Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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ented together by calcareous, silicious, or ferruginous infiltrations, and the dark color of
the mass is produced by the cement. Sandstones that have undergone great or con-
tinuous metamorphic action pass into quartzite; and between this and friable sand, all
intermediate stages are found.

SANDUSKY, a co. in n. Ohio, bounded on the n. by Sandusky bay, drained by the
Sandusky and the Portage rivers, and by Muddy and Green creeks; on the Lake Show
and Michigan Southern, the Lake Erie and Louisville, the Cincinnati, Sandusky an<i
Cleveland, and the Toledo, Tiffin and Eastern railroads; about 425 sq.m.; pop. '80
32,063 27,688 of American birth. The surface is level and heavily wooded. The SOP
is fertile. The principal productions are corn, oats, wheat, hay, and live stock. Co
eat, Fremont.

BANDITS KY, a city and port of Ohio, on the s. shore of Sandusky bay, an arm ol
lake Erie, 110 in. n. of Columbus. The bay, 20 m. long and 5 wide, forms an excellent
harbor. The city is built upon a bed of limestone, of which its edifices are constructed,
among which are a custom-house, 14 churches, 3 banks, large public halls, hotels,
schools, etc. There are several newspapers, manufactures of lumber and bent wood-
work for carriages, etc., with extensive fisheries. Pop. in 1860, 8,408; in 1870, 13,000.

SANDUSKY (ante), a city, co. seat of Erie co., on the Lake Shore and Michigan
Southern, the Baltimore and Ohio (Lake Erie division), and the Cincinnati, Sandusky and
Cleveland railroads; pop. '80, 15,838. It is on ground sloping to the bay, of winch it
affords a fine view. The streets are regular, lighted with gas, and contiwn many tine
residences. There is a court-house and a public library. There is a large wine-growing
district around Sandusky, and large amounts of wine are exported. Fish, lumber,
shingles, and ice are other principal exports. The best-kuowu of the Sandusky manu-
factures is that of wooden articles, such as wheel hubs and spokes, carpenters' tools, etc
There are car- works, machine-shops, manufactures of boilers, engines, etc. The city,
with the islands in Sandusky bay, is a summer resort.


SANDWICH, a favorite viand which is said to have been named after the earl of
Sandwich. It consists of two thin slices of bread, plain or buttered, with some savory
food placed between. Formerly it was applied exclusively to bread with thin slices of
ham, tongue, or beef, but of late a great variety of materials have been used; one cele-
brated Glasgow confectioner, Mr. Lang, has the credit of making one hundred different
kinds of sandwiches.

SANDWICH (i.e., village on the sands), a Cinque port, market-t., and municipal
borough of Kent, on the right bankfjf the Stour, 98 in. e s.e. of London by the South-
Eastern railway. Within the last 800 years the sea has here considerably receded, for
Sandwich, which is now 2 m. from the shore, is described, at the commencement of the
lithe., as the most famous of all the English harbors omnium Aiiglonim portuum
famosimmus. The town is rectangular, and was surrounded by walls, along which a
broad path now leads. The streets are confined; and the houses, which seem crashed
together, and the architecture of which recalls the times of the Plantagenets, are pecul-
iarly and strikingly antique in appearance. The church of St. Clement's, with a low
Norman tower, is probably the most interesting edifice. Small vessels importing timber,
iron, and coal, and exporting corn, flour, malt, seeds, and hops, come up to the town.
Tanning, ship building, and seed-crushing are carried on. In conjunction with Deal and
Walmer, the town sends two members to parliament. Pop. (1871) of municipal borough,
3,060; of the parliamentary borough of Sandwich and Deal, 14,885.

