Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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its rate per hour multiplied by the number of hours it has affected the ship, the dis-tancc.

Purtdkl Hitting may be employed when a ship sails between two places, on the >;.me
parallel of latitude, in which case, if her hi ad be kipt accurately and constantly in an e. or
w. direction, she will describe an arc of the parallel between the two ph-ees. As in this
sailing the departure is the same arc of Ihc parallel that the difference of longitude is of
the equator, the ihp. (which is now the distance) = dif'. of lung. X &*. of lat. The other
elements arc found as in plane sailing.

Middle liititiiti/' tailing is the application of the principle of parallel sailing to the case
in which the ship's course is not perpendicular but oblique to the ir.eric'.ian: it i.s merely
an approximate method, coming very close to a true estimate in low latitudes for ar.y
course, and in all latitudes fora course nearly c. and w. (i.e., one in which the distance
is large as compared Avith the difference of latitude), but errinsr widely under other cir-
cumstances, though errors may be diminished as much as we please by dividing the dis-
tance into portions, and calculating the dif. of long, for each. The object of this sailing
is to deduce the dif. of 'long, from the dep.. and cifl <</,</, on the suppn>ition that the
whole departure has been made good along the parallel of latitude which is equidistant
from each extremity of the course, a method which, at first sight, would seem to give a,
correct result, and would do so if the parallels of latitude increased uniformly, which
they do not. The dep., when laid off along the parallel of middle latitude, always gives
the dif. of long, too small, and hence the limitations above noticed. When the latitudes
are of the same name, the middle latitude is half their sum: but when cf contrary,
it is better to find the dif. of long, for the portion on each side of the equal or st p;.n. lely,
the two middle latitudes being respectively half the latitude of the place sailed from, and
half that of the place sailed to. The formulas arc the same as for parallel sailing acd
plane sailing.

M, r&itor* wiling is a perfect method of obtaining the same result as is found approxi-
mately by middle latitude sailing, hut in the former case the dif. of long, is it ulid from
the departure, while in this method the difference of latitude is employed for the same
purpose. A table of meridional parts, as it is called, is necessary; this tal le sl.< w> the
number of minutes in Mercator's projection (see MAP) corresponding to each decree ai:d
minute of latitude up to 78 , and is employed as follows. The 1-ilitude sailed from, and
that reached, being known or found, the meridional parts for each are obtained, and their
difference, if the latitudes are of the same name, or sum if of opposite r.ames. gives the
dif. of lat We have then a right-anirled triangle, with the dif. of Int. and dif. of long,
forming the two smaller sides, and the 1 vertical anirle representing the course, whence
dif. of long. = d>f. of lat. X f<m. f course. This s-uling is the one most cenernllv < mj h\vi d
by navigators, but is inferior in practice to middle-latitude sailing, in the ca-es nct'c- d
under that head, for though it be a perfect, and the other merely an approximate method,
yet a small ror in the course (if large), or in the dif. of lat.. become* greatly magnified
in the dif of iontr. ; while in the case of the latter, a considerable error in dt parture is
h:\rdly Pii>^ T i .fled, and a large error in the course (if nearly e. and w.) becomes inipcr-

Saint Bees.

coptible in the dif. of long. It is, however, better to work the problem according to
both methods, and then estimate the true result as nearly as possible.

Great circle sailing (q.v.), the most perfect of all methods for finding a ship's course,
is separately noticed. See also SPHEKOGKAPH.

The obstacles that interfere with the correctness of the mariner's calculations are chiefly
those which affect his data, the course and distance, the more important being the mag-
netic deviation of the compass produced by the attraction of the ship, errors in the- e-ti-
mated leeway or in the set and drift of currents, etc. ; all of which require to be taken
into account" The necessity for frequently checking the dead-reckoning (q.v.), by means
of astronomical observations, is sufficiently apparent.


