Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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tries are the manufacture of leather, salt, and rum. Its suburb, San Carlos, contains *lie
residence of the captain-general.

SAN FILIPPO D'ARGIRO, a t. in e. Sicily, the site of the ancient Agyrium,
named in honor of prince Agyris; birthplace of Diodorus Siculus. It is on the w.
bank of the Trains, one of the head streams of the Giaretta; pop. about 7,000. It is
27 m. n.w. of Catania; has a Saracen castle, and several churches and convents. The
chief products are saffron and corn. The ancient city was called Sikelian and had a
pop. of 20,000. It was celebrated in the middle ages for the church of St. Philip.

SANFORD, a co. in n.w. Alabama, adjoining Mississippi, drained by branches of
the Tombigbee; about 600 sq.m, ; pop. '70, 8,8931563 colored. Surface undulating
and soil productive; cotton, sweet potatoes, oats, butler, and pork are the staples. Co.
seat, Vernon.

SAN FRANCIS'CO. the principal sea-port on the western coasts of North America, and
the chief city of California, U. S., stands on the w. shore of S;m Francisco bay. 6 m. s.
of the Golden Gate/the outlet leading w., and connecting the bay with the Pacific ocean.
Lat. 37 46' n., long. 122 23' west. It has a fine deep harbor, well-built streets, h.uid-
some shops, gas and waterworks, and elegant public buildings, among which are the
custom-house, mint, city hall, marine hospital, city hospital, theaters, orphan asylums,
a convent, etc. There are about 75 churches, 11 daily and 46 other newspapers, numer-
ous schools and charitable institutions, and several fire insurance companies. Of the
population attracted by the discovery of gold to San Francisco, a great number are Irish,
German, British, French, and Chinese. There are newspapers in English, French, Ger-
man, Spanish. Italian, and Chinese. The Chinese have a church, Roman Catholic, with
a Chinese priest educated at Rome; and a school. Among the manufacturing establish-
ments are flour-mills, saw-mills, woolen factories, and iron foundries. In 1874 4,204
sea-going vessels, with an aggregate burden of 1,553,000 tons, entered the harbor. In
1869 the receipts of precious metals amounted to 9,857,295; but this sum does not nearly
represent all the receipts, as much treasure comes by private hands, and passes through no
channel by means of which the amounts can be noted by the authorities. The treasure
exported in 1876 amounted to near 10.000,000. The other exports were chiefly wheat,
barley, wool, quicksilver, hides, furs, flour, gunpowder, and copper-ore. Their value
was about 6,263,000. The imports (valued at 3,200.000 in 1876) included sugar, coal,
rice, coffee, tea, wines and spirits, iron, cotton, silk, and various manufactured goods.
About 50 ocean steamers run regularly to Japan, Australia, Mexico, Panama, Victoria,
and domestic ports in California and Oregon. The Union Pacific railroad, completed in
1870, makes San Francisco an important point as the commercial highway from Europe
and the eastern United States to Asia. In 1776 the mission of St. Francis was com-
menced here by two Spanish monks. In 1825 the mission had under its care 1800
Indians, and possessed 76,000 cattle and 79.000 sheep. In 1834 the property of the
mission was secularized, and it rapidly decayed. In 1846 it was taken by the United
States, and in 1847 had a population of 450. The discovery of gold in 1848 caused it to

in 7 Sandys.

, JL vl San Francisco.

be at first nearly deserted; but soon commenced a rapid growth, which, in spite of sev-
eral destructive* fires, has continued to increase. Pop. '60, 55,626; '70, 149,173; '77,

