Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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who forms a elu>s apart. This material creation is again distributed into three classes:
I lat ofx<itiic<i, or goodness, comprising the higher gods, with virtue prevailing in it: but
l.-ansient; that of tninas, or darkness, where foulness or pasr-'.on predominates: it com-
prices demons and inferior beings; and between these, that of rajas, or impurity it-
colored condition), the human world, where passion together witli misery prevails.
Throughout these worlds, soul experiences pain, arising from death and transmigration,
uuul it is linally liberated from ils union with person. Jiitdlcct\inl crmtinn < on prises
those affections" which obstruct, disable, content, or perfect, the understanding; ihese
amount to titty. Obstructions of intellect are error, conceit, passion, hatred, ftar,
severally subdivided into 62 species. Disability of intellect arises from delect or injury
of organs, such as deafness, blindness, etc., and from the contraries of the two next
clas.-e.-; making a total of 28 species. Content is either internal or external the one
fourfold, the oJier fivefold. Internal content concerns nature, proximate cause, time,
and luck; external content relates to abstinence from enjoyment r.pon tunporal motives
vi/., aversion to the trouble of acquisition, or to that of preservation, siiid relue'ance
to incur loss consequent on use, or evil attending on fruition, or offense of hurling
objects by the enjoyment of them. Tbe perfecting of intellect comprises eight species;
it is direct, as preventing the three kinds of pain; or indirect, such as reasoning, oral
instruction, amicable intercourse, etc.

Besides the 25 principles, the Sankhya also teaches that nature has three essential
ffun'tis, or qualities viz., *attwa, the quality of goodness or purity; riyu* (lit. eolored-
llie quality of passion; and (mints, the quality of sin or darkness; and it classifies
accordingly material and intellectual creation. Thus, four properties of intellect par-
take of yooduess or purity viz., virtue, knowledge, dispassionateness, and power; and
four, the, reverse of the former, pariake of tin or darkness viz.. sin, cnor. incontin
nicy, and powerlessness. It is worthy of notice that by power the Sankhya unders.ands faculties viz., that of shrinking into a minute form, to which everything is per-
\to.i-; of enlarging to a gigantic body; of assuming extreme levity; 'of po-s<ssing
-unlimited reach of organs; of irresistible will; dominion over all beings, anima.e or
inanimate; the faculty of changing the course cf nature; and the ability to accomplish
everything desired. The knowledge of the principles, and hence the true i!oelri:.e, is,
according to the Sankhya, obtained by three kinds of evidence viz., pcreoj Ton,
infeiemc, and right affirmation, which some understood to mean the revelation of the
Veda and authoritative tradition.

It will be seen from the foregoing summary that the Sankhya proper does not teach
the existi nee of a supreme Being, by whom nature and soul were created, ar.d by whom
the world is ruled. It was theicforc accused by its opponents of being alhei-iical, or
as denying the existence of a creator: and it is the special object of the Yofja system to
remove this reproach, by asserting his existence, and defining his essence (see YOGA). The
truth however, is, that the Sankhya proper merely maintains that there is no proof for
the existence of a supreme Being: and the passages quoted by the opponents 1o show that
the founder of the Sfinkhya denied 1's'icara, or a supreme God, are quite compatible with
the view that he confined his teaching to those (attmtx or principles which, in his opin-
ion, were capable of demonstration. Nor is it at all probable that the founder of the
orthodox Yoga would have propounded his system as supplementary to that of the
SSnkhya proper, had there been ihat incompatible antagonism between them which must
separate an atheistical from a theistical philosophy. The Sankhya system underwent a
mythological development in the Pimtn'as (q.v.), in the most important of which it is
followed as the basis of their cosmogony. Thus, Prakr'iti, or nature, is identified by
them with M(ti;d, or the energy of Brahma; and the Matsya-Puran'a affirms that Jinddfii,
or .Malittt, the intellectual principle, through the three qualifies, goodness, passion, and
sin. "being one form, becomes the three gods, Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva." The most
important development, however, of the Sfinkhya is that by the Buddhistic dochine.
which is mainly based on it. The Sankhya system is probably the oldest of lh
Hindu systems of philosophy: for its chief principles are, with more or less detail,
already contained in the chief Upanishads (see VEDA); but whether the form in which
it has come down to us, and in which it is now spoken of as the Sankhya, is also
older than that in which the other systems are preserved, is a question as yet not
solved by Sanskrit philology. That this form, however, is not the oldest one is borne
out. for instance. l>y the differences which exist between .the Sankhya doctrine of the
Upanishads and the doctrine propounded in the first book of the institutes of Manu on
the one side, and the doctrine of the actual Sankhya on the other.

