Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 31 of 203)
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Sanitary. 1 OC>

{iun Joaquin.

diarrhea, liver disease, insolation, phthisis, scurvy, military oplitl-Virifi (gray granula-
tions on the palpebral conjunctiva), and venereal diseases.*

It is tlie miasmatic diseases which form the lirst order of the d -: of zymotic dis-
eases, which seem most under our control. We have shown in a previous page that
recent researches tend to show that various of these diseases owe ilitir oiuiin to fii:i<d.
We shall conclude this imperfect sketch of the history, progress, and results of sanitary
science with a history of tlie recently discovered clwlem-funr/us, and with a notice of the
other recent scientific investigations regarding the nature and prevention cf this disease
(which may b'3 regarded as a supplement to the article CHOLEUA). At the international
congress lield at Weimar in 1867, the cholera-fungus was the great /center of interest.
Tlu subject had been investigated by professors Hallier and DeBary, two of the lending
German mycologists, and the latter drew up a report, the following abstract of wh>ch is
given by Mr. Simonf: " Both observers find in cholera evacuations, and in the intes-
tinal mucus of the dead body, definite organic structures, zooglcea, consisting of exces-
sively fine granules, clustered more or less densely in the interspaces of a jelly, \\ nidi
more or less abundantly surrounds them. The granules divide and subdivide themselves,
to form beaded threads, which interlace, in immense numbers, into felted masses in the
mucus. The further development of these organisms has yet to be determined. Dr.
Thome, by sowing them, has got, after some time, larger, round, cell-like bodies, which
rapidly multiplied, and also abundant filamentous fungi (cylindrv ta-niiim), on which
grew cylindrical spores, capable of developing again to filaments. Views as to the
mutual relations of these cells, filaments, and spores, are for various reasons to be
expressed only with reserve; and the study of them is so immensely difficult, that
definite results cannot at once be expected. The significance of these fungi would be
greatly increased if they should he shown to exist iu the blood as well as in the bowels
of the sick; but this, though from some inquiries it seems probable, must at present be
deemed questionable." It has been since ascertained that this fungus requires a high
temperature (86 to 112 F.) for its fructification, and therefore cannot be of Kuropean
origin. " The doctrine of the cholera-fungus," says Mr. Simon " the alleged discovery
that the specific zymosis of cholera, the bowel-fermentation in respect of which it is con-
tagious, has essentially associated with it, and perhaps as its immediate cause, a delinite
multiplying organic form is not only of the utmost philosophical interest, but, should
it be substantiated, may also, hereafter, be found capable, of very important practical
application. For, as one reflects on the doctrine in all its bearings, specially, as one
considers prof. Halher's conjecture (based on botanical considerations), that perhaps the
cylindro-taanium is originally a blight of rice, someihing like a rhie is for the lirst time
suggested for investigations, which may hereafter conduce to the prevention of cholera
in its eastern centers of origination. But for us in Europe, meanwhile, the doctrine
may be absolutely sterile of results. In its broad signification, indeed, the discovery
would not be a surprise to pathologists. The possibility has for some years past been
recognized, that perhaps every fermentatory or putrefactive change of organic material
has with it, and possibly as its cause, a characteristic molecular living thing; and how-
ever sure it may have become, that the choleraic zymosis answers to that possibility, it
remains yet untried whether disinfection (which, after all, is but a doubtful ICM urec)
can deal better with the process on that basis, than on the purely chemical basis which
has hitherto been the ground of our proceedings."

"It cannot," adds the same high authority, "be too distinctly understood. that the
person who contracts cholera in this country isipsofMto demonstrated, wit h almost absolute
certainty to have been exposed to excremental pollution; that what gave him cholera
was (mediately or immediately) cholera-con lagium, discharged from another's bowels;
that, in short, the diffusion of cholera among us depends entirely upon the n;.ml>< i less
filthy facilities which are let exist, and specially in our larger towns,-for the fouling of
earth, and air, and water, and thus, secondarily, for the infection of man, with whatever
contagion may be contained in the miscellaneous outflow ings of the population.