SAIN FOIN, or SAINTFOIN, OnobrycJiix sattta, a plant of the natural order Icr/umiiiosf,
suborder papilionncaf, of a genus nearly allied to hedywrum (see FRENCH HONEYSUCKLE),
but having o:ie-seeded pods, which are marked with wrinkles or pits, and are more or
less prickly-toothed at the margin. It is a spreading perennial, about 2 or 3 ft. high,
with leaves of 9 to 15 smooth acute leaflets, and spikes of beautiful flesh colored flowers,
striated with rose-red, on long stalks. It is a native of the continent of Europe and of
the s. of England, and is much cultivated as a fodder-plant in dry, and particularly in
calcareous soils, to which it is admirably adapted. Its cultivation was introduced into
England in 1631; and before the introduction of turnip-husband ry, the sheep-farmers of
the chalk districts depended almost entirely upon it, as they still do to such a degree that
in many leases there is a stipulation for the tenant's leaving a certain extent of laud in
sainfoin. It is, however, a very local crop, being scarcely cultivated on any but the most
calcareous soils, where nothing else is nearly equal to it, although it has been found to
succeed well on any soil sufficiently dry. There is no more nutritious fodder than sain-
foin, whether for sheep, oxen, or horses. Even the dry stems of a crop which has pro-
duced seed are readily consumed by ca'tle. if cut into small pieces. Sainfoin sometimes
endures for 10, or even 15 years on the same land more generally only for 4 to 7 years;
and in the eastern counties of England it is often sown instead of clover on light and
Boinc'.vlwt calcareous sands and sandy loams, and the ground is plowed again in two
or three years. The name sainfoin is perhaps rather sangfvin, from the blood-color of
the flowers, than suint-foiii (holy hay).


SAINT ALBAN HALL, Oxford, takes its name from Robert de St. Alban. a citizen
of Oxford, who conveyed the building to the nuns of Littlemore. near Oxford, in 1200.
On the dissolution of the nunnery, it was given by king Henry VIII. to his physician,
George Owen. D.M.. who conveyed it to lord Williams of Tharae, and sir John Gresham.
By their assignees, it was finally transferred to the warden and fellows of Merton col-
lege, and was some time after established as an academical hall. The principal of this,
as well as of the other four halls, is assisted in his duties by a vice-principal and other
ofii.-ers appointed by himself.

SAINT AL3ANS. See AMJANS, SAINT. (Other names beginning with Sainf. and not
given under that word, will similarly be found under the other part of the name.)

SAINT ALBANS, a city in Franklin co., n. Vt.. 14 m. s. of the Canada line, 3 m.
e. of lake Champl.iin, 59 m. n.w of Montpelier. It is the headquarters of the Central
Vermont railroad and the s. terminus of the Missisquoi railroad: pop. '70. G.OOO. It is
pleasantly situ iled oil elevated land in the midst, of a fertile agricultural iv -i >n, devoted
largely to the products of the dairy; 350000 Ibs. of butter and 5,000 Ibs of cheese,
Valued at $110,000. being shipped annually, principally to Boston. The c -nery 13
diversified; it has several sulphur springs, and is frequented as an a?ree;!b:e summer
resort. Hi the center is a park of 4 acres; it has 2 public libraries, water-work*, gas-
works, a court-house, public schools, several churches, 6 hotels, 2 national banks, a sav-
ing* bank, 4 newspapers, and a nunnery. In the vicinity are quarries of calico stone
and variegated marble. It has large manufactories of locomotives, railroad cars, silicon
steel capped rails, marble, and agricultural implements.

SAINT ALBANS. HARRIET MELLON, Duchess of, 1775-1837. She was a success
ful actress in comedy, who married Mr Coutts. a London banker; at his death sin inlrr
ited a great estate. In 1827 she married the duke' of St. Albans, to whom, at her d'ati,
she bequeathed 10,000 yearly, with a life estate in a portion of her landed prop'-, -IT
but most of her property was'left to the granddaughter of her first husband, h, pvesei t
baroness Bordett-Coutte.

