Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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beautiful valley, about 20 or 80 m. in length, and 6 or 7 in breadth, and 4.000 ft. above
the level of the sea. The population of the city has been estimated at 40,000, and of the
valley at about 70,000. This valley is bounded on the e. by a high range of mountain
called Jebel Nikkum, and is studded throughout its length with large villages.

The city and its suburbs are both surrounded by high wall?, and, including Ihc gar-
dens, the circumference is about five and half miles. The houses are of brick, \vell and
strongly built, and most of them furnished with fountains, while the palaces of the Imams
almost approached magnificence. The Jews, of whom even now there are about 20,000,
have a quarter to themselves, distant about half an hour's walk from the Mohammedan
town; it contains many buildings, once the abode of affluence and case, but now bearing
unmistakable signs of the devastation committed by the savage and fanatical Mohammedans
of the ell}'. The city walls are of unburned brick, and mounted with camion, but they
are in a very bail condition. There are four gates, and at both c. and w. end a castle
containing a palace built in the Saracenic s'ylc with extensive gardens round them, and
constructed with a view to defense, but now utterly neglected. See YEMEN.

SAN ANTO'NIO, called also San Antonio de Bexar. a city of Texas, is built n^nr the
sources of the San Antonio river, 110 in. s.w. of Austin. It is one of the oldest Spanish
towns oti the continent, and in the Texan revolution of 1836 was the scene of the mas-
sacre of the Alamo, when a garrison of 150 men, led by col. Travis, and including
David Crockett, was surrounded by several thousand Mexicans, and after a heroic resist-
ance killed to the last man. It contains an arsenal, ten churches, and in 1870, 12,256

SAN ANTONIO (ante), co. seat of Bexar eo., Tex., on the San Pedro and San Antonio
rivers, and the Galvestou, Harrisburg and San Antonio railroad; pop '80, 20,561. It
is the most important place in w. Texas, and contains a heterogeneous population, of whom
one-third are of German, and one-third of Mexican birth. It comprises 3 quarters; the
city proper between the rivers; Alamo, e. of the San Antonio; and Chihuahua, w. of the
San Pedro. The first, which is the business part, has been mostly rebuilt since 1WO.
The chief business streets are Commerce and Market, running parallel from the main
square. There are many fine business structures on the former. The buildings on
many of the other streets are low Mexican houses, without windows. Alamo is higher
than the other quarters, and mainly occupied by Germans. Chihuahua is the Mexican
quarter; its houses are one story high, built of stone and wood. The land about the
sources of the San Pedro is a public park. The city has schools, 6 newspapers, a lioman
Catholic convent, college, and cathedral, a couu-house and banks. It is the center for
the trade of the surrounding country, which produces cattle, hides, corn, and wool. It
has a valuable water-power, and important and growing- manufactures, including large
flor.r-mills, breweries, and ice-factories. The mild climate of San Antonio makes it a
favorite resort for invalids. It was founded by Spaniards in 1714.

San. O_f


SAN AUGUSTINE', a co. in e. Texas, drained by Angelina river and Attoyac
bayou and their branches; 680 sq.m. ; pop. '80, 5,085 5, 056 "of American birth, 1,925
colored. The surface is level and the soil good. Cotton, corn, sweet-potatoes, and
pork are the staples. Co. seat, San Augustine.

SAN BENEDETTO PO, a t. in n. Italy, on the s. bank of the Po, in the province of
Mantua, 12 in. s.e. of the city of that name; pop. 10,319. It is built along the left bank
of the Lirone, and has a fine church of the Benedictine order, and a monastery founded
in 1004, celebrated as the abbey of San Benedetto di Po, but now appropriated to other
than spiritual uses.

SAN BENI'TO, aco. in w. California, lying on the e. slope of the Coast Range moun-
tains; drained by the San Benito river; traversed by the Southern Pacific railroad; pop.
'80, 5,584 4,252 of American birth. This county was formed in 1874 from the e. part
of Monterey. The principal industry is stock-raising. The co. seat, Hollister.

SAN BERNARDI'NO, a co. in s.e. California, adjoining Nevada on the n.e., and
Arizona on the e. : drained by the Amargoza, Santa Annn, and Colorado rivers; about
16,COO sq.m. ; pop '80, 7,7866,699 of American birth. The greater part of the surface
is arid and mountainous. Many hot springs are found. In the s.w. are fertile valleys
of tine climate and fertile soil where there are extensive vineyards; wheat, barley, corn,
oats, and wine are the staples. In the mountains gold is found, and in the s.w. gold,
silver, copper, tin, marble, and alabaster. Co. seat, San Bernardino.