SAN FRANCISCO (ante), the capital of San Francisco co., Cal., and the most
important citv on the Pacific coast of North America, situated in Jut. 37 47' 35" n.,
lonir. 122 24' 15" w.. at the n. end of a peninsula 20 m. long and (at this point) 6 m. wide,
which separates the bay of San Francisco from the ocean. The city and county, which
are consolidated, contain an area of 42 sq.m., and comprise, besides the northern part
of the peninsula across to the ocean, Goat island, Alcatraz island, and Mission rock, in
the bay, and the Fara'.lones islands, 24 m. off in the ocean. The land upon which the city
is built is sandy and unproductive; a portion of it was originally hilly, but has been lev-
eled by art. The development of the city has been quite recent. As far back as 1776,
indeed, a Spanish military post was established on its present site, together with a mis-
sion of San Franciscan friars for the conversion of the Indians, but it was not till 1835
that a village was laid out under the name of Yerba Buena. In 1847 the name was
changed to San Francisco, the number of inhabitants at that date being about 450.
Next year the discovery of gold was made in California, and emigrants from all parts of
the world were at once attracted there. "The growth of the city from that date was
rapid. In 1850 the population was 25,000; in 1860, 56,802; in 1870, 149,473 (of whom
only about one-half were natives of the U. S.); and in 1880 it was estimated at about
300*000, including 20,000 Chinese. The city was incorporated in 1850, and the city and
county consolidated in 1856. In Dec., 1849, a number of buildings \vere<lestroyed by fire,
and within fourteen months thereafter four other extensive conflagrations devastated the
business portion of the city. Earthquakes have been quite frequent, but so slight as to
cause little or no damage. In 1851-56, owing to corrupt municipal government and
inadequate enforcement of the laws, the citizens, to protect themselves, organized vigi-
lance committees, which summarily dealt with a number of public criminals and reduced
the others to subordination. Since then the city has been in the main an orderly one,
although in 1877-78 considerable trouble was again apprehended from the unruly mem-
bers of society led by the popular^ demagogue, Denis Kearney. San Francisco is regu-
larly laid out, with wide streets crossing each other at right angles. The business portion
is closely built up, but outside of that the houses are frequently quite scattered. Belgian
blocks and cobble-stones are used in paving the business streets; wood pavements with
asphalt sidewalks are more common elsewhere. The principal thoroughfares are Mont-
gomery, Kearney, and Market streets; all are fashionable promenades and contain the
leading retail stores. The wholesale houses are chiefly in Front, Sansome, and Battery
sts. ; the principal banks and brokers' and insurance offices are in California street. Du-
pout and Stockton sts., in the southern part of the city, are lined with handsome brick
residences. Elsewhere the houses are mainly built of wood, often very lavishly
decorated. There are no shade trees, but the yards around the better class of houses
make a splendid show of flowers and evergreens the natural sterility of the soil being
overcome by artificial means. The public buildings are not many, though several are
remarkably fine specimens of architecture. Such, when completed, will be the new city
hall in Yerba Buena park, which is estimated to cost $4,000,000, and such are now the
merchant's exchange on the s. side of California St., the banks of California and Nevada,
the mercantile library building, etc. The custom-house and post-office is a plain sub-
stantial building in Battery st. The present U. S. branch mint in Commercial st. is even
less pretentious in appearance, but a new and magnificent stone structure has been com-
menced in Mission st., to which the mint will be removed. The Palace hotel is said to
be the largest, as it is one of the most magnificent, buildings of the kind in the world. It
occupies an area of 275 by 350 ft., is 9 stories high, and has accommodations for 1200
guests. It was erected at a total cost of $3,250,000. The Baldwin house, although
smaller, is hardly inferior in its appointments, and other first-class hotels are the Occi-
dental, the Lick house, and the Cosmopolitan. The custom of living in hotels is very
common, not only for single men, but for families. There are 85 churches, of which 14
are Catholic, 5 Jewish, and 66 Protestant, representing 18 different sects. The most
important of these are St. Patrick's church and St. Mary's cathedral, both Roman Cath-
olic, the former being the noblest church edifice on the Pacific coast; Grace church
(Episcopal), a stately stone building; Trinity church (Episcopal); the Calvary Presbyte-
rian; the First Unitarian, one of the most elegant buildings in the city; and the Jewish
synagogue of Sherith Israel, a richly decorated and substantial edifice. San Francisco
is the residence of an Episcopal bishop and a Roman Catholic archbishop. One hundred
and one periodicals are published in the city as follows: 15 dailies, most of which publish
also weekly and tri-weekly editions, 2 semi-weeklies, 42 weeklies, 2 semi-monthlies, and
40 monthlies. Among the educational institutions there are 3 literary colleges, 2 medi-
cal colleges, an academy of sciences, and an excellent school of design. The public
schools are 69 in number, with a dailv attendance of about 21.000 pupils. There are 18
public libraries, the Mercantile, the Mechanics, and the Odd Fellows being the largest.
Of the charitable institutions, the principal are the U. S. marine hospital, the new
city hospital, the state woman's hospital, and various hospitals and asylums under the
of the religious denominations. The great lack of the city is that of a suitable