Sandwich, the most ancient of the Cinque ports, probably occupies the site of the
Roman Rutupice, and many interesting antiquities have been found in the vicinity. In
the reign of Edward IV. its customs yielded 17,000 yearly, and 95 ships and 1500 sailors
belonged to it

SANDWICH, at. in s.e. Massachusetts, near the coast of cape Cod bay; pop. '80,
3,544. On the w. it borders on Buzzard's bay. It is on the cape Cod division of the
Old Colony railroad, 50 m. s.e. of Boston. The township contains the villages of Mon-
ument, Cohasset Narrows, North Sandwich, East Sandwich, West Sandwich, Spring
Hill, and South Sandwich; has eight railway stations on the direct road and the Wood's
Holl branch. The principal village is on the n. side of the cape, pleasantly situated in
a valley, and from the hills which nearly surround it a view of Provincetowu may be
obtained. It has a large establishment for the manufacture of glassware; other indus-
tries are the manufacture of iron, jewejry boxes, tacks, etc. It is much frequented in

-1 no Sandstone.


the season by sportsmen, having the finest facilities for boa'Jpg, bathing, and fishing,
and iti the adjacent forests the fox, the deer, and a variely of game are found.

SANDWICH ISLANDS, forming the kingdom of Hawaii, are a rich, beautiful, and
interesting chain, eight in number, exclusive of one or two small islets The chain runs
from s.e. to n.w., and lies in the middle of the Pacific ocean, in lat. 19 to 22 n., long. 155
to 160 west. Area, 7,GOO sq.m. ; pop. 72, 56,897, of whom 2,539 were Europeans. The
names, with the areas of the respective islands, are: Hawaii (formerly Owhvhee), 4,850
sq.m.; Maui, 750; Oahu, 700; Kaui, 780; Molokai, 170; Lanai, 170; Niihau", about 11C;
and Kahoolaui, about 40 sq. miles.

Surface, ctt. Situated near the middle of the Pacific ocean, about half the distance
from San Francisco in North America that they are from Melbourne in Australia, and
Canton in China, the Sandwich islands form an oasis in the middle of a wide ocean
waste, and offer convenient stations for the refreshment and repair of the merchantmen
and whafep that traverse the Pacific They are of volcanic origin, and contain the
largest wfcnoes, botli active and quiescent, in the world. The most prominent physi-
cal feat^^Pof the group are the two lofty mountain peaks of Hawaii, Mauna Kea, and
Mauna Loft, each of which is 14,000 ft. in height, or within 1800 ft. of the loftiest of the
Alps. Besides these two chief peaks, which stand apart from each other, and one of
which is covered with perpetual snow, the island is traversed by other mountains, which
give it a rugged and picturesque outline, and in some cases front the sea in bold, per-
pendicular precipices, from 1000 to 3,000 ft. in height. In general, the islands are lofty
the small islet of Lehua is 1000 ft. high, and the upland regions of Kaui are, on an
average, 4,000 ft. above sea level. Within the coral reefs, which, in single, and more
rarely in double ridges, skirt portions of the coasts, sandy shores, leading up to rich
pasture-lands, and occasionally to productive valleys, are frequently seen.- Everywhere,
however, the configuration of the surface betrays the volcanic origin of the islands.
Extinct and partially active volcanoes occur in most of the islands. Kilauea, on the
Mauna Loa mountain in Hawaii, the largest active volcano in the world, has an oval-
shaped crater 9m. in circumference, and is 6,000 ft. above sea level. In the center of
this immense caldron is a red sea of lava, always in a state of fusion. At intervals the
lava is thrown to a great height, and rolls in rivers down the mountain sides. From.
1856 to 1859 this volcano was in an incessant state of eruption, forming at night a sub-
lime spectacle, and occasionally casting forth burning streams, by one of which a small
fishing-village was destroyed, a bay on the shore filled up, and a promontory formed in its
place. On Maui, the crater of Mauna Haleakala (house of the sun), by far the largest
known, is from 25 to 30 m. in circumference, from 2,000 to 3,000 ft. deep, and stands
10,000 ft. above sea level. Within this huge pit, about 16 basins of old volcanoes,
whose ridges formed concentric circles, have been counted. Good harbors are few.
The chief is that of Honolulu (q.v.), in Oahu. with 22$ ft. of water in its shallowest
parts. On the same island is Ewa, an immense basin, with 12tft. water at low tides.
During the prevalence of the trade-wind, which blows s.w. for about nine months of
the year, the s. shores of the islands afford safe anchorage almost everywhere.