The reputed founder of the actual Sankhya [s JKapifa (lit. fawny), who is asserted to
have been a son of Brahmu. or, as others prefi-r. an incarnation of Vishn'u. He taught '
his system in Sutras (q.v.), which, distributed in six lectures, bear the name of Sdniehya-

Sun Marino.

Pravachana. The oldest commentary on this work is that by AniruddJia; another, is
thatbs' VijtuiiMblukxkH. The best summary of the Sankhya doctrine is given by I s wara
Kr'ishn a, in his </</.'///./ Knrika, edited by II. H. Wilson, with a translation of ihe text
by II. T. Colebroolic. and a translation of the commentary of Gaud apdda by himself
(Oxford, 183?). For the- various theories concerning the word Sunkhya, and the founder
of tlie system Ivapila, and for t lie literature relating to it. see the elaborate and excellent.
preface by Fi:z,:.hvard Hall to his edition of the Sankhya-Pi-acacliaua, with the com-
mentary of Vijiutn .i-bhikshu, iu the Bibliotlwca Indica (Calcutta. 18,3(3); and see also his
valuable Contribution (o/rard an Index to the Bibliography of the Indian PuiLoaopldcaL
Syxtoiis (Calcuita, 1850). Amongst essays on the Sankhya philosophy, Hie most reliable
Btill remains that by II. T. Coiebrooke, reprinted from the Tniuxactioiix of the lioyal
Asia!;:' society, in his Miscellaneous Essays (London, 1837), vol. i. p. 227, If.

SAXKEY, IUA DAVID, b. Penn., 1840; was engaged in business at New Castle,
Penn.. 1&55-71; aflerward became associated with I) wight L. Moody iu revival work
at Chicago; in Great Britain, where they were instrumental in producing great religious
awakening in E iinburgli, Glasgow, Dublin, London, and other cities, 1873-7.); and
since then in various principal cities iu the United States. Iu these labors Mr. Saukey
has had s;n:cial charge of the devotional singing in which he is eminently efficient.

SAN LTJ'CAS DE BAEEAME'DA, a sea-port of Andalusia, in the modern province of
Cadi/., a:ul 18 in. a. of the port of that name, stands on a suudy, undulating tract oa the
left ban,; of the Guadalquivir, and at the mouth of that river. It is a dull, decaying
place, and is im:a;>K- chieily as the mart whence inferior and adulterated vintages are
exported to England as sherries. Pop. 16,000.

SAX LUIS, a province in central Argentine Republic; bounded on the n. by Rioja,
on the e. by Cordova and Rio Colorado, on the s. by Rio Colorado, and on tiie vv. by
Mendoza ;md San Juan; drained by the Rio Quiiito; about 20,000 sq.m. ; pop. about
65,000. The surface is even in the s. with good pasture land; mountainous in the north.
The soil is fertile. The principal productions are frails, wines, and cattle. Gold, cop-
per, and salt are i'ouii 1. Hides, skins, and wool are exported. Capital, San Luis.

SAN LU IS PE LA PUN'TA, the chief t. of the province of San Luis in the Argentine
Repaoiic, is situated 445 m. w.n.w. from Buenos Ayres, on a river which falls into the
large salt lake cf Bevodc:x>. San Luis de la Punta has some trade iu horses, hides, and
furs. Pop. above 5,000. ,

SAX LUIS OBISPO, a co. in s.w. California, bounded by the Coast range on the e.,
the Pacific on ihe w., and the Santa Maria on the s. ; drained also by the Salinas river;
about 3,001) sq in.; pop. '80. 9,142 7,179 of American birth. The surface is mountain-
ous but in gieat part fertile; wheat, corn, barley, hay, and dairy products are the
staple-!. GoF.l. silver, and coal arc found. Co. seat, San Luis Obispo.