"Cholera, ravaging here at long intervals, is not nature's only retribution for our
neglect in such matters as are iu question. Typhoid fever and much endemic diarrhea
are, as I have often reported, incessant witnesses to the san^e deleterious influence;
typhoid fever, which annually kills some 15,000 to 20,100 of our population, arid diar-

* In connection with diseases or affections which may he totally or in a very great mo.-.pure pro-
rented, is short-sightedness. Dr. Colin, of Breslau, has exr.mined the eyes of 10.0(50 school-children,
out of which number 1730, or 17.1 percent,, were found to be short-sighted. No vi!) ^.ire-children were
affected until they had been at least half a yoar at school. Dr. Cohn attributes the evil, in a great
measure, to the bad construction of the school-benches, which force the children to read with their
boolcs close to their eyes, and with their heads inclining downward.

tA much fuller abstract (by Dr. Buchanan) of prof. Hallior's recent researches into the natural
history of the cholera contagion, as contained in his pamphlet entitled. l;cr Choir ra-Contaffion: P-o-
tanische Unterguchungen, Aertzen und Ktitwfomchrn t, 18(17. is given. in pp. 512-515 of the
appendix to Mr. Simon's ninth report, to which that able pathologist has added a most instructive
note on the earlier microscopic observations that had been instituted, especially by our own country-
man, on the cholera evacuations. On the subject of cholera tha reader should also consult. Dr. Parkes's
Sanitary Report (Army Medical Department) for 1805 (published in 18C7), in which he diwcussea the
recent additions to our' knowledge of (I; The specific cause of cholera the cholera-fungus; (2) The
fipread of cholera by intercourse; (3) Its communication by the so-called premonitory diarrhea; (4)
It3 spread by the agency of water; (5) and its prevention by disinfecting the discharges by means of
carbolic acid, sulphate of iron, and salts of zinc.

1 oo Saiiitarv.

San Joaquiu.

rh^a, which kills many thousands besides. The mere quantity of this wasted life is hor-
rible to contemplate, and the mode in which the waste is caused is surely nothing less
thati shameful. It is to be hoped that, as the education of the country advances, this
sort of thing will come to an end; that so much preventable death will not always be
accepted as a fate; that, for a population to be thus poisoned by its own excrement, will
some d:iy lx' deemed ignominious and intolerable."

In conclusion we may remark, that Mr. Simon's ninth report for 1866 (published in
1867) is one of the most valuable contributions to the literature of cholera that has ever
been presented to the profession. The history of this disease in England in 1866 is first
given. This is followed by a series of scientific investigations on the following points:
1. Examination of the degrees of success attained by different methods of treatment of
cholera nt Guy's, St. Bartholomew's, the London, and St. Thomas's hospitals. 2. Study
of the successive chemical changes undergone by the body in cholera. 3. Similar study,
chiefly microscopical, of the successive anatomical chanyen of the affected body. 4. Col-
lection <>f facts as to the non-coincidence of local epidemics of cholera with Mich condi-
tions of the local around- water as are indicated by a foul state of the surface-wells. The
results of these studies are given in the appendix. Unfortunately, the practical result of
these inquiries is, that in cases of developed cholera "our utmost power is but perhaps
some very little ability of palliation, and in the treatment of incipient cholera competent
physicians are not agreed that even here their art has much efficiency." In contrast with
the powerlessness of curative medicine, the power of preventing it is about the happiest
possession of science. The evidence of Dr. Buchanan and others clearly shows that
cholera may be prevented by due attention to sanitary works, which provide for the
prompt and complete removal of fecal impurities, and the plentiful supply of water
which cannot have been exposed to this form of contamination. In addition to the
works quoted in this article, we may refer those of our renders who wish to study this
subject more fully, to the French treatises on hygiene by Becquerel, Levy. Tardieu,
Vernois, and others. There is, however, no work on the subject, in any language equal
to that of Dr. Parkes. from which we should not have ventured to borrow so freely if
\ve hud not had the author's kind permission.

SANITARY SURVEY, a purvey made by a health officer or a sanitary commission
for t he purpose of determining the sanitary conditions of a locality, both natural and
artificial, or eiiher. with a view of ascertaining the proper remedies, if any are required.
When a city or a district has been, or is, affected by an enidemic or an epidemic disease
several important questions may be settled by a survey by a civil engineer combined
with an inspection. See SANITARY SCIENCE, HEALTH (ante), HEALTH, MUNICIPAL.

SAN JACINTO, a co. in s.e. Texas; bounded on the n.e. by the Trinity river;

drained by the branches of the San Jacinto river; about 500 sq.m.; pop. '80,6,186
8,&)1 colored. The surface is rolling. The soil is fertile. The principal productions
are corn and cattle. Co. seat, Cold Spring.

