popular notion, however, of seeing nothing more in Samson than the
Tyrian sun-god Hercules (Baal-Shemesh, "Lord of the Sun';" Baal Chamon, "Lord of
the Heat," etc.), and the attempt to explain the various "myths" accordingly, is not
countenanced by most modern critics. However embellished and overladen with
legends, they say, the account in the Book of. Judges may be, there is hardly any doubt
as to the real existence of a man Samson, of extraordinaiy prowess, who turned his whole
might and strength against the hereditary enemies of his people, whose land bordered on
that of the tribe to which he belonged ; who, with all his blemishes, was possessed by a
noble, self-sacrificing patriotism, and never for one moment forgot the chief end and aim
of his life, viz., to free his people from foreign yoke. Altogether, he is too human ever
to have been an allegory or a parable, the moral of which would, indeed, hardly be per-
ceptible, or to have, as some have conjectured, " been intended through his whole career
to be a living mockery of the Philistine Hercules."

SAMSON, GEORGE WHITEFIELD, D.D., b. Mass., 1819; graduated at Brown univer
sity in 1839, and Newton theological institution in 1843; was pastor of a Baptist church
in Washington, 1843-49. In 1847 he traveled in southern Europe, Palestine, and Syria,
in 1859 he was elected president of Columbian college, Washington; in 1871 became
president of Rutgers college for girls, New York; resigned in 1879, and is now pastor of
a Baptist church in Harlem. In 1848 he published letters on Egypt, Palestine, and
Italy, and articles on Mount Sinai, Goshen, etc. ; in 1852, To Daimonion, which in 1860
was enlarged and republished under the title, Sjnritualism Tested; Outlines of the History
cf Ethics;^ Elements of Art- Criticism; Physical Media in Spiritual Manifestations.

SAMSON, JOSEPH ISIDORE, 1793-1871; b. France; became an amateur actor, and in
1812 began to study in the conservatory. He soon gained success, and in 1832 was
elected to the Theatre Francais. He was many years professor of elocution at the con
servatory. Samson wrote a number of dramas and farces, and a poem, L 'Art Thedtral.

SAMUEL (Heb. Shemnel, heard by or asked from God), the last shofet or judge of
Israel, the " first of prophets," the founder of the schools of prophets and of the mon-
archy in Israel. He was the son of Elkanah and Hannah, a woman of no ordinary gifts,
and almost a Nazarite herself, who dedicated the long yearned-for diild to the lord even
before his birth. Elkanah was of Levitic descent, living, however, not among his own
tribe, but in Ephraim. Samuel, brought up in the sanctuary at Shiloh, under the eyes
of Eli, there received his first prophetic call, and from that time forth, his prophetic
mission was decided. For about twenty years from the death of Eli and his sons, we
hear nothing of Samuel. The first public manifestation of his assumption of the office
of judge is'his convoking an assembly at Mizpeh, and routing, at the head of the peo-
ple, the Philistines his first and probably his only military achievement. His occupa-
tions generally were of a more peaceful character. Dwelling in his own native city of
Ramah, where he had erected an altar, he annually went " on circuit" to the three prin-
cipal sanctuaries w. of the Jordan, Bethel, Gilgal, and Mizpeh, there to instruct and
judge the people, and break them from their idolatrous habits, to which they were wont
to yield, in imitation of the peoples around them. For the better carrying out of this
purpose, he organized special schools of teachers and prophets. These seem to have
formed special colonies (Naboth, Bethel, Gilgal, Jericho), and to have moved about

Samuel. QO

San. y ^

in largo numbers. These fraternities were destined to tatae an important place in the
commonwealth, und to exercise the greatest possible influence upon the internal as well
as the external affairs of the state, while at the same time they were the teachers of the
people, expounding and developing the Mosaic law, and keeping the sacred traditions
alive within the houses and hearts of Israel.

The peace Samuel had restored for during his lifetime those harassing raids from
the neighboring tribes had entirely ceased and the happy use he made of it by con-
solidating the religious institutions and the internal power and union of the people,
must have impressed the latter with the advantage of being ruled by a linn and capable
head and hand. It would have been easy enough for Samuel to have got himself elected
king of Israel, but the establishment of a dynasty appeared tc him utterly contrary to
the theocratic character of the law. When, however, his two sons, Joel and Abiah,
whom he had installed provisional or supplementary judges, "turned aside after lucre,
aud perverted judgment," and the complaints of the people were loud about them,
Samuel was pressed by its representatives, who foresaw a time of terrible anarchy and
lawlessness at his approaching demise, and he was obliged to yield to the general wish
of installing a king to judge them "like all tile nations." See JEWS and SAUL. The
further events of Samuel's life, as connected with Saul, and subsequently with David,
are well known, and will be found indicated briefly under those two heads. As to his
character, notwithstanding the reproaches that have been heaped upon him, we cannot
but see in him one of the wisest, most sagacious, unselfish, patriotic heroes, lie was,
doubtless, severe and energetic in the extreme, following the path that seemed to him
indicated by Jehovah as the only one leading to the common welfare. Gifted with both
the spiritual and worldly supreme power over the people, at a time when they had
neither political unity, nor laws, nor a cultus, he succeeded 'in rousing the public spirit,
in uniting all the tribes under one banner, aud in shaking off the Philistine yoke. He
routed idolatry, and raised, by the institution of prophetic schools, the Mosaic religion,
to the highest eminence, while they at the same time formed a healthy counterpoise to
priestcraft. That oa finding Saul negligent to certain dicta of the law, for the protec-
tion of which alone he had been elected, he casts aside all personal love and fear, and
for the sake of saving the country, and keeping its constitutions intact, chooses another
more worthy head for the commonwealth, is not more than could be expected from this
most zealous champion for Jehovah's commands. The people themselves gave him the
most honorable testimony for his uprightness and justice, and later ages place him side
by side with Moses.

