Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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Netherlands government, and the destruction, in 1860, of ten vessels engaged in the
slave-trade, it is still extensively carried on by the Sandalwood islanders.

SANDAEACH, or SANDARACII EESIN, is a friable, dry. almost transparent, tasteless,
yellowish-white resin, which is imported from the north of Africa. It is completely sol-
uble in oil of turpentine, but not completely soluble in alcohol. When heated, or
sprinkled on burning coals, it emits an agreeable balsamic smell. It exudes from the
bark of the sandarach tree (mllitrix qtiadrimlwx), i\ native of the north of Africa, of tho*
natural order coniferce. The quantity of sandarach used is not great: it is employed
mostly for the same purposes as mastic (q.v.). The finely-powdered resin is rubbed, as
pounce, on the erasures of writing-paper, after which they may be written upon r.gaiu
without the ink spreading. The wood of the saudarach tree is highly balsamic and
odoriferous, extremely durable and valuable.

SANDAY or SANDA ISLAND, one of the most northern of the Orkney (q.v.) group,
contained, in 1871, 394 inhabited houses and 2,053 inhabitants.

SANDBACH, a small market-t. of Cheshire, 25 m. e.s.e. of Chester by railway, on an
eminence on the right bank of the Wheelock. Pop. '71, 5,259, mostly employed in silk-
throwing, and in making salt and shoes.

SAND-BAGS, in military works, are canvas bags about 28 or 80 in. in length by from
14 to 16 broad. They are filled with sand or earth, and form a ready means of extem-
porizing a parapet or traverse against the enemy's fire; they are likewise used for pro-
Idling the head of a trench, or tamping the charge iu a mine. See MIKES, MILITARY.

U. K. XIII. 7

Sand. no


If employed as lining for embrasures or barbettes, sand-bags should be covered with raw
hides to prevent them from taking tire.

SAND BLAST, a method of engraving figures on glass or metal, or cutting away or
boring holes in hard substances, by means of a stream of fine sand, driven by a blast of
air or steam.

SAND-BLAST (ante), a method of engraving, cutting, and boring glass, stone, metal,
or other hard substances, by the percussive force of a rapid stream of sharp sand driven
against them by artificial means. The process was invented by gen. Beuj. 0. B. Tilgh-
man, of Philadelphia, who took out a patent for it in Oct., 1870. In the world of
nature the abrading power of sand when driven by air or water against hard substances
has long been recognized, and gen. Tilghman's invention was merely an application of
this principle to the mechanical arts. The means of propulsion mhy be supplied either
by an air or a steam blast, the former being, produced by a boiler at high pressure, and
the latter by a fan revolving with great velocity. In either case the abrading material,
which is usually common hard sand, although small granules of iron or crushed quartz
are occasionally used, is directed by a tube upon the object to be cut or engraved^ the
latter being so adjusted by means of slides that each part in succession can be brought
under the action of the cutting particles. The engraving of the surface of glass with
prnemeutal figures, etc., may by this process be very easily accomplished simply by 'lay-
ing upon it patterns of the desired objects cut out of some resistant medium in the man-
ner of stencils. The sand, of course, does not touch the protected parts, but indents
those which are uncovered, until the result sought for is attained. Another method
very commonly used is to cut the proposed pattern in sheet copper or brass, which is
then placed over the glass, a brush of melted beeswax being drawn over the whole.
The stencil is then raised, and the pattern left in exposed glass may theu be operated
upon by the blast. The ornamentation of glass in colors may also be performed by
the sand-blast, for as the ordinary colors! glass of commerce is mere window glass,
with a thin layer of color on one side only, the use of the stenciled pattern as before
will entirely remove the color from the exposed parts and leave it where protected. By
the use of a photographed coating of gelatine upon glass (the well-known gelatine proc-
ess in photography) very beautiful reproductions of line engravings may be made upon
the glass at a small cost. The sand-blast lias also been used successfully in the cutting
of ornaments and inscriptions upon stone. Iron stencils are sometimes used for th*t
purpose, but the most satisfactory material is found to be sheet rubber of about l-16tu
of an inch in thickness. This is cemented upon the stone and a movable j?t pipe in
caused to traverse the surface of the latter until the exposed portions have been suffi-
ciently abraded. The wear upon the rubber itself is wonderfully slight and the same
stencil may be used over and over again. Another use to which the sand-blast h;.s been
successfully put is in turning blocks of stone into circular and other forms in the lathe.
Balcony pilasters, etc., have in this way been finished in a few hours which would have
needed as many days to be cut out by hand. Upon wood the action of the sand-blast is
not so satisfactory, being slow and teaious, ard the only way in which it can be utilized
on this material is in cutting out the large block type used in printing posters. The
foregoing are only a few of the ways in which the sand-blast has manifested its useful-
ness, but as the invention is still in its infancy it is impossible to say what applications
may not be found for it in the future. From its first appearance the sand-blast has
attracted much attention both at home and abroad, many foreign patents have been
taken out, and the use of the process is gradually spreading.