San Francisco Bay. "I f\Q


public park such as is possessed by every other important town in the union; but a com-
mencement has lately been made in the Golden Gate park (1043 acres) \v. of the city,
which is now being beautified. There are a few public squares in the city, as Ports-
mouth, Washington, Union, and Columbia squares, which are tastefully laid out and
planted with trees and shrubbery. The principal cemeteries are Lone Mountain and
Laurel Hill. The Chinese portion- of the city, " Chinatown," is one of the great curios-
ities to travelers. Here 20.^00 Chinamen are huddled together in quarters which would
not accommodate one-fifth that number of Americans, and they have brought with them
all the habits and ways of life of the mother-country. They have 2 theaters, ioss-houses,
opium-sellers, and gambling-houses, all conducted on the Chinese fashion. Business in
the city is .remarkably brisk, owing to the energy and pushing qualities of its inhabitants
as well as*o its favorable location. The manufactures comprise silk and woolen goods,
cigars, boots and shoes, iron castings, rolled iron, carriages, flour, glass, sashes, doors.
soap, leather, cordage, billiard-tables, wind-mills, willow-ware, etc. The only railroad
which terminates in San Francisco itself is the Southern Pacific, although the Central
Pacific, the California Pacific, the North Pacific Coast, and the San Francisco and North
Pacific all terminate on the bay of San Francisco, and are connected with the city by
steam-ferries. The harbor of San Francisco is beyond all comparison the finest on the
western coast of North America, and it enjoys in consequence a monopoly of the com-
merce on the Pacific slope. Forty-three ocean steamers run from this port to China,
Japan, Australia, and "Panama, and to domestic ports on the northern and southern
coasts, besides thirty inland steamers which run to points on the tributaries to the bay.
The number of sea-going vessels that arrive in San Francisco is nearly 5,000 annually.

SAN FRANCISCO BAY, in n.w. California, a considerable body of water lying
principally between the counties of Contra Costa, Alameda, Santa Clara, San Mateo,
and Mariu, receiving the drainage of the Sierra Nevada, and the great California valley,
which, conducted by the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers, flows into it through Sun
Pablo bay, with an outlet to the Pacific ocean, at the city of San Francisco, through a
channel called the Golden Gate. The channel is 2 m. wide and 5 m. long, with shores
which are bold and rocky, nearly 2,000 ft. high on the n., and on the s. shining white
sand-hills from 300 to 400 ft. high. In the harbor there is great depth and excellent
anchorage, and on the bar at the entrance there is 30 ft. of water at low tide. It con-
tains several islands, Alcatraz, in the middle of the channel 4 m. from the entrance,
Angel island, containing 800 acres, the largest one of all, and Ycrba Buena, or Goat
island. Alcatraz is fcrtified, and on the s. side of the Golden Gate is Fort point. On the
n. San Pablo bay, 10 m. in diameter, receives the waters of Suisun bay (8 m. long and
4 m. wide), through the Carquinez strait, 1 m. wide, with 16 ft. of water at low tide.
At the head of San Pablo bay is Napa, or Mare island, containing a U. S. navy yard.
Including San Pablo bay, the length is 55 m., width from 3 to 12 m. ; at San Francisco
7 in. wide.

SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAIN, the highest summit in Arizona, 12,500 ft. above
the eea, stands alone on the Colorado plateau, from which it rises abruptly 5,000 ft.,
forming a land-mark seen from afar in all directions. Its base is 10 m. in diameter, and
from its summit a hundred volcanoes may be seen.

SAN FRATELLO, a t. of Sicily in the province of Messina, 53 m. w.s.w. from Mess-
ina. At the base of the hill on which the town stands is a remarkable oave, discovered
in 1859, and containing prodigious quantities of bones of mammals, with which flint
implements are mixed. Pop. 7,200.

SAN'GAMON, a co. in central Illinois, intersected by the Springfield and South-
eastern, the Gilman, Clinton and Springfield, the Springfield and Northwestern, the
Chicago and Alton, and the Toledo, Wabash and Western railroads; 950 sq.m. ; pop.
'80, 52.902 45,115 of American birth, 1830 colored. Its surface is level, the greater
proportion prairie land; having in the elevated portions extensive deposits of bitumin-
ous coal, with an annual product of about 75.000 tons. It is drained by the Sangatnon
river and its branches; and produces corn, wheat, oats, honey, and dairy products. Live
stock is raised, and the manufactures include carriages, saddlery, iron castings, wool,
etc. Co. seat, Springfield, the capital of the state.

SANGAEEE', a West Indian beverage, consisting of Madeira wine, syrup, water, and

SANGERHATJSEN, a t. of Prussian Saxony, in the government of Meresburg, and
33 m. w.n.Av. of the city of that name. It contains two castles; carries on weaving,
tanning, shoe-making, and copper-smelting, and manufactures saltpeter. Pop. '75.