SAN BERNARf)I'NO, the co. seat of San Bernardino co.. Cal. ; on the Southern
Pacific railroad; pop. '70, 3,064. It has churches, banks, schools, hotels, newspapers,
etc. It has an equable climate, and is a favorite resort for consumptive persons.

SAN CATAL'DO, a t. in w. Sicily, in the Val di Mazzara, 5 m. s.w. of Caltanisetta,
having valuable sulphur mines; pop. 12,727.

SANCASCIANO, a city of central Italy, province of Florence, and 10 m. s.w. of the
city of that name. Pop. 6,860. It is well built. The lands belonging to it produce a
very strong wine, highly prized in Italy, also grain, oil, fruit, and mulberries.

Phenician history of Phenicia and Egypt, called Phoinikika. He is supposed to have
been a native of Beryl us; and the accounts which speak of him as born at Sidon or
Tyre probably take these cities in their wider sense for Phenicia itself. Our principal
information about him is derived from Philo of Byblus, a Greek writer of the beginning
of the 2d c. A.D., who translated Sanchuniathon's history into his own tongue; but both
the original and the translation are lost save a few small portions of the latter, preserved
by Eusebius, who uses them as arguments in a theologicai dispute against Porphyry.
According to Philo, Sanchuniathou lived during the reign of Semiramis, queen of
Assyria, and dedicated* his book to Abibalus, king of Berytus. Athenseus, Porphyry,
and Suidas, on tire other hand, speak of him as of an ancient Pheniciau, who lived
'before the Trojan war." There is also a discrepancy between the various ancient
writers respecting the number of books contained in the Phoinikika. Orelli (1826),
and after him C. Miiller (1849), published the remaining fragments of Sanchunia-
thon. and the hot discussion raised on their genuineness and value is far from being
settled yet. Several critics went so far as to deny the fact of the existence of a
Banchuniathon point blank. According to some (Lobeck, etc.), it was Eusebius; accord
ing to others (Movers, etc.), Philo, who fathered his own speculations upon an ancient
authority. The latter was actuated, Movers thinks, partly by the desire of proving that
the whole Hellenistic worship and religion was simply a faint imitation of the Phenician;
partly by the desire of lowering the value of the Old Testament, by showing the higher
authority of the Phenician writer; and partly, as was the fashion among the unbeliev-
ing philosophers of his age, to bring the popular creed into a bad reputation, by pro-
claiming his own views under the guise of an ancient sage. Yet even those who deny
the authenticity of Sanchuniathon agree in allowing the fragments current under his
name a certain intrinsic value, they being founded on real ancient myths. This, in fact,
is now, with more or less modification on the part of the different investigators, Ewald,
Bunsen, Renan, etc., the prevalent opinion. Ewald contends for the real existence of a
Fanchuniathon, in which he is supported by Renan. Even if there never was a
Sanchuniathon, it was not Philo who forged him. There seems no doubt that we have
but a very dim and confused reproduction of what, after many modifications, misunder-
standings, and corruptions, finally passed the hands of Philo and Eusebius, and was by
the church father, as we said, quoted in a theological disputation. Yet, even assuming
the person of a Sanchuniathon, his age and he insists on a very remote one indeed
must be placed much lower, into the last centuries before Christ, at the earliest. He
would then, it seems, have endeavored to stem the tide of Greek superiority in all things,
by collecting, grouping, and remodeling the ancient and important traditions of his own
country, and thus proving to both his countrymen and to the Greeks their high impor-
tance, in comparison with the Greek productions, on the field of religion and philosophy.

The Phoinikika was not only a cosmogony, it would appear, but a history of his and



the surronndiiirr nations; and Tike similar ancient histories, it probably began with the
creation of the world, and contained an account of the Jews. All tl.e historical parts,
however, are lost, an-1 nothing remains but a fragmentary cosmogony, or rather two or
three different systems of cosmogony, or, according to Movers, merely an Egyptian and
Phenican patchwork, for a brief account of which we refer the Deader to the article
PHENICIA. One of the chief difficulties for us consists in the'Phenician words of
Sanchuniathon, which Pliilo either translated too freely, or merely transcribed so
faultily in Greek characters as to render them an everlasting puz/.le.