SAND-CHACK is a splitting or fracture of the horny fibers of the horse's hoof, extend-
ing usually from above downward; when reaching to the quick it causes lameness, and
in all cases it constitutes unsoundness. Horses with thin, weak, brittle feet, spoilt by
much rasping, and rattled on the hard roads, furnish the majority of cases. The horn
must be thinned for an eighth 6f an inch on either side of the crack ; across the upper aad
lower ends of the crack, to prevent its extension, the firing-iron should be drawn, mak-
ing a line nearly through the horny crust. The opening may further be held together
l)y winding round the foot several yards of waxed string, or fine iron wire. Except
in very bad cases, slow work on soft land may be permitted, but road work is inju-
rious. The growth of healthy horn is promoted by applying round the coronet, at
intervals of 10 days, some mild blistering liniment.


SANDEMAN, ROBERT, 171&-71; b. Scotland; studied 2 yearr, at Edinburgh, and
soon engaged in the linen trade; adopted the views of Mr. Glas (eee GLASSITES, ante)
against church establishments; became an elder in his church; published in -1757 a
reply to Ilervey's Dialogues; removed to London in 1760; attracted much attention by
his preaching, and formed a congregation whose members took the name of Sande-
manians (q.v.). In 1764 he removed to America, established a society in Boston, and
in 1765 settled in Danbury, Conn. He published Correspondence with Mr. Pike; Thought*
on Christianity; Sign of the Prophet Jonah.


QQ Sand.


SANDERLING, Calidris, a genus of birds of the plover family (charadrtadce), or
which perhaps ought rather to be referred to the suipe family (smlopacidce). The
common satiderling (G. arena-rid) is a very widely diffused bird, breeding in the Arctic
regions, and migrating southward on the approach of winter as far as the coasts of
Africa, of India, and of Brazil. It is pretty common on the British coasts, in small
flocks, in winter. It is only about 8 in. long; its winter plumage very light ash-gray,
under parts white. In spring the plumage acquires a reddish tinge with black mark-
ings. The sanderling feeds on marine worms, small crustaceans, etc. It is esteemed
for the table, and appears in the London market.

SANDERS, CHARLES W. ; b. N. Y., 1805; author of several music books and o5
Sanders* Headers, in 2 series, 1838 and 1860. Of these more than 13,000,000 copies
were sold before 1860, and the sale in one year amounted to 2,000,000 copies. He
has received from one New York firm $30,000 per annum for his educational works,
books, readers, spellers, cards, and charts. Assisted by his brother Joshua C., he pub-
lished an Analytical Definer and Higher Speller.

SANDERS, GEORGE NICHOLAS, 1812-73; b. Ky. ; a grandson of col. Nicholas, who
moved the famous Kentucky resolutions of 1798. He early became prominent as a
democratic speaker and politician, was U. S. consul to Liverpool during Pierce's admin-
istration, and naval agent at New York during Buchanan's. He advocated the election
of Douglas in 1860, and during the rebellion was joint commissioner with Mason and
Slidell to European powers. In association with Clement C. Clay and J. P. Holcomb
he met Horace Greeley at the " peace conference" at Niagara Falls, July, 1864.

SANDERSON, JOHN, 1786-1844; b. Penn. ; studied law at Philadelphia, and in 1835
became professor of classical languages at the Philadelphia high school. He contributed
papers and sketches of travel to the Portfolio, Knickerbocker, and other magazines. He
wrote Sketches of Paris, 1838; and with his brother, J. M., was .author of Lives of the
Signers of the Declaration of Independence.

SANDERSON, ROBERT, D.D., 1587-1663; b. England; educated at Lincoln college,
Oxford; ordained in 1611; was sub- rector in Lincoln college 1613-16; proctor of Oxford
in 1616; bachelor of divinity in 1617; rector of Wilberton in 1618, and of Boothby
Panuel from 1616 for over 40 years; prebend of Lincoln in 1629. Upon the recom-
mendation of Laud he became in 1631 chaplain to Charles I., who in 1642 appointed him
regius professor of divinity at Oxford. At the restoration he was consecrated bishop of
Lincoln; was moderator at the Savoy conference between the Episcopal and Presby-
terian divines. He published Logicm Artis Compendium; Judicium Universitatis Oxoni-
ensis; De Obligatione Conscientiai Pronkctiones; A Collection, of Sermons.