SAN JACINTO, BATTLE OF, near San Jacinto bay, Texas, April 21, 1836. between
the Texan troops, 700 in number, under gen. Houston, and about 1500 Mexicans, under
Santa Anna. Harrisburg, then the capital, was burned by the Mexicans on the night bf
the 18th. Houston was marching on a parallel line with the Mexicans with a view to
get control of the. ferry over the San Jacinto. Santa Anna, endeavoring to cut oil
Houston's ret reat, came up to the bay about the same time with him. The opposing
forces took up positions about one mile apart, and Houston, reiving on his knowledge nf
the ground, resolved to fight. After some preliminary ski: mi^l .ing on the 20th, the buttle
took place on the 31st. It was h.irdiy more than a sharp charge by the Texans. who
rushed on wilii the cry "Remember the A!amo." Santa Anna tied, but was afterward
capt ured. He was released on parole on condition to do his best to insure the recognition
of Texan independence. The Texan loss was only 8 killed and 25 wounded.

SAN'JAK, a Turkish word signifying "a standard," is employed to denote a sub-
division of an ci/nk-t (q.v.), because the ruler of such a subdivision, called tniynk-beg, is
entitled to carry in war a standard of one horse-tail. The sunjalc is frequently called a
liva, and its ruler a mirmiram.


SAN JOAQTJIN', a river of California, rises in the Sierra Nevada, and runs first
.w. to its junction with the outlet of lake Tulare, thence n.w. to its junction with the
Sacramento river, 50 m. from the bay of San Francisco. It receives numerous branch.'.*
from both the coast range of mountains and the Sierra Nevada. Entire length, 350 m.,
for only tv small portion of which it is navigable for large vessels.

SAN JOAQU1N', a co. in central California; drained by the San Joaquin river and
by the Calaveras and other of its branches; traversed by the Central Pacific, the
Btockton and Visalia, and the Stockton and Copperopolis railroads; 1,452 sq.m.; pop.
'80, 24,?',54 17,187 of American birth, 1,J84 Chinese. The surface is not rugg< d,
though the county lies between the Coast aud Sierra Nevada ranges; there is much marsh
laud in the n.J*. Co. seat, Stockton.

Banjo. _ 1 O 4

CAI7JO SAXEYOSIII, (lie present premier of Japan, b. in Kioto, 1836, of one of
Hie inoct illu;..tri;)u.; lumilicr. i:i the Kujo. or court nobility. Fur sympathizing too
stron ;ly wii.h the attempts to restore the mikado tJ Lij uiicicut power he ami six other
no':lcs were b.:ni.;hcd from Kioto, 1G33, to ChOjhiu and deprived of their honors and




tiilcj by the Tycoon's ministers resident i:i Kioto. These bix nobles -were restored to
lioaor and after the palace revolution and coup d\.t<it of Jan. 15. 1808, and JSanjo
Pan'-y.;s:u was made an active r.icmb. r cf the ne\v government. In 1871, by a decree of
the mikado, he -was made d<ii jo duijln (the great minister of the great government)- or
}'-' ;uicf, and still (July, IGbp,) holds this supreme otiice, the highest to Which a subject
in Japan can attain, ll;-, with I\v;:kura and the oilier daijin. iurm t:ic triumvirate that
r -presents the conservative force of the imperial court, u8 modifying the active tendencies
cf tlio departmental ini::i .tcr.-. Tiic office of dui jo dtiijin is of very ancient foundation,
entedaiing probably the Clh century.

SAX JOSE, the seat of justice of Santa Clara co., Cal., on the Southern Pacific
railroad, and the terminus of the Saa Jose branch of the Central Pacific; on the Gauda-
loupe river, 48 in. s.c. of San Francisco bay; pop. '80, 12,ot>7. The city is situated ou a
plateau between, and extending beyond, the Gaudaloupe and Coyote rivers, which aio
li- m. apart. The climate is dry and even. It has wide and regular streets; is lighted
with gas; supplied with water from artesian wells, and is noted for its tine gardens.
The principal public buildings are the court-house, slate normal school, jail, and two
mankels. It has three parks of 2, 8, and 10 acres, and there is one of 4JO acres. 7 in.
distant in Penitcucia canon, containing mineral springs and wild aii.l picturesque
scenery, a magniiicent avenue, which cost (;BJ,OJO, and bordered by rows of trees, leads
to it. It contains the college of Notre Dame for girls, a largo opera house, a library
hilion, a business college, churehos, and numerous manufactories. It was settled
J>y Spaniards about 1800, was ceded to t!ie United States, and the lirst legir-Luure of
California "'as held there in 184l)-50. Slight earthquake shocks are sometimes felt.

SAN JOSE, or SAX JOSE DEL INTEHIOU, the capital of Costa Rica, Central America,
on the river Carth igo, an I 15 in. w.n.w. of the remains of the town of that name, which

Puuu Arenas. Pop of San Jose. 25,0^0.