Eusebius further contains a fragment of a treatise by Sanchuniathon, Peri Judtdun,
but it is doubtful whether this is the work of Philo of Babylus or of Sanchuniathon; ami*
If it be that of the latter, whether it is a separate work, or merely a separate chapter out
of his larger work. A forgery, said to contain the whole nine books of Sanchuniathon,
and to have been found by a Portuguese, col. Pereira, at the convent of St. Maria de
Merinhao. and to have been by him intrusted to a German corporal in Portuguese ser-
vice. named Christoph Meyer," was published by Wagenfield (Bremen, 1887), and trans-
lated into German (Lubeck, 1837), but was very soon consigned to disgrace and oblivion
by Movers. K. O. Midler, and Grotefend, the last of whom had at first not only believed
in its genuineness, but even written a preface to the editio princeps. There never was
such a convent or such a col.; but the fac-simile taken by "Pereira" in the convent
in Portugal was found to have been written ou paper showing the water-murks of an
Osnabriick paper-mill.

SATs" CRISTOBAL, a city in Mexico, capital of the state of Chiapa, 285 m. s.e. of
Vera Cruz; pop. 12,000. It is in a fertile and well- cultivated valley. The streets arc
good, and the houses of one story. Its chief business is weaving, pottery, and beef-
packing. The town was founded in 1528 by the name of Villa Real, afterward called
San Cristobal de los Llanos, and Ciudad Real. Its present name was given in 1829.

BANCROFT, Dr. WILLIAM, an English archbishop, historically notable as the most dis-
tinguished dignitary among the nonjurors (q.v.), was b. at Fresiugfield in Suffolk, Jan.
30, 1616, educated at the grammar school of Bury St. Edmunds, and at Emanuel college,
Cambridge. Bancroft was reckoned a first-rate scholar by his contemporaries, and in
1642 Sancroft was" elected fellow of his college, but in the following year he was deprived
of his fellowship by the Puritans for refusing the famous "engagement," after which
he went abroad. On the restoration of Charles II., in 1630, he was appointed chaplain
to Cosin, bishop of Durham; and, after several preferments, was in 1668 made arch-
deacon of Canterbury, and in 1677 was raised, against hi-j inclination, to the first dignity
in the church the archbishopric of Canterbury. The manner in which Sancroft dis-
charged his ecclesiastical duties deserves .the highest commendation. He attended king
Charles II. ou hU death-ba 1, and is snid to have spoken very freely to the once "merry
monarch" on the nature of his past life. In 1688, alou ; with several of his brother-
bishops, he was committed to the tower by king Jainej II., for sending him a petition
in which they explained why they could not c^nscie itiousJy order his declaration in
favor of liberty of conscience to be read in the churches; but in the events which imme-
diately preceded and accompanied the great revolution, he played a somewhat, ambigu-
ous and perplexing part. At first he refused when James asked him to sign a declara-
tion expressing abhorrence of the prince of Orange's invasion. Later (Dec., 1683), he
even went the length of concurring in an address to William, yet he seems from this point
to have drawn back, and to have fallen under the dominion of his theory of the divius
right of kings. He was :i >l present at the convention of the lords spiritual and temporal
to meet the new monarch, and after the settlement, he refused along with seven other
bishops, to take the oath of allegiance to the government, in consequence of. which he
was suspended by act of parliament, Aug. 1, 1689, but his actual departure from Lam-
beth did not take place till June 23, 1691. He then retired to his native village, where
he died, Nov. 24, 1693. See Macaulay's History of England, vols. ii. iii. and iv.

SANGUIFICATION, in distinction from justification, in the nomenclature of Protestant
theology, is the process -by which the Holy Spirit renews man in the divine ima-ro,
destroying within him the power of evil, and quickening, educating, and strengthening
in him the life of goodness and holiness. Whereas justification is considered as ;i
judicial act on the part of God's free grace, liberating the sinner from condemnation,
absolving and pardoning him once for all, sanctification is reckoned a work or process,
advancing in various stages of weakness or strength, and only completed in the future
life of the believer, when removed beyond the influences of sin that now surround him.
In Roman Catholic theology, this distinction between the initiative of the^ divine life in
man (justification) and its progressive development (sanctification.) is not maintained, at
least in the same precise and logical manner that it has been advocated by Protestants.
By the latter the distinction has been held of first rate importance in their theological
systems, and no less so in their practical conception of the Christian life.