SAND-HILL CRANE, or BROWN CRANE, Grits Canadensis, a very large species of
crane found in the Mississippi valley and western portion of the United States. It is a
shy bird, with acute sight and hearing. Its body is about 4 ft. long; wings nearly 2 ft.,
with an immense spread. Length of tarsi about 10 in., and the bill longer than the
middle toe. When wounded it is said to be dangerous to approach, as a thrust of its
bill may inflict a severe wound.

SAND-HOPPER, Talitrus locusta, a small crustacean, of the section edriophthalma,
(q.v.)and order amphipoda, which so abounds on the sandy sea-shores of Britain that
the whole surface of the sand often seems to be alive with the multitudes which, leaping
up for a few inches into the air, fill it like a swarm of dancing flies. This activity is not,
however, displayed at all times; but if a mass of sea-weed left by the retiring tide be
turned over, countless sand-hoppers may be seen to leap away, or they may be found by
digging in the sand, in which they burrow. The sand-hopper leaps by bending the body
together, and throwing it open with a sudden jerk. It feeds on almost any vegetable or
animal substance, particularly on what is already dead and beginning to decay. It is
itself the food of crabs, and of many kinds of birds.

SAND HURST, a t. of Victoria, 82 m. n.n.w. of Melbourne, on the railway between
Melbourne and Ebuca. It is the center of an important mining district of the Bendigo
gold-fields. Pop. '71, along with its suburbs, 27,642. In the district of Sandhurst there
are many Chinese.

SANDHURST, ROYAL MILITARY COLLEGE. In 1802 it was determined to institute a
college for the training of military officers, in which professional education should be
grafted on the groundwork of general instruction. The college was opened at Great
Marlow; but, in 1812, it was transferred tQ, a handsome stone building at Sandhurst.
Up to 1862 this was devoted to the education of boys from the age of 13 upward; a
description of the college as then existing is given under CADETS' COLLEGE. In that
year, However, the system was changed; the course limited to one year immediately
before entering the^army, and the subjects of instruction confined to the higher mathe-
matics, modern languages, and military science. Entrance was on the nomination of
the commander-iu-chief ; and the payment by the cadet's parent or guardian varies from
100 to nil, according to the circumstances and rank of the parent. Those for whom no
payment is made must be orphans, and are styled "Queen's cadets." Under the pur

Pan Diego. -|| AA


chase system, all first commissions in the cavalry and infantry of the line, which were
granted without purchase, and not to men from the ranks, were given to cadets from
the royal military college, who competed for these prizes, and obtained them in order of

The abolition of purchase in 1871 brought about a radical change. The students are
no longer boys intending to become officers, but sub-lieutenants, who, having passed by
competition for the army, spend a year at Sandhurst in acquiring the theoretical part of
the war science. To be confirmed in the army as lieut., the officer must pass credit-
ably out of Sandhurst, and then serve a year on probation with a regiment. It cannot
be doubted that this change of system must tend, as years go on, to secure for the army
a great body of scientific officers.

The Staff college (q.v.) is a separate institution, about 2 m. distant.

The estimated charge for the royal military college for 1878-79 was 36,281, of which
about 5,000 is covered by the payments for the students.

SAN DIEGO, a co. of s. California; bounded e. by the Colorado river, s. by Lower
California, w. by the Pacific ocean; traversed from n. to s. by two branches of the Coast
range, which divide it into three sections, differing greatly in climate, soil, and other
particulars; 13,500 sq.m. ; pop.'70, 4,951. The section near the coast consists of level
plains or undulating valleys, watered by the San Bernardo^ San Diego, San Luis Key,
Margarita, and other rivers, and most of it is adapted to agriculture and grazing. The
eastern part is a naked, sterile, sandy plain, called the great Colorado desert, and exceed-
ingly hot, the mercury rising to 122 Fahr. in the shade. Between the mountains and
the sea the soil is fertile, producing wheat, barley, oranges, olives, dates, and other
tropical fruits. The mountains are covered with forests of oak, pine, fir, and cedar.
The highest point is mount San Jaciuto, 5,500 feet. Gold and silver are found. Capi-
tal, San Diego.