SANGIR ISLANDS lie to the n. of Celebes, in 2 to 4 n. lat.. are upwards of 50 in
number, of various sizes, and nearly all inhabited. Pop. 30,000. The three largest
islands, Great Sangir, Sjiauw, and Tagolandang, with those which surround each, form
as it were separate groups. In the Sangir islands are many mountains, which, except
the volcanoes, are clothed to their summits with a rich vegetation. Great Sangir has an
area of 273 sq.m., and is divided into four kingdoms. The usual anchorage is on the
w. side, in 3 28' n. lat., and 125 44' e. long. "Pop. 13,000. In the n.w. is a volcano,*

1 AQ San Francisco Bay.

Sail lied rim.

called Abu, or the "Ash mouutain," which has frequently caused great devastation. In
Mar., 1856, the streams of lava and boiling water carried away the rich plantations, and
3,806 lives were lost.

JSjkmw lies in 2 43' u. lat., and 125 28' e. long., is also mountainous; a volcano, on
the n.e. coast, being 6,200 ft. high. Pop. 3,000 The chief town is Uluw.

Tagolaudang, in 2 s 20' n. lat., and 125" 30' e. long., is populous, and the center
of the missionary work which has been carried on successfully in the Sangir islands. A
small ship belongs to the station, in which to visit the scattered converts and schools.

In all the islands, the areug (sag-uerus or borassus gomutus), the sago, cocoa-nut, ar.i
the finest sorts of timber trees abound. Maize, rice, katjang (a species of bean), tobacco,
cocoa, and the sugar-cane are cultivated.

The Saugirese belong to the Malay race, are well made and brave, but cunning,
la/y, and dirty in their habits. This, and scarcity of pure drinking-water, make them
liable to a loathsome skin disease. There are four rajahs in Great Sangir, one in
Tagolandang, and one in Sjiamv. The government is monarchical, somewhat limited
by a council.

Toward the end of the 15th c. the Sangirese became Mohammedan; a century later,
under the Portuguese, the}' were brought over to Christianity. These islands, forming
now a Netherlands dependency, have several Dutch missionaries, and 24 churches,
which are also used as schools. Government supports 8 teachers, the villages 16.

SAHO-KOI. See Tosquix.

SANGUINA BIA, a genus of plants of the natural order papawraccce, having 8 to 12
petals, 2 stigmas, an oblong swollen capsule with two deciduous valves, and a per-
sistent, many-seeded frame. S. Canadensis, the BLOOD-ROOT or PCCCOON of North
America, has a fleshy root-stalk abounding in a red juice, which abounds also in the leaf-
stalks; and solitary radical leaves, which are roundish, deeply heart-shaped, and with
about seven toothed angles. The flowers are solitary and spring from the root, on short
stalks. The whole plant is acrid and narcotic, emetic and purgative in large doses; and
in small doses stimulant, diaphoretic, and expectorant. It is much used as a medicine
in the United Slates. It is supposed to owe its properties to a peculiar -alkaloid called
minyuinaniu', which is obtained from it as a white pearly substance. The large white
flowers appear early in spring, and are a frequent ornament of floweriborders.

SANGUINE, or MUKKKY, one of the tinctures of less frequent occurrence in heraldry,
denoting blood color, and represented in engraving by lines crossing each other sallire-

SANGTJISORBA'CE.2E, or SANGTIISOR'BE^E, according to some botanists a natural order
of plants, but more generally regarded as a suborder of ROSACES (q.v.). As a sub-
order, its distinctive characters arc apetalous flowers the tube of the calyx thickened,
indurated, and lined with a disk, generally few stamens, and a solitary carpel, which
ripens into a nut inclosed in the calyciue tube. About 150 species are known, all of
which are herbaceous or half shrubby, some of them spiny. The leaves of acaena san-
guwirba, a native of Van Diemen's land, are said to l/e an excellent substitute for tea.
Of British species, burnet (q.v.), and lady's mantle 'q.v,) are among the best-known.