Climate, Soil, Rivers, etc. Though situated within the tropics, the Sandwich islands
boast a climate that is temperate rather than tropical. In the native language, there is
no word to express the idea of weather, and this fact may be considered as evidence that
extremes of heat or cold do not occur. At Honolulu the extremes of temperature in
the shade during 12 years were 90 and 53, and the diurnal range is 12. Rains brought
by the n.e. trade-wind are frequent on the mountains; but on the leeward side of the
islands, little rain falls, and the sun is rarely obscured by clouds. The soil, the constit-
uent parts of which are mainly scorise, decomposed lava, and sand, is generally thin and
poor. This, however, is not universally the case. At the bases of the mountains and
in the valleys, where abrasion, disintegration, and the accumulation of vegetable mold
have gone on for ages, there are extensive tracts as fertile as they are beautiful. The
island's produce fine pasturage in abundance, and large herds are bred and fattened, to
supply meat to the whalers and merchant-ships. On the Waimea plains, in Hawaii
alone" 30,000 sheep of the merino breed are grazed. . The upland slopes of the moun-
tains are clothed with dense forests: and lower down are grassy plains and sugar and
coffee plantations. Basalt, compact lava, coral-rock, and sandstone, are used for
building purposes. No metals occur. Several of the islands, especially Hawaii and
Knui. are well supplied with rivers, which, from the size and conformation of the group,
are necessarily small, but afford great facilities for irrigation. Vast numbers of semi-
wild horses roam the islands, and while they consume the pasturage, and break down
the fences, are of little use. The indigenous fauna is small, and consists mainly of
swine, dogs, rats; a bat that flies by day, birds of beautiful plumage, but for the most
part songless. Among the indigenous trees and plants are the sugar-cane, banana, plan-
tain, cocoa-nut, candle-nut, various palms, the taro, a succulent root which formed the
staple of the food of the natives, and is still generally used; the cloth-plant; and the ti,
the roots of which were baked and eaten, while the leaves were used for thatching huts.
Cattle and other useful foreign animals and plants were introduced by Vancouver and
other navigators. There are about 30,000 mules and semi-wild horses in the kingdom.

Commerce, Products, etc. The commerce of this young kingdom is still in its infancy,

Sandwich. 1 f\A


but is gradually on the increase. Until recently the most important branch of it wn*
maintained by vessels engaged in the whale-fisheries of the north Pacific. This branch
of commerce has greatly declined within recent years. In 1872, 47 whaling- vessels,
showing a decrease of 71 as compared with the number in 1870, entered the ports.
Trusting no longer to the whaling business, the producers and merchants of the Sand-
wich islands have found out other outlets for their goods, and, without doubt, the trade
of the islands will in the future be almost wholly confined to the coasts that bound the
Pacific. Tiie islands are within 16 days (by sailing-vessels) of San Francisco, 27 days
1mm Vancouver's island, 26 days from Kanagawa- in Japan, and 67 days from Hong-
kong. Sugar, coffee, and rice have been proved to produce well, arid all these find
roady markets at hand in California, British Columbia, and Vancouver's island, which,
together, can consume more than the Sandwich islands can supply. Of sugar, the
3.000,00011)8. produced in 1862 were increased to nearly 17,000,000 in 1872; and from
the number of new plantations recently organized, the amount of produce may be
expected to continue increasing. The exports, consisting mosUy of sugar, coffee, rice.
pulu(qv.), hides, and corn, amounted in 1875 to over $2,000,000; the impopB, mostly
manufactured goods, amounted in the same year to $2,090,000.