SAX LUIS POTOSI', a state in e. Mexico, bounded on the n.e. by Nuevo Leon, on
the e. by Tamaulipas and Vera Cruz, on the s. by Queretaro and Guanajuato, and on
the w. by Zac iiecas; drained by the Tampicoand Santander rivers: about 27,500 sq.m. ;
pop. about 5'25,000. The surface except in the s.e. is mountainous or hilly. The plains
are fertile, and there is much good pasture land among the mountains. There are valu-
ble copper mines. The principal productions arc corn, barley, wheat, and cattle. There
are manufactures of leather, metal wares, cottons, woolens, etc. Capital, San Luig

SAN LU IS POTOSI', a considerable t. of Mexico, capital of the state of the same name,
stands near the source of the river Tampico, and 200 m. w. of the port of that name on
the Mexican gulf. It stands on a plateau 6,350 ft. above sea level, is well built, con-
taining many handsome edifices, chiefly ecclesiastical, and is surrounded by gardens.
Its markets are well supplied, and it carries on a considerable trade with the neighbor-
ing states. Shoes, hats, and hardware are the chief manufactures, and woven fabrict
and liquors are imported from Tampico. Pop. 33,600. ,

SAN MAE CO IN LA MIS, a t. of s. Italy, in the province of Foggia, 18 m. n.n.e.
of Foggia. It has some trade in corn, wine, oil, and silk. Pop. above 15,000.

SAN MARI NO, or MAKING, one of the most ancient and most limited republican states
of Europe, consists of a craggy mountain 2,200 ft. in height, situated amidst the lesser
ranges of the Apennines, and encircled by provinces formerly belonging to the Pontifical
States. It possesses a total area of 21 in., and comprises a t. of the'same name, and
everal villages in the adjacent territory. The climate is healthy, but. owing to its expo-
sure, high winds and frequent rains prevail. The town of Marino i> built on a slope of
the mountain; it is accessible only by one road, and is protected by walls and towers; it
contains several squares and streets, rudely paved, and various public buildings, includ-
ing seven churches, a town-hall, a theater, the governor's palace, convents, museums,
and hospital's. The inhabitants, who numbered, in 1874, 7,816, arc noted for their hos-
pitality, sobriety, industry, and general morality. They are sensitively jealous of their
rights, and cling with tenacity to their territorial and legislative independence. Their
chief trade is in agricultural produce and cattle.

The early history of the republic is very obscure. During the mediaeval wars of Italy,

San Mnrtln. 1 Q.Q

&au Salvador.

of tii.s ni:i:iaaue state were scrupulously rc.-pected by Napoleon during his Italian c..m-
pai"i. The <rovcrn;nent, designated the sovereign grand council (yeiierale coiunfflto
'><). is composed of 60 members; of whom one-third are nobles. From this number
are sd.-.-'cd the smaller "council of twelve "(two-thirds from the town and the reM irom
m'try), who, with the assistance of a jurisconsult, decide in questions oi t;i ~>d
-:d in* t. nice. Tne representatives of the sia'.e are termed captains-regent (cupttatu
They an- chosen, the one from the party of the noble*, the oilier irom tut
bourgeoisie, 'f'hey each hold office only for si.; months. The army, or rather the mili-
tia of i. ie republic, numbers 950 men.

SAN MARTIN, JOSE DE, 1778-1850; b Yapeyu; received a military education in
Sp::in, ^ervtd at Baylen as col. :n the fcpaui^h army. He organized the Argen.iue forces
in I lie war of independence in South America, and was commander in chief, 1bi4. of the
expedition to up; IT Peru against the viceroy of Lima. He raised an army in U,e prov-
ince of Cuvo. and Grousing the Chilian Andes defeated Osorio in the battle of Chacalmco
1817. lie 'was offered the presidency of Chili, but declined it; and meeting the Span-
iards a:aia at -Maypu defeated them, and secured Chilian independence. In Ib20
ai-companied bv Bernard OTIiggins, president of Chiii, he made a trium|.h;.l entrance into
Lim.i, and in 18.M declared Peru independent and himself protector. In ]xi->, compelled
to resign his ollice, he retired to private life, residing in England, France, and the Neth-