SAN DIEGO, a city in California, the capital of San Diego co., is on a bay of the
Pacific ocean, 450 m. s.e. of San Francisco; pop. 4,000. It has a fine harbor, 6 m. long,
formed by San Diego bay, with a depth of 22 ft. of water on the bar at low tide. It
contains a court-house, 2 banks, 5 hotels, 5 churches, 2 seminaries for girls, an academy,
2 daily and 2 weekly newspapers, and a steam flouring mill. The chief exports are
hides, wool, and whale-oil. Oranges, figs, and olives abound. The mild and equable
climate makes it a popular resort for invalids. In all the elements of healthfulness it i-,
said to be unsurpassed. The town of Old San Diego, the first place settled by -vhite
men in California, stands 4 m. n.. within the city limits. The new town has giown
mostly since 1867. This place has been fixed by act of congress as the terminus of the
Texas and Pacific railroad, and seems destined to a high rank among cities on the west-
ern coast.

SANDIVEE, a product of the glass furnaces. When the materials used in the manu-
facture of glass are melted, a scum arises which has to be removed; this is called san-
diver, and is, when powdered, used as a polishing material, and formerly had a consid-
erable reputation as a tooth-powder.


SAN DOMINGO (DOMINGO, SAN, ante). The annexation of San Domingo to the
United States has been a favorite project among certain political leaders and with dem-
ocratic administrations since 1845, when negotiations to this end were begun, and an
American commissioner sent to explore the island. Under president Pierce, capt. (since
maj.gen.) Geo. B. McClellan was ordered to make a thorough survey of Samana bay,
with a view to acquiring it as a naval station. His report was in favor of such an
acquisition, and new negotiations were opened, but without practical result. In 1867
Mr. Seward, secretary of state, with other officials, visited the Dominican capital, and
the matter was again reopened and again postponed. During the beginning of gen.
Grant's presidency, the Baez government of San Domingo made overtures in the direc-
tion of annexation, and at longth the president sent gen. O. E. Babcock to confer with
that government on the subject, when a treaty was actually drawn, by which, on pay-
ment of $1,500,000, the Dominican republic was to become a territory of the United
States. This treaty was ratified by a vote of the people of San Domingo, 15,000 to 400.
The treaty was referred to the U. S. senate, where it met with bitter opposition, com-
plicated by various personal and political questions, and where it was defeated. The
president then recommended the appointment of a commission by congress to proceed
to the republic and investigate and report upon all previous proceedings. Benj. F.
Wade of Ohio, Andrew D. White of New York, and Samuel G. Howe of Boston 4
were appointed such commissioners, and visited Samana bay in 1871, examining the
resources of the country, the condition of the people, and popular feeling on the sub-
ject of annexation. The report of the commissioners was exhaustive, and entirely
favorable to the plan of annexation. It was laid before congress by president Grant'
but no action was taken concerning it. Subsequently the Samana bay company in
New York leased the peninsula and bay of Samana from the Baez government, with
certain trade privileges, at an annual rent of $150,000, but met with no decided success.
In 1874 the Dominican government again made overtures to the government of the

1 A-l San Diego.


United States, urging positive action in the matter, but the annexation was not consum-

SAN DONA. See DONA, SAN, ante.

SANDOVAL, FRAY PRUDENCIO DE, 1560-1621; b. Valladolid; educated for the
church, took orders at the Benedictine convent of Santa Maria la Real de Naxera. and
devoted years in that retirement to the study of the antiquities of Spain. He was made |
historiographer of Spain by Philip III., and for valuable services was rewarded by t lie-
bishopric of Tsy in 1608, and of Pomplona in 1612. He published various histories of
Spain and editions of the ancient chronicles.

SAND-PAPEK is made in the same way as emery-paper (see EMERY), but with sand
in place of emery.