Samuel seems, after having anointed David, to have retired from public action, and
to have lived in comparative seclusion at Raman therj is, at least, no further mention
of him until his death. The time of his life and the period of his judgeship are not
given. It may be presumed that he died not long before Saul. If the latter ruled for
twenty years, it may well be that they gwveru&d together, as Josephus has \\,(Ant. vi.
14, 9), for eighteen years; his age, however, is not easily calculated, and the opinior.d
about it vary between sixty and ninety years. He was buried at Ramah, and his tomb
is still shown at NebiSamwil, although, according to Jerome, liis remains were removed,
under the emperor Arcadius, to Thrace. All Israel mourned him as they had mourned
none since Moses. For his apparition at En-Dor, etc., see NECROMANCY.

SAMUEL (SIIEMUEL), BOOKS OF, originally formed one work, but were by the LXX.
and Vulg. (followed by the recent Hebrew editions since Bombcrg) and the authorized
version, divided into two books, the first closing with the death of Saul. The name
they bear is derived from Samuel, as the principal figure in them. He not only stood at
the head of the commonwealth at the period they treat of in a spiritual and worldly
capacity, but also anointed Saul and David, and exercised an important influeiau upon
their rule. Their contents beginning with the high-priesthood of Eli, the narrative con-
cludes with the death of David, and thus three principal periods are noticeable 1. The
restoiation of the theocracy, of which Samuel assumes the leadership (I. i. xii.); 2. The
history of Saul's kingship till his death (I. xiii. xxxi.); aud 8. David's reign (II.).

The plan of the whole work is not, as has been stated, to represent one king as he
ought not to be vi., Saul, contrasted by a king after the heart of God, David; but
simply to draw the development of the theocracy from the end of the period of judges
to the end of David's reign, its humiliation and its glory under Samuel and David,
whose history is, to a certain extent, told with biographical minuteness, on account of
their being the divinely-chosen vessels for this great work of the restoration. As to the
composition nnd unity of the books, it has been the prevailing opinion of scholars to see
in them not a loose compilation from a number of stray sources, but a consecutive nar-
rative drawn upon ancient and authentic documents. The character of the narrative
itself, occasionally dwelling at large upon biographical episodes, occasionally assuming
the brevity of a mere chronicle, and at times repeating itself at length, is quite in
accordance with ancient Semitic historiography. It has bjen supposed by some that the
books of Samuel were composed by the same hand that wrote the books of Kings, but
they belong to a much earlier period. The author appears to have lived after the separa-
tion of the kingdoms, but long before the Exile, the language being remarkably pure,
and quite free from late forms and Chaldaisms. In all probability, the author was a

Q o Samuel.

Vd San.

prophet of the time of Solomon. The Talmudical notion of Samuel's authorship has
boon rejected by the critics, as inconsistent with the contents and circumstances of the
book. There are glosses in the book due to later hands. Of sources, we only find the
" Book of Jashar" mentioned in the work. The author, if lie did not use real annals of
the empire, which were only first commenced under Solomon, had, at all events, a cer-
tain number of prophetical narratives of Samuel's, Saul's, and David's lives and doings
before him. As regards the occasional verbal agreement between Samuel and Chronicles,
which has often been commented upon, we may either assume that the latter drew upon
the former, or that they both which is more probable from internal evidence drew
upon the same source, and modified their accounts according to their special tendencies.
Altogether, the work before us bears the character of a truly authentic record. </f
modern commentators, we mention principally IJensler, Konigsfeldt, Thcnius, and

SALIYDA'CE.?E, a natural order of exogenous plants, which are all trees or shrubs and
all tropical, mostly American. The order contains about 80 known species, generally
characterized by astriugency in the bark and leaves. Some are used in medicine, to
make poultices for wounds, lotions for ulcers, etc. The foliage of caaeana csculeuta is

SANAA', the principal district in Yemen or Arabia Felix, corresponding to the ancient
S;iba, or ttheba, the land of the Sabeans (q.v.). Its extent is very undefined, but it may
be taken to include the country round the capital bearing the same name, to a distance of
half a day's journey on the w., n., and e., and on the s. it is bounded by the Teham-.i
and the districts of Lahej and Ytiffa.

While the dynasty of the Imams existed, their sway extended over a much greater
space, sometimes, indeed, over the whole of Yemen. Gradually it was encroached upon
by the Sheikhs, who had been subject or tributary to them, and by the Turks. A bad
system of government prepared the way for intestine strife; on tire death of each sove-
reign, the succession was disputed, until at length the very shadow of regular govern-
ment has passed away. In July, 1872, Sanaa was again occupied by the Turks, who
afterward overran the "greater part of Yemen.

The city of Sanaa, once capital of the Imams of Yemen, is situated in a deep ."nl

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 21 of 203)