SANHEDSIM (Or. synedrion), the supreme national tribunal of the Jews, established
at the time of the Maccabees, probably under John Hyrcan. It consisted of 71 members,
and was presided over by the nasi (prince), at whose side stood the ab-beth-din (father of
the tribunal). Its members belonged to the different classes of society: there were
priests (a rchiereis); elders, that is, heads of families, men of age and experience (pres-
byteroi); scribes, or doctors of the law (grammateis); and others, exalted by eminent
learning the sole condition for admission into this assembly. The presidentship was
conferred on the high-priest in preference, if he happened to possess the requisite quali-
ties of eminence: otherwise "he who excels all others in wisdom," was appointed, irre-
spective of his station. The limits of its jurisdiction are not known with certainty; but
there is no doubt that the supreme decision over life and death, the ordeal of a suspected
wife, and the like criminal matters, were exclusively in its hands. Besides this, how-
ever, the regulation of the sacred times and seasons, and many matters connected with
the cultns in general, except the sacerdotal part, which was regulated by a special court
of priests, were vested in it. It fixed the beginnings of the new moons; intercalated the
years, when necessary; watched over the purity of the priestly families, by carefully
examining the pedigrees of those priests born out of Palestine, so that none born from a
suspicious or ill-famed mother should be admitted to the sacred service; and the like.
By degrees the whole internal administration of the commonwealth was vested in this
body, and it became necessary to establish minor courts, similarly composed, all over
f.lie country, and Jerusalem itself. Thus we hear of two inferior tribunals at Jerusalem,
each consisting of 23 men, and others consisting of three men only. These courts of 23
men (lesser synedrion), however, as well as those of the three men, about both of which
Josephus is silent, probably represent only smaller or larger committees chosen from the
general body. Excluded "from the office of judge were those born in adultery; men

Sanhita. f 1 A


born of non-Israelitish parents; gamblers; usurers; those who sold fruit grown in the
Sabbatical year; and, in single cases, near relatives. All tliese were also not admitted
as witnesses. Two scribes were always present, one registering the condemnatory, the
other the exculpatory votes. The mode of procedure was exceedingly complicated; and
such was the caution of the court, especially in matters of life and death, that capital
punishment was pronounced in the rarest instances only. The nasi had the supreme
direction of the court, and convoked it when necessary. He sat at the head, and to his
right hand was the seat of th.3 ab-beth-din; the rest of the 71 took their places according
to their dignity, in front of them, in form of a semicircle, so that they could be seen by
both the chief officers. The lictors, or " sheriffs, " were always present at the session.
The court met on extraordinary occasions in the house of the high-priest; its general
place of assembly, however, was a certain hall (lixlicat hagaziz), probably situated at the
s.e. corner of one of the courts of the temple. With exception of Sabbath and feast
days, it met daily. The political troubles forced the sanhedrim (70 B.C.) to change its
abode, which was first transferred to certain bazaars (liannyoth) at the foot of the temple
mount. After the destruction of the temple and Jerusalem, it? finally established itself,
after many further emigrations, in Babylon.

We cannot here enter into that most difficult question as to the origin and develop-
ment of the sanhedrim, and how far it was intended primarily to be a faithful repro-
duction of the Mosaic assembly of the 70 (Moses himself making 71), supposed to have
been re-established by Ezra after the exile; any more than we can examine in this place
into the widely different opinions respecting the jurisdiction and competence of the
sanhedrim at the time of Christ and the apostles; how far, in fact, it may be said to
have existed at all save for a few matters of smallest importance curtailed and cir-
cumscribed as it was by the Romans, who seem to have recognized only the "high-
priest;" and that collateral but most vital question, whether it was the sanhedrim at all
from whom emanated those well-known acts recorded in the New Testament. There
can be no question as to its utter incompetence to arraign Christ for a " crimen Ireste
majestatis," i.e., for high treason against the Roman emperor. No less difficult is the
explanation of many of the proceedings against the apostles ascribed to this body. The
suggestion that the word synedrion, as used in the New Testament, stands only for an
arbitrarily convoked "lynch-tribunal," deserves more consideration than it has hitherto
received. '

SANHITA is thje name of that portion of the Vedas which contains the mantras or
hymns. See VEDA. .

SANILAC, a co. in e. Michigan, lying on lake Huron; drained by Black and Cast
rivers; 963sq.m. ; pop. '80, 26.341 13,479 of American birth. The surface is rolling
and broken, and the soil only moderately fertile; wheat, oats, hay, wool, butter, and
maple sugar are tlie staples; lumber is the chief article of export. There are several
manufactories of furniture and of carnages, and 4 flouring-mills. Co. seat, Lexington.

SANITARY COMMISSION, UNITED STATES, an organization created from among
the people of the northern states during the war of the rebellion, which supplemented
the medical service of the union army. Its duties and labors comprehended the choice
and inspection of camps; the transportation of the wounded from the field of battle and
their proper hospital accommodation and treatment; the supply of medical and general
stores; the formation of convalescent camps; the organization of relief corps to proceed
wherever needed and perform whatever sanitary or other helpful service was required ;
the special inspection of hospitals by skilled surgeons and physicians; and the establish-

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 25 of 203)