History, Constitution, and Finances. Of the origin and character of the inhabitants
of this kingdom, of its interesting internal history, or of the much-canvassed question
as to whether the native race will flourish along with or wither before the Saxon race,
it is not within our limits to speak. We can only notice a few of the leading events
which have occurred in these islands since their shores were first visited by what the
natives called the "floating islands" of the civilized nations. Although one member of
the group was seen by Gaetano in 1542, the islands cannot be said to have been discov-
ered till Cook visited them in 1778. The great. navigator treated the simple and confid-
ing natives with a cruelty and a hypocrisy which consort ill with his fame, and which
were the direct causes of the brawl in which he met the death he had provoked in
Kealakeakua bay, Hawaii, 1779. In early times each island had a king; but under
Kamehameha I., a man of shrewd sense, and of great bravery and resource, the islands
were formed into one kingdom, Tim king, writing to George III.. Aug. 6, 1810, desired
formally to acknowledge the king of England as his sovereign, and to place the islands
under British protection an offer which was accepted. After inaugurating the era of
advancement, this king died in 1819, and was succeeded by Liholiho, who adopted, on
his accession, the name of Kam?ham3ha II.. and in whose. reign idolatry was abolished
simultaneously throughout all the islands. The first Christians who visited the Sand
Ayich islands were Cook and his followers, of whom the simple natives retained no
favorable impression. Vancouver, who arrived with Cook in 1778 and returned in 1792,
and again in 1794, made sincere attempts to enlighten the natives, and the king and his
chiefs requested Vancouver to send out religious teachers to them from England; but
the first missionaries that visited the islands came from America in 1820. On their
arrival, the missionaries witnessed the singular phenomenon of a nation without a relig
ion. The instructions of Vancouver had not been forgotten, and no doubt, enabled the
idol-worshiping islanders to see more readily the absurdities of their system. But the
spontaneous movement of 1819-20, when the whole nation rose up to destroy idols, tem-
ples, and the furniture of idolatry, " was no triumph of Christianity for Christianity
had not yet claimed or even approached the Hawaian islands." The nation had voltin-
tarily cast off the religion of their ancestors, and had not yet adopted were not even
acquainted with any other system. The American missionaries who arrived in 1820
were well received, and the work of instruction was at once begun. Besides instructing
them in Christianity, in less than 40 years they taught the whole Hawaian people to read
and write, to cipher and to sew.

Kamehameha II. and his queen visited England, and after a short residence in this
country, both died in London. July, 1834. Prior to the year 1838 the government was
a despotism; but in 1840 the king, Kamehameha III., granted a constitution, consisting
of king, assembly of nobles, and representative council. This constitution, based on
that of Great Britain, has in more recent times been much matured and improved. In
1843 the independence of the Hawaian kingdom was formally declared by the French
and English governments. Kamehameha IV. acceded to the throne in 1854, and, after a
brief but useful reign, died in Nov., 1863, and was succeeded by his brother. Kame
ham .'ha V. Lunalilo was elected in 1873. and on his death. Kalukaua in 1874. The
revenue for the years 1874-76 was $1.008,191; the expenditure, $919,357 See Mis*
Bird's Six Months in the Sandwich Islands (1875).