SAX JUAN', a co. in n.e. "Washington territory, comprising tlio inlands of Pan Juan,
Orcas, Lopez, Illakcly, Dc'catur, Shaw, Waldron, Henry, Spiedun, Stuart, and S;ieia,
with a few islets, all in Puget sound, between Vancouver island and the main-land;
Shout 300 sq.m.; San Juan and Orcas islands about OOsq.m. each; Lopez SO. These
island-* previous to the San Juan boundary dispute <q.v.) we.'o part of Whatcom co., but
in 18T3 were made into a new county. They a;e rugged and heavily wooded, but there
is some prairie land. Coal and limestone are found. Co. oeat, Friday Harbor.

SAN JUAN BOUNDARY QUESTION^e under the treaty of Juno 15, 1846.
between tlu United States and Great Britain in regard to the Oregon boundary, which
was made by the treaty the 49th parallel as a line 1o "the middle, of the channel which
BO para to-* the continent from Vancouver island, and thence southerly through the mid-
dle of said channel and of Fuca straits, to the Pacific ocean." Afterward a difference
of opinion arose between the two countries as to what "channel " was mo.-mt; the United
Slates maintaining that it was the canal de H;iro, and Great Britain that it
Rosario strait, so that it remained unsettled to which government Washington s


and the islands in it belonged. An amicable arrangement was riFccted in 18-59, by which
the two governments jointly occupied the island, the United Stales having a irar'rison in
the s, and Great Britain in the north. The treaty of Washington (1871), art. ;M, referred
the controversy to th;- emperor of Germany, who decided for the United States in 187:3.
The Britisli garrison left in November.

SAN JUAN DE LA FEONTE'RA, n t. of the Argentine republic, the capitnl of a prov-
ince of the same name in the extreme w. of the republic. The town, 6 >0 m n w
from Buenos Ayres, stands on the right bank of a river, also called Sap Juan de la
Krontcra. which rises in the Andes, and falls into the large salt lake of Gunnacn- -he
1 ne province is us yet only very partially settled, but exports considerable quantities of
Innts and wine. The chief seat of trade is this town, which has a pop. of 20 000 almost
one-third of that of the whole province'.


SAN JUAN RITER. a river of Nicaragua the sole outlet of lake Nicaragua. After
leaving the s.e. end of the lake, it Hows in a s.c. course for 120 m. and empties into the
Atlantic Its delta is large and there are three channels, the Taura. San Juan ;md
The last is the only one easily navigable, but lies within the limits of Costa
Rica. The town of San Juan del Norte. or Grcytown, lien near the San Juan channel
but its harbor has in large part been tilled with sand and is now difficult of access The
river has a number of branches of which the San Carlos and Sarapiqui are the largest,

I 0?C Sanjo.


There are five sets of rapids rendering navigation impossible. The Ran Juan is part of
the proposed Nicaragua route i'or the interpeeaniq canal and has several times I/ecu sur-
veyed with a view to its use for that purpose.

6' ANKARA, or 8'AKKARlCHARTA, i.e., the dchdrya, or spiritual teacher, S'ankara,
is the name of one of tlie most renowned theologians of India. His dale, as i< the casa
with niosi celebrities of thai country, is unknown. Tradition places him about 200 B.C.,
but II. II. Wilson assigns him. with more probability, to the bill or Dili c. after Christ.
With regard to his plure of birth and to his caste, most accounts agree in making him a
native of Kerala or Malabar, and a membor of the caste of the Namburi Braimians. In
Malabar, lie is said to have divided the four original castes into seventy-two, or eighteen
subdivisions each. All accounts represent him as having led an erratic life, and cng^ed
in successful controversies with other Fects. In the course of his career, he fouuued the
sects of the Da* ndrni-Dari d in* (see S AJVAS). Toward the close of his life, he repaired,
to Cashmere; :md finally to Kcdarnaih, in the Himalayas, where he died at the early :ige
of 32. His principal w<.rks, which are of considerable merit, an:l exe/ciscd a great
influence on the religious history of India, are his commentary on the Veddiita (q.v.)
Sutras, and his commentaries on the Bhaga vadgiid and the principal Upanislimlis (q.v.).
His learning and personal eminence were so great that he was looked upon as an
incarnation, of the god S iva, and was fabled to have worked several astounding
miracles. One of these WMS his animating the dead body of a king Amaru, in order to
become temporarily the husband of the la tier's widow, so as to be able to argue with tho
wife of a Brahman mandana upon the topic of sensual enjoyments the only topie oil
which he had remained ignorant, as he had always led the life of a brahmachfu in, or
bad K? lor student A number of works are current in the s. of India relating to his life;
among these the kjattfbtra-ttig-vyaya, or the conquest of the world by Sankara, com
posed by AiK'/nlttf/iri, one of his disciples, is the most important. See II. II. Wiison,
.4 tikt:t<:!i f t't c Jii'ii'/i"!'* &Mtxuf tlie Hiudua; works, vol. i. (edited by Dr. It. Host, 1862),
pp. 197, It'.; and Cavellv Yenkala Kamaswami, Btograplucal kketclics of Ueccan l j oet
(Horn bay, If-i,').