SAINT AMAHD, a t. of France, in the dep. of Cher, stands on the right tv.rk of t an
river of that name. 27 m. s.s.e. of Bourges. It has a Irade in iron. Pop. '70. 7,719.

SAINT AMAND, a small t. of France, in the dep. of Nord, 8 m. n.w. of Valenciennes
The town contains lmt sulphur-springs; and lace, clay-pipes, and porcelain are ma-ii;
factured. Pop. 76. 7.243.


SAINT ANDREWS, a t. in s. New Brunswick, on Passamaquoddy bay; pop. '7*,
1800. It is the terminus of the New Brunswick and Canada railroad; 60 m.'s.w. Ov ',*!.

T K Saimiri.

Saint liees,

Johns, 3 m. from the state line. It is substantially built on a narrow point of land ; on
the e. tin- l):iy, on the w. the St. Croix river. It has au excellent harbor.with two entrances.
It contain.; "a county court-house, 5 churches, puhlic schools, 2 banks, the U. 8. con-
sulate, a custom-house, several hotels, a marine hospital, and a postal savings bank. It
is an agreeable summer resort. Principal industries: lumber, ship- building, and the




SAINT AU GUSTINE, an ancient Spanish t. on e. coast of Florida, is built on the
western shore of an estuary 2 in. from the Atlantic, 160 m. s. of Savannah. It enjoys a
mild and equable climate, and is a resort for consumptive invalids. It was founded in
1563, and is the oldest town in the United States. Pop. '70, 1717.

SAINT AUGUSTINE (ante), city, capital of St. Johns co., Fla., on Matanzas
sound, 2 in. w. of the Atlantic ocean, from which it is separated by the n. end of Anas-
ta.-ia island. This is the oldest city in the United States first settled in 1565 by Meuen-
dez di- Aviles, a Spanish navigator, who with 1500 followers arrived off the coast Aug.
28, St. Augustine's day, and so named the new settlement after that saint. The Indian
town of Seloy, or Selooe, is said to have occupied the same spot. The early history of
the city was a bloody one, ihe original settlers having a hard struggle to maintain it
against the Indians and against French and English adventurers. Twice in 1586 by-
sir Francis Drake, and in 1665 by John Davis, a pirate the city was captured and pil-
laged. Still, it grew slowly, and at the time of the cession of the Spanish provinces to
Great Britain, in 1763, it numbered some 3,000 inhabitants, besides a garrison of 2,500
men; but it was then partly abandoned by the Spanish settlers; and the last ccnsus(1870)
rates the populati-.m at only 1717 some two-thirds of whom are of Spanish descent. The
populaiion in 18-0 was prolribly a little over 2,200. The principal objects of interest are
the Roman Catholic cathedral, an imposing structure in the Moorish style, erected in
1793;' tort Marion (originally fort San Marco), which was finished in 1756, after nearly
a century of enforced labor by Indian slaves and Mexican convicts; and the U. S.
barracks, one of the finest buildings of the kind in America, originally a Franciscan
convent. Besides these there are t\\o convents, a custom-house, formerly the residence
of the Spanish governors, 2 newspaper offices, 2 public schools, a number of hotels, and 5
churches of the following denominations: Episcopal, Presbyterian, Roman Catholic. Bap-
tist. an-1 Methodist, the last two belonging to colored congregations. Along the e. front
of the city h a sa-wall 4 ft. wide and abo-U a mile long, erected at considerable expense
by thcj U. S. government in 1837-4'2. whii-h is used as a promenade. The private resi-
dences are mostly quaint and old-fashioned, constructed of a material called coquina
rock, a conglomerate of shells and shell lime, of which there are extensive quarries on
Anastasia island. To many of them are attached high-walled gardens, enriched with an
abundance of tropical fruits and flowers. The mildness of the climate and the historical
interest of the place draw to it every winter many invalids and tourists, sometimes
10,000 i:i a single season. The harbor is good, although the bar at its month prevents
the entrance of vessel* drawing more than 10 feet. Two lines of sailing vessels run
between this port and New York. There is railroad communication to Tocoi. a landing
on the St. Johns about 15 m. distant. The manufacture of Palmetto straw goods is the
principal industry.