SA.NDWICH ISLANDS (ante), so named by capt, Cook, but that name is not
found in the constitution and laws of the islands. They are there called the Hawaiian
Islands, which is the name used by the people. Their distance from Panama is 4,800 in.,
from Sun Francisco 2,100 m., and from Japan 3,400. They are ten in number. The
group contains 6,000 sq. miles. The four largest and most important are Hawaii, Maui.
Oahu, and Kauai. Kaula and Molokini arc little more than barren rocks. HAWAII.
formerly called Owhyhee, is 300 m. in circuit, and twice as large as all the others
togftlier. It is in the form of a triangle, is 100 m. long from n. to s., and 80 broad. The
interior, a table-land, 8,000 ft. above the sea, is chiefly covered with lava and ashes, but


in some places overgrown with wanti trees or paper-mulberry trees. From this plateau
the land gradually slopes toward the sea. There are three mountains, Mauna Kea,
Mauna Lou, and Mauna Hualalai, near the edges of this table-land. The higher part, of
this slope, to about 4 m. from the shore, is covered with dense forests of acaeia, which
grows very large, and of which the natives make their canoes. The soil on which these
trees grow lies on lava, which often appears above it. The tract w. of Byron ha}' or
Waiakea, extending townrd the base of the volcano Mauna Kea, is thickly inhabited and
well cultivated; but nearly contiguous to it on the s. is a desert of lava extending 40 in.
along the shore, without cultivation, and inhabited only by fishermen. The nortti-
eastern coast is bold and steep. Byron bay, on the eastern shore, has u spacious harbor
lying s. and n., protected from the n.e. wind by a coral reef half a mile wide, leaving a
channel three-quarters of a mile wide and from 3 to 10 fathoms deep. It is the best
harbor of the island. In the Kealakeliua harbor, on the w. coast, capt. Cook was killed.
The principal town is Hilo. MAUI lies n.w. of Hawaii, separated from it by a strait
24 m. wide. It u 48 in. long, 29 broad. It is composed of two masses of rock, sur-
rounded by a narrow tract of low land united by a low and sandy isthmus 9 m. in
width. The larger mountain, occupying the e. part, is 10,000 ft. high, and has but little
cultivable land; the smaller mountain mass, or peninsula, has a fine tract of level land
along tlie s. w. coast. The harbor of Lahaina, the principal town, nearly in the center of
the plain, is formed by two low projecting rocks, 2 m. distant from each other.
KAUAI, 33 m. long, 28 broad, is a mountain mass sloping on all sides toward the sea,
where it terminates with a high coast. The valleys are fertile and well cultivated.
OAHI:, 46 m. long, 23 broad, has a larger quantity* of cultivated land than the other
islands, an extensive foreign commerce. and is the most populous of the whole group.
A mountain range traverses the island from n.e. to s.w., terminating at Diamond Point,
the s.w. cape, in a hill 400 ft. high. This range, with the valleys which intersect it.
covers halt the surface of the island. Another mountain mass is in the u.w., sep-
arated from the other by a plain 20 m. in extent, called the plain of Eva, which is
fertile and well-wooded, but not much cultivated. The soil is a deep mold, resting
on lava. The plain of Honolulu, extending 10 m. along the s. shore, from 2 to 3 m.
in width, has a rich alluvial soil, and is highly cultivated. Honolulu (q.v.) is the
capital of the islands and the residence of'the king. It has an excellent harbor,
which, though small, is deep and perfectly safe. It is formed and protected by a
coral reef extending some distance along the shore. MOLOKAI, extending 40 m.
from e. to w. and 7 m. from s. to n., is a mass of rocks, the highest portion rising
5.000 ft. and the sides having deep ravines full of trees. There are level tracts along <
the shore, many of them fertile. KAFIULAWE lies s.w. of the larger peninsula of
Maui; *s 11 m. long and 8 broad. It is. like the other islands, composed of lava. The
soil is thin, and covered with a coarse grass. LAXAI, w. of the smaller peninsula of
Maui, separated from that island by a strait 9 or 10 m. wide, is 17 rn. long, 9 wide, and
is a mass of low volcanic rocks. A large part of it is barren, and there are but few
inhabitants. NIIIIAU, the most western of the islands, is 20 m. long. 7 broad. The inhab-
itants make painted and variegated mats, which are used in all the other islands, and
the island produces abundance of yams, which are sent to other islands. There is a
good harbor on the w. side. The, only mineral obfaincd in abundance on the islands is
suit. A large quantity is taken from a salt lake in the island of Oahn, which is between
2 and 3 m. in circuit. The bottom and shores are incrusted with salt, the water being
strongly impregnated, and the crystallization very rapid. There are also artificial
vats of clay along the sea-shore, into which the water from the sea is let at high-tide, and
large quantities of salt obtained by evaporation. The forests do not contain many trees
fit for ship-building. Sandal- wood formerly abounded in some of the mountains, but.
having been largely exported to China, it is now scarce. The Hawaiians are supposed
to belong to the family of Malay nations. Their complexion is tawny, inclining to
olive: the}' are of middle stature, well formed, with muscular limbs and open counten-
ance. They are expert in swimming, and are good fishermen and horsemen. The
Hawaiian nation is. believed to have a considerable antiquity. Persons have been
appointed from time immemorial to keep the genealogy of their" kings unimpaired, and
this embraces the names of more than 70 kings. The population in 1778 was estimated
by the discoverer at 400,000. When the missionaries arrived, in 1820, they estimated it
from 130,000 to 150,000, but since that it has been, from various causes, steadily decreas-
ing, so that in 1872 the official census gave but 56,899. For an account of the 'Hawaiian
kings, sec KAMEUAMEHA; and for the present religious condition of the islands, see MIS-