SANDPIPER, the common English name of a numerous group of birds, generally
referred to the family scolopacidce, all formerly included in the genus tringa, but some
now constituting the genera tetanus, pelidna, actitis, etc., of ornithologists. In charac-
ters sind habits they are all very similar. They are not of large size; they are very
active and graceful in all their movements; their plumage not gay, but of pleasing and
finely diversified colors; their legs are rather long, the lower part of the tibia naked, the
tail very short, the wings moderately long; the bill rather long and slender, grooved
throughout the whole or a considerable part of its length, straight in some, and a little
arched in others. The feet have three long toes before, and one short toe behind; tin:
toes in the genus trinrja, as now restricted, are partially webbed at the base; in tutanu*
they are completely" separate. They are good swimmers, but are not, however, often
eeen swimming; they frequent sandy sea-shores, some of them congregating iu numer-
ous flocks in autumn and winter; and seek their food by probing the sand with their
bills, and by catching small crustaceans in pools or within the margin of the sea itself.
Many are birds of passage, visiting high northern latitudes in summer, and spending the
winter on the coasts of more southern regions. The flesh of all the species is good, and
some of them are in much request for the table. The British species are numerous.
The DUNLIN or PURRE (tringa variabilis) is noticed in the article DUNLIN. The KNOT
(tnnga-canutus), also known, in different states of plumage, as the RED SANPPIPEU ami
the ASII-COLOREP SANDPIPER, is a bird of about 10 in. in length, appearing iu grea,i
flocks on the British coasts in winter, and equally common in North America. Tin
LITTLE SANDPIPER, or LITTLE STINT (tringa minuta), occasionally seen in Britain,
occurs in India and in South Africa. The name STINT is given to a number of species
of tringa. The PURPLE SANDPIPER (tringa maritima), not unfrequently on the British |
coasts, is reckoned among the birds of Iceland, Greenland, Melville island, Nova Zcm-
bla, and Spitsbergen. Of the genus totanus, to all the species of which the popular
name GAMBET is sometimes given, one of the best-known species is the REDSHANK
(totanus calidris), a bird which resides in Britain all the year, but known also as a sum-
mer bird of passage in the most northern parts of Europe and Asia, and occurring in
winter as far s. as Smyrna, and even in India. It is about 11 in. long. It receives its
popular name from its red legs. The GREEN SANDPIPER (totanus ochropus) is also a
pretty common British species, for the most part migrating to the north for the sum-
mer. The COMMON SANDPIPER or SUMMER SNIPE (totanus hypokucos) is in Britain a
summer bird of passage. The GREENSIIANK (totanus glottis) is chiefly seen in Britain in
spring and autumn, and has its name from the olive-green color of its legs. Sandpipers
of various species some of them the same as the British, and others different are nu-
merous in North America, and in winter in the West Indies.

SANDPIPES are cylindrical hollows existing in chalk deposits. They descend per-
pendicularly into the chalk at right angles to the surface, tapering downward, and end-
ing in a point; they reach occasionally a depth of 60 ft., and have a diameter varying
from 1 to 12 feet. They are most probably produced by the chemical action of water,
charged with carbonic acid, which exists more or less in all rain-water, and is especially
abundant in water that has been in contact with decaying organic matter. The pipes
are filled with sand, clay, or gravel from the overlying deposit.

SANDROCOTTUS, or SANDROKYPTOS, is the Greek spelling of the name of the Hindu
king Charulragupta, of PSt'aliputra or Palibothra, to whom Megasthenes was sent as
ambassador from Seleucus Nicator, and who lived about the beginning of the 4th c. B,C.

SANDS, BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, b. Md., 1812; educated at the naval academy, and
was appointed midshipman, 1828. He served in the coast surveys of 1836 and 1851,
and was present at the capture of Tabasco, Mexico, 1847. At the beginning of the
rebellion he had reached the rank of commander, and in 1862 was made capt. He took
part in the attack on fort Caswell, the two on fort Fisher, and in the Wilmington block-
ade. In 1866 he was made commodore, was appointed supt. of the naval observatory in
1867, and in 1871 was raised to the rank of rear-admiral.

SANDS, ROBERT CHARLES, 1799-1832; b. Flatbush, L. I., son of Comfort; a mem-
ber of the New York constitutional convention 1777. He graduated from Columbia
college 181-5; studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1820, but chose the profession of
literature. He was a frequent contributor to the press in prose and verse ; and, associated
with others, ably edited and published several journals. The last poem from his pen,

Sandstone. 1 AO


27ie Dead of 1832, was published in the Commercial Advertiser, of which for the last 5
years of his life he was assistant editor. He published in 1831 the Life and Correspond-
ence of Paul Jones. Selections of his writings with a mernoir of his life have bet-n

SANDSTONE is a rock formed of compacted, and more or less indurated sand. The
grains generally consist of quartz, though other mineral substances are often mixed with
this; they are "colorless, or of a dull white, yellow, brown, red, or green color. Tke

f rains vary in size, forming, as the case may be, a iine or coarse grained stone. The
>ose sand becomes solidified by pressure simply, but more generally from being cem-

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 23 of 203)