SAINT AUSTELL, a small t. of Cornwall, 13 m. n.e. of Truro by railway. Woolen
goods are manufactured, and at the bay of Saint Austell, from which the town is about
a mile distant, there is a pilchard-fishery, and tin and copper are exported. Pop. '71,


SAINT BEES, an ancient village of Cumberland, pleasantly situated on the bay
formed by S/. /> c.x Hctrd. It is 4m. s. of Whitehaven. and about 10 m. beyond the
limits of the lake district. Saint Bees is a station on the Whitchavcn and Furness Juno,
tion railway. The parish is very large, comprising town and port of Whitehaven, village
of Saint Bees, and several chapelries and town-hips. The village of St. Bees contains
about 1.100 inhabitants. According to tradition, preserved by the early chroniclers.
Saint Bees originated in a nunnery founded here. 650 A. D., by an Irish saint named
Bega. of whom Sand ford's MS. (in'lhe Dean and Chapter library. Carlisle) records a
very pretty legend. It appears to have been destroyed before the feign of Henry I., in
whose time we find that Ranulph, earl of Cumberland, reconstituted it as a priory; but
after the dissolution of the monasteries, it went to ruin. The institution known as
SAINT BEES COLLEGE was established in 1816 by Dr. Law, then bishop of Chester, to
supply a systematic training in divinity to young men desirous of ordination, whose
means wore inadequate to defray the expenses of a university education. The bishops
of the province of York had previously been compelled to ordain a number of such men
as literates, the poverty of many of the northern benefices not securing a sufficient sup-
ply of graduates. A portion of the ruined priory of Saint Bees was fitted up by the
earl of Lousdale as lecture-rooms, library, etc. On the recommendation of the bishop,

Saint Hernard. 1 A


an incumbent was selected for the perpetual curacy of Saint Bees (value, 100 per
annum) by llie patron, the earl of Lousdule, with a view to his holding the position of
principal of the college in connection with the living. The principal selects his own
staff of lecturers. The expenses are defrayed from the feus paid by the students 10
each term. The college course extends over two years, each divided into two terms,
from about Jan. 28 to May 5. and Aug. 25 to Dec. 5. During this period, the standard
English divinity works with the Greek Testament, are chieay studied, and the com-
position of sermons, etc., practiced. The students reside in lodgings in the village,
under the control of the principal, and attend the service daily in the parish church, the
transepts of which were restored in 1855 for their accommodation. A new Ice lure- room
and library were built in 1863, adjoining the ancient structure. Students are admitted
at the age of 21, on producing testimonials of ohaiacler, etc., satisfactory to the princi-
pal. Graduates of a university where there isAio divinity course are admitted to the
second year's course on producing their diplonra, along with the usual testimonials as to
their fitness for the ministry. Students who have passed the course are not n.iw cm-
fined to the northern province, as was the original design, but are admitted into most of
the southern dioceses. The average number of students in the college is about 100.
Near the church is an endowed grammar school. Saint Bees is in some repute as a sea-
bathing place.

SAINT BERNARD, a parish in extreme s.e. Louisiana; bounded by the gulf of
Mexico, the Mississippi, and lake Borgne, on the s.e., n., and n.w. respectively'; about
650 sq.m. ; pop. '80, 4,405 4,016 of American birth, 2,301 colored. The surface is low
and level; sweet-potatoes, sugar-cane,. and molasses are the staples. Chief town. Suint



SAINT CATH ERINE'S, an incorporated t. of the province of Ontario (formerly Canada
West), Canada. It is on the Wtlland canal, and is a station on the \Vel land' railway.
The town is very flourishing, and has large manufactures of machinery and agricultural
implements. The surrounding country is very picturesque. The well-known mineral
well of Saint Catherine's, whose water is of great value as a remedial agent, supplies on
an average 180,000 gallons a day. Of these waters, a large quantity, partially evaj (.rated,
is sent out through the country. A second well, similar to the first, is also in use.
Kaint Catherine's has been called the Saratoga of British America. Its holds are equal
to any in the province. Saint Catherine's is 33 in. to the s. of Toronto, and 12 in. from
Niagara Falls. Pop. '71, 7.864.