SAIIEIIYA (from (lie [';inskrit tnrJJnjd, synthetic reasoning) is tho name of one of the
three great systems of orthodox Hindu philosophy. See SANSKRIT LITKXATUHK. It
consists of two divisions the Sankhya, properly so called, and Ihe Yoga (q.v.); and
like the other systems (see MIMAXSA and NYAVA), it professes to teach the means by
which eternal beatitude, or the complete and perpetual exemption from every sort of ill.
may ho attained. This means is tlie discriminative acquaintance with tntfirn, or thff
true principles of all existence, and such principles are, according to the b'ankhva sys-
tem, the following twenty five: (1), Prakritim PnuU.dna, substance or nature; it is tha
universal ;i:ul material cause; eternal, undiscrete, inferable from its effects; productive,
but unprodured. Its first, production is (2) MnJtat (lit. the greal), or Bttddhi (lit. intellect),
or the intellectual principle, which appertains to individual beings. From it devolve*
(;5) Ahit.iihini (lit. the assertion of " I''), the function of which consists in referring the
objects of the world in one's-se!f. It produces (4-8) rive tnnm&tra, or subtle elements,
which themselves are productive of the five gross elements (see 20-24). Ahankara
further produces (9-13/ live instruments of sensation viz., the eye, the ear. the nose,
th'- to!iL r ue, and the skin; (14-18), five instruments of action viz., the organ of speech,
the hands, the feet, the excretory termination of the intestines, and the organ of genera-
tion; lastly (19), maim*, or the organ of volition and imagination. The five subtle
elements (see 4-8) pr-iduce (20-24) the five gross elements viz.. dMv'tr, space or ether,
which has the property of ar.diblene=s. is the vehicle of sound, and is derived from tho
xi>i,tn'<ix lanmfitra; air. which has the properties of audibieness and tangibility, is sensi-
ble to hearing and touch, and i< derived from the aerial Innm-dlrti; fire, which has tho
properties of audibleness, tangibility, and color, is sensible of hearing, touch, and siirht,
and is derived from the ir/ncvuM tanmatra: water, which has the properties of audibly-
ness, tangibility, color, and savor, is sensible to hearing, touch, sight, and taste, and is
derived from the <n/>i< <m tanmatra; lastly, earth, which unites the properties of audible-
ness, tangibility, color, savor, and odor, is sensible to hearing, touch, sight, taste, aud
emell, and is derived from the terrene tanmatra. The 25ih principle is p>'"nx!<. or soul.
It is neither produced nor productive; it is multitudinous, individual, sensitive, eternal,
unalterable, and immaterial. The union of soul and nature takes place for the contem-
plation of nature, and for abstraction from it, "as the halt and the blind join for cqn
veyance and for guidance, the one bearing and directed, the other borne and directing."
From their union, creation is effected. The soul's wish is fruition or liberation. ID
order to become fit for fruition, the soul is in the first place invested with u t!nt;<(-x'tir'<ra,
or Biifctfima-s'arira, a subtle body, which is composed of bnddld (2), aJtnnara (:>). tlie fi'vo
tttnmd'i-d* (4-S), and the eleven instruments of sensation, action, and volition (9-19>
This subtle body is affected by sentiments, but being too subtle to be capable of enjoy-
ment, it becomes invested with a grosser body, which is comp >sed of the five gross ele-
ments (20-24), or, according to some, of four, excluding dkfix'a, or. according to others,
of one alone viz., earth. The grower body, propagated by generation, peris' ;>s; tho
subtle frame, however, transmigrates through successive bodies, "as a mimic shifts his
disguises to represent various characters." Some assume, besides, that between these

Sankey. 1 DC

8a.a Muriiio.

two there is intermediately a corporeal frame, composed of the five elements, but tenuous
or refined, the so-called uinm/it /,an<( x'arira.

Creation, resulting from the union of prakr'iti (i) and purusha (25), is material, or
con.-istingof souls invested with gross bodies, and iindlcctuid, or consist ing of the affec-
tions of intellect, it* sentiments or faculties. Material creation comprises eight orders of
superior beings gods, (temi-gods, and demons; rive of inferior beings quadrupeds,
bird-;, reptiles, tislies, and insects; besides vegetable and inorganic; substances.; and man,

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 31 of 203)