SANCTUARY, n consecrated place which gives protection to a criminal taking refuga
there; or the privilege of taking refuge in such a consecrated place. Among the Jews
there -were cities of refuge to which the slayer might flee who killed a man una-

Sand. Q


wares, and something analogous to a right of sanctuary may also be traced in pagan
communities. In the ancient Greek states the temples, or at least some of them, afforded
protection to criminals, whom it was unlawful to drag from them, although the food
which was being supplied might be intercepted. As early as the 7th c. the protection
of sanctuary was afforded to persons fleeing to a church or certain boundaries surround-
ing it. The canon and more ancient ecclesiastical law recognizes this protection to
criminals as continuing for a limited period, sufficient to admit of a composition for the
offense; or, at all events, to give time for the first heat of resentment to pass, before the
j mired party could seek redress. In several English churches there was a stone seat be-
side the altar where those fleeing to the peace of the church were held to be guarded by
fill its sanctity. One of these still remains at Beverley, and another at Hexham. To
-violate the protection of this seat, or of the shrine of relics, was an offense too grave to
be compensated by a pecuniary penalty. Connected, in England, with the privilege of
sanctuary was the practice of abjuration of the realm. By the ancient common law, if a
person guilty of felony took the benefit of sanctuary, he might, within forty days after-
wards, go clothed in sackcloth before the coroner, confess his guilt, and take ;ai oath to
quit the realm, and not return without the king's license. On confessing and taking the
oath, he became attainted of the felony, but- had forty days allowed him to prepare for
his departure, and a port assigned him for embarkation, to which he must immediately
repair with a cross in his hand, and embark with all convenient speed. If he failed to
depart, or'afterward returned without license, he was condemned to be hanged, unless
he happened to be a clerk, in which case he was allowed the benefit of clergy.

By the ancient canons of the Scottish councils, excommunication was incurred by
the offense of open taking of thieves out of the protection of the church. Some
churches, however, by their superior sanctity, were held practically to afford a much
surer asylum than others, and it was not uncommon for the Scottish kings, with the view
of strengthening the hands of the church, to give a formal sanction to particular eccle-
siastical asylums. One of the most celebrated sanctuaries in Scotland was the church of
Wedale, now called Stow, where was an image of the Virgin believed to be brought by
king Arthur from Jerusalem. David I. granted the "king's peace," in addition to the
protection of the church, to all fugitives "from peril of life or limb who betook tl em-
selves to the church of Lesmahagow. The Scotch law of sanctuary or grylh was, how-
ever, guarded from affording too easy an immunity.

A very remarkable right of sanctuary existed in Scotland under the name of the
privilege of Clan Macduff, which was alleged to have been granted by Malcolm Canmore
on recovering the throne of his ancestors. Any person related within the ninth degree
to the chief of Clan Macduff, who should have committed homicide without premedita-
tion, was entitled, on fleeing to Macduff 's cross in Fife, to have his punishment remitted
for a fine, or at least to be repledged from any other jurisdiction by the earl of Fife.
There is evidence of this privilege having saved Hugh de Arbuthnot and his accom-
plices from being proceeded acminst for the murder of John de Melvil of Glenbervie in

While the institution of sanctuary often enabled criminals to bid defiance to the civil
power, it no doubt was not unfrequently a protection to the innocent, who thus escaped
oppression or private enmity pursuing them under the name of law. In rude and unset-
tled limes it seems, on the whole, to have operated beneficially by throwing the control
of society into the hands of the clergy, who were less tempted than any other class to
misuse that power. But as the civil power and authority of the law were strengthened
the right of sanctuary became useless and mischievous; the civil power endeavored to
narrow the privilege as far as possible, while the church sought hard to preserve it. The
English reformation, though it greatly restricted, did not abolish the right of sanctuary.
It was not till 15o4 that persons accused of treason were debarred the privilege, and the
right of sanctuary for crime war- finally abolished by 21 Jac. I. c. 28. Various precincts,
however, in and about London, known as sanctuaries, continued to afford shelter to
debtors, all which were done away with in 1697, by act 8 and 9 Will. IV. c. 26.

In Scotland there still exists a sanctuary for debtors in the abbey and palace of Holy-
rood, with its precincts, including the hill of Arthur seat and the Queen's park. The
sanctuary is placed under the control of a bailie appointed by the duke of Hamilton as
heritable keeper of Holyroodhouse. When a debtor retires to the sanctuary, he has a
24 hours' protection against personal diligence; but in order to extend the privilege
j >nger, he must be enrolled in the books of the abbey. The sanctuary affords no pro-
r-ction to a criminal, a fraudulent debtor, or a crown debtor; nor is it available for pro-
tection from personal execution for debts contracted within its precincts, for which the
debtor may be imprisoned in the abbey jail.