SAINT CFTATJLES, a paris-h in s.e. Louisiana, s. of lake Pontcharlrain Abounded
on the s.e. by lake Washa, drained by the Mississippi river; on the Louisiana and T< xas,
and the Chicago, St. Louis and New Orleans railroads; about 350 sq.m. ; pop. 80, 7,161
5,761 colored. The surface is level and the soil fertile. Principal productions are
cotton, rice, and sugar-cane. Co. seat, St. Charles.

SAINT CHARLES, a co. in e. Missouri, adjoining Illinois, bounded on the n. by
the Mississippi And Copper rivers, on the s.e by the Missouri river; traversed by the
St. Louis, Kansas City and Northern railroad; about 5HO sq.m. pop. '80, 3,060 2.410
colored. The surface is moderately hilly, and well wooded. Bituminous coal is found.
The soil is fertile. The principal productions are corn, wheat," oats, and live slock. Co.
seat, Saint Charles.

SAINT CHARLES, a city, the co. seat of St. Charles co., Mo., on the n. bank of
the Missouri, and on the St. Louis, Kansas City and Northern railroad; pop. '70, 5.570.
The city has a fire and a police department, gas, etc. It has churches, schools, banks,
an insurance company. 4 newspapers. St. Charles college, Liudenwood college for girls,
and the Roman Catholic convent of the Sacred Heart. "The manufacturing inic rots are
extensive, including n bridge-building establishment, a foundry and machine-shop, a
pork-packing establishment, a car-manufactory, flour-mills, woolen-mills, cooper-shops,
manufactories of tobacco, furniture, plows, etc. A bridge of iron, 6,535 ft. long, with
7 spans, crosses the Missouri at this point; finished in 1871 at a cost of $1,750,OU).

SAINT CLAIR a co. in n.e. central Alabama; drained by the Cahawba and Coosa
rivers, the latter its s.e. boundary; traversed by the Alabama and Chattanooga rail-
road; 650 sq.m.; pop. '80. 14,463 14,425 of American birth, 2,838 colored. Surface
broken, and in great part woodland; cotton, corn, grass, and pork are the staples.
Bituminous coal is found. Co. seat, Ashville.

SAINT CLAIR. a co. in s.w. Illinois; bounded on the w. by the Mississippi river,
watered by Kaskaskia river. Silver and Richland creeks; traversed by the Ohio and .Mis-
sissippi, the St. Louis, Alton and Terre Haute, the St. Louis and Southeastern, the Illi-
nois and St. Louis, and the St. Louis, Belleville and Southern railroads; about 600 sq.m. ;
pop. 'SO, 61,850 45.870 of American birth. The surface is rolling. The soil is fertile.
The principal productions are corn, wheat, and oats. Coal is found. Co. seat, Belleville.

SAINT CLAIR, a co. in e. Michigan, bounded on the e. by lake Huron and the St.
Clair river, on the s. by kike St. Clair; watered by Black aud Bell rivers and Mill

n Saint Bernard.

Sain tc-luve.

creek, crossed by the Grand Trunk and (he Chicago and lake Huron railroads; about
800 sq.m. ; pop. *80, 46,197 2D,0^o of American birth. The surface is rolling and
heavily wooded. The soil in the s. is fertile. The principal productions are wheat,
corn, oats, and wool. Co. seat, St. Clair.