SANDY HOOK, a low, narrow, sandy peninsula, running about 6 m. to the n. from
Monmouth co., N. .1., about 16 m. s. of New York. There is a light-house about } of
a m. from the u. end.

SANDYS, EDWIN. D.D., 1519-88; b. Lancashire; educated at St. John's college, Cam-
bridge, where he became favorable to the reformation; was junior proctor, 1542; master
of Catharine hall. 1547, and vicar of Haversham; prebendary of Peterborough, 1548.
and of Carlisle, 1552; vice-chancellor of Cambridge, 1553. Having preached in favor of

Sandys. -i A/>

San Francisco. 1 f O

1576. He was a translator of the Bishop's Bible; and a commissioner to revise the lit-
urgy. As preacher and bishop he was indefatigable and efficient.

SANDYS, Sir EDWIN, 1561-1629; educated at Oxford, where he was a pupil of
Richard Hooker. He was knighted by James I., who gave him responsible employ-
ments. He was associated with Bacon in framing the "remonstrance" of 1604, and
was a member and treasurer of the second Virginia company. It was largely due to his
efforts that a charter was obtained for the Plymouth colony. His opposition to Charles
I. caused him to be arrested in 1621. He wrote Europce Speculum, or a View on Surrey
ofilie State of Religion in the Western part oftfie World.

SANDYS, GEORGE, 1577-1644; b. England; went to Oxford in 1589; traveled in the
east, 1610-12, and published in 1615 an account of his travels in a work entitled a
Relation of a Journey in Four Books, containing a description of tJie Turkish Empire, of
Egypt, of t/ie Holy Land, etc. In 1621 he removed to America, succeeding his brother
as treasurer to the English colony of Virginia. He was much interested in the welfare
of the colony, establishing iron-works and introducing ship-building. The Virginia
company broke up in 16247 and he returned to England. He published translations of
Ovid's Metamorplioses; also poetical versions of the Psalms, Job. Ecclesia&tes, etc.

SAN FE'LE, a t. of south Italy, in the province of Potenza, 17 m. n.w. of Potenza
Pop. 10,500.

SAN FELIPE' BE ACONCA GTTA, a t. of Chili, capital of the department of Aeon
cagua, 60 in. e.n.e. of Valparaiso. It is regularly built, and has a handsome appearance.
In the vicinity are copper mines. Pop. stated at from 12,000 to 13,000.


SAN FERNANDO, a city on the Isla de Leon, in the province of Andalusia, Spain,
connected with the main-land by a bridge; pop. about 20,000. The principal indus-

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 24 of 203)