SAND, KATU, Lx'nwio, 1795-1820. b. Germany; studied theology at the universities
of Tubingen and Erlangen, and in 1817 joined the" Teutonic society of Jena, a precursor
of the Burschenschaft. He became a political fanatic on the subject of liberty, and con-
sidered it his mission to kill Kotzebue, as he regarded him as a spy of the Russian court.
He entered the residence of Kotzebue in Manheim, March 23, 1819, and murdered him
\vith a dagger, lie then attempted to kill himse'f, but the wound did not prove mortal.

Q/T Sand.

^ I Siind-bags.

Fin was condemned to death May 5, 1820, which sentence was executed the following

SANDALS, a covering for the feet, consisting of soles so attached as to leave the upper
part of the foot bare. Sec SIIOKS.

SANDAL-WOOD (a name corrupted from santal wood), the wood of several species of
the genus xdiit/tlnm, of the natural order wntalaceeB (q.v.), natives of the East Indies
and tropical islands of the Pacific ocean. Sandal-wood is compact and fine grained,
very suitable for making work-boxes and small ornamental articles, and is remarkable
for its fragrance, which, however, is fatal to insects, so that cabinets of sandal-wood arc
extremely suitable for the preservation of specimens in natural history; but it is much
too expensive for general use. The odor is due to an essential oil, heavier than water.
WHITE SANDAL-WOOD, the most common kind, is the produce of a small tree (aantulum
album), a native of mountains iu the south of India and the Indian Archipelago, much
branched, resembling myrtle in its foliage and privet in its flowers. The trunk is sel-
dom more than a foot in diameter. YELLOW SANDAL- WOOD is probably produced by
another species, perhaps *S f . Freycinetianvm of the Indian archipelago and Sandwich
islands, and from these regions the Chinese import it, chiefly for the purpose of burn-
ing it both in their temples and in their houses. They reduce it to saw-dust and mix it
with paste before burning. Dr. Seemann has, however, recently found another and pre-
viously-unknown species of santaUuit (S. Tusi) to yield the much-valued sandal-wood of
the Fiji islands, where the tree has been almost extirpated in consequence of the demand
for its wood iu commerce.

RED SANDAL-WOOD, or SANDERS, is the produce of a very different tree, pterocarpu*
x, of the natural order leyumiiwm, suborder papiiionacccK, a native of the tropical
parts of Asia, particularly of the mountains of the south of India and of Ceylon. The
tree is about sixty feet high, Avith pinnated leaves, having generally three leaflets, and
axillary racemes of flowers. The heart-wood is dark red, with black veins, and so heavy
as to sink in water. It is used as a dye-stuff, and also 1 by apothecaries to color certain
preparation^ The Arabs use it as an astringent, and it is the basis of some of our tooth-
powders. A deep red dye is also yielded by the chips of adenanthera pavonine, a tree
allied to the acacias (q.v.), a native of the East Indies. The wood of this tree is some-
times called RED SANDAL- WOOD.

SANDALWOOIMSLAND, called by the natives Tjindana, Sumba, and Tanah Tjumba,
lies iu the Indian ocean, between 9 18' to 10 20' 8. lat. and 118 . r 8' to 120 43' e. long.,
has an area of 4,9GO sq. m., and a pop. of 1,000,000. The coast is steep and rocky, so
that, except at the w., s. . and e. corners, ships can approach quite near. The produce
consists chiefly in dye-woods, ebony, timber, cotton, rice, pepper, cocoa, maize, coffee,
sugar, wild cinnamon, cocoa-nuts, and various fruits; Little sandal-wood is exported,
though abounding in the forests, the natives refusing to cut the trees, which they believe
to be the dwellings of their ancestors' souls. Exports are: horses, timber, cotton, pep-
per, wax, tortoise-shell, tow made from bark, maize, and edible nests. The cliffs swarm
with the collocalin c&culeuta, and collecting the nests is a leading occupation of the men.
The Sandalwood islanders belong to the Malay race, are w T cll made, wiry, and of a
brownish complexion. The most trifling causes" lead them to commit suieid'e, a vice of
rare occurrence in other parts of the archipelago.

The Sandalwood island is nominally subject to the Netherlands, but the rajahs and
regents are almost independent of foreign influence. The principal havens are at Isan-
gamessi on the n., and Tida about the middle of the s. coast, good anchorage being
found in many other parts. Notwithstanding the repressive measures taken by the

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 22 of 203)