SAINT CLAIR, a co. in s.w. Missouri, drained by the Sac and the Osage rivers,
and Warbleau creek, traversed by the Missouri, Kansas and Texas railroad; about 670
sq.m.; pop. '80. 14,157 lo, 870 of American birth. The surface is prairie or woodland.
The soil is fertile. The principal productions are corn, oats, and live stock. Co. seat,

SAINT CLAIR, acityins.e. Michigan, incorporated 1858; on the Michigan, Mid-
!:md and Canada, and the Chicago, Saginaw and Canada railroads; pop. '80, 1923. It
is 48 m. n.c. of Detroit, 12 m. s. of Port Huron, opposite Courtright on the St. Clair
river. It has 5 churches, public schools, 2 banks, 6 steam brick-yards, 2 ship-yards, and
manufactures of lumber, leather, woolen goods, machinery, carriages, ale, and beer. It
contains 2 hotels and a newspaper ollice, and has a large interest in hay-shipping.

SAINT CLAIR, a borough in Schuylkill co., Penn., on Mill creek, and the Phila-
delphia and Reading railroad; pop. '70, 5,726. It stands on fiat ground, inclosed by
hills full of anthracite coal, near which are immense coal-works. There are churches,
newspapers, schools, a blast-f uniace, a manufactory of shovels, etc.

SAINT CLAIR, ARTHUR, 1734-1818; b. at Thurso, Caithness-shire, Scotland; edu-
cated at the university of Edinburgh. He joined the British army as an ensign, and, in.
1758, came to America with admiral Boscawen; served with distinction under Amherst
at Louisburg, and under Wolfe at Quebec; resigned his commission in 1762, and held
various civil offices until the breaking out of the revolution, when he joined the colonial
army with the rank of col. Promotion rapidly followed upon his gallant services at the
battles of Three Rivers, Princeton, and Trenton, until in 1777 he was raised to the rank
of maj.gen., and placed in command at Ticonderoga. That point he was forced to sur-
render to Burgoyne, and although acquitted of all blame by court-martial, his conse-
quent unpopularity lost him his command. Remaining in the army as a volunteer he
again rose to important positions, distinguishing himself under Washington in the cam-
paign which ended with the surrender of Cornwallis, and afterward under Greene. He
was a member of the continental congress 1785-87, becoming its president in the latter
year. In 1788 he was made the first governor of the Northwest territory, which position
he held until 1802. Meanwhile, becoming, in 1791, commander-m-chief of the U. 8.
army, he was sent on an expedition against the Miami Indians, which ended in the dis-
astrous rout of his forces. A committee of investigation appointed by congress exon-
erated him. but he resigned his command in May, 1792. His last years were spent in
poverty and obscurity.

SAINT CLOUD, a city in central Minnesota, on the St. Paul and Pacific railroad, by
which it is connected with St. Paul; pop. '70, 2,080. It is the co. seat of Stearns co.,
75 m. from St. Paul, on the w. bank of the Mississippi river, a few miles below the
mouth of Sank river, and 3 m. below Sauk rapids. It is built on a high bluff, com-
manding a fine view of the river, and is the seat of the state normal school. It has a
public library, a fine brick court-house, 7 churches, 4 newspapers (1 German), and 2
banks. The rapids furnish valuable water-power, which is utilized by the manufacture
of lumber, flour, wagons, iron, brass, and marble. It is in the center of a grain and
stock-raising country, and in the vicinity of beds- of granite, which is shipped to Chi-
cago. In the season steamers run from this place to the falls of St. Anthony.

SAINT C30IX, an American river, called also the Passamaquoddy, which, flowing out
of Grand 1 ike, on the eastern border of Maine, runs c.s.e. 75 m. to Passamaquoddy bay,
and forms a portion of the boundary between the United States and New Brunswick.

SAINT CRO1X, a river of Wisconsin, rising near the the w. end of lake Superior in
Douglas co., and emptying into the Mississippi about 38 m. below St. Paul. Its course

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 3 of 203)