SAN MATE'O, a co. in w. California, having the bay of S;:n Francisco on the n.. the
Paciiic ocean on tue w.; 300 sq.m.; pop. '8J, 8,669 5, loo of American I/nth, o37
colored. It is intersjcted i by the Southern Pacific railroad. Its surface is hldy, li-ing^
irto in. >un. ..ins :j,00it ft. h'igh covered with forests of oak and redwood, the used
'largely fur buil.dn; purposes. The climate is warm and mild. Its towns have as resi-
dents many mere-hauls of San Francisco who reside in the country. The .-oil is very
IVriil.-. pro 'iiicing vegetables of remarkable size, dairy products, and grain. It contains
valiiiib!'! mineral springs; and has manufactures of Hour, leather, and lumber. Co. seat,
Red ,v;i -(I C.ty.

SAN MATE at. of Venezuela, South America, in the department of Cumana, an4
50 in. s.s w. of the town of that name. Pop. 7,000.

SAN MIGUEL', a co in e. New Mexico, adjoining Texas; drained by the Rio Pecos
a;:d Canadian rive-s; about 10,800 sq.m. ; pop. '70. 16.058. The sur face is mountainous
in thf n. w., but productive elsewhere: wheat, corn, hay, wool, ai:d dai:y products are
the staples; cattle-grazing is extensively carried on. There are several {louring and saw
mill-. Co. seat. Las Vegas.

SAN MIGTTEL', a t. of Central America, in San Salvador, and about 80 m. e. of the
city of that i.ame. It is said to be the chief trading town in Central America. At its
anirial fair of La Pa/, 15,000 strangers assemble, and business to the ."mount of $2,000,-
000 is transacted About, five m. w. of San Miguel is a volcano, G.GSX) ft. high, which
was in a state of eruption in 1848, and again in 1855. Ordinary pop. 10.000

SAN MIGUEL', EVAUISTE. Due de, 1780-18(52; b. Gijon, Spain. In 1808 ho joined
in the movement against the French, became a Heut.col. in the army, and later a dele-
gate to the cortes. In 1820 ho joined in Riego's expedition to Andalusia, lie was
exiled 1831, but recalled the following year and made minister of foreign affairs. After
the French intervention of 1823 he was again exiled, but returned to t'pain in 1834
and again became si member of the cortes. In 1854 he was president of the Madrid
juntn, and later minister of war and field-marshal.

SAN MINIA TO, a city of central Italy, province of Florence, and 21 m. w.s. w. of the
city of tint name. San Miniato is a fine old episcopal city, adorned with many monu-
ments, and is famous in the history of the Florentine republic. Pop. 2.7S5.

SANNAZARO. JACOPO, a distinguished Italian poet of Spanish descent, v/asb. at Naples
July 2S, 145S. Love for a young lady called Carmosina Bonifaeia. whom he has cele-
brated und T the names of Harmosine and Filli. was what developed his poetical faculty.
The l.'dy being insensible to bis passion, he (-ought to forget her in travel. It was dur-
ing his absence that he composed \\\c Arcadia, a medley of prose and verse, of which
TirJosehi, the historian of Italian literature, thus speaks: "The elegance of the style,
tht> propriety and the choiccness of the expressions, the descriptions, tiie imagery every-
thing, in fact, is fresh and original." The work was greatly admired, and in the course
of n ccnturv went through 60 editions. It has given its author the reputation of being
an Italian classic. Sannaznro, after his return to Italy; was invited to the Neapolitan
court, and composed some comedies for the amusement of the royal family, of which
only one has been preserved. He died at Naples in 1530 or 1532. His other produc-

tions are tfonftli e Cituzoni, Fklor/ce VI. (reckoned by some his most perfect performance);
Wetfiantm Lihri III.; De Morte Chrixti <td Mortales Lamentati<>; and DC Partu Virginia,
Likri III., mostly written in Latin verse. Sanna'zaro's life has been written by Crispo
and J. A. Voipi. See also Tiraboschi's Storia tlella Lctterut. Itul. VII. Part iii.

1 Of)


SAN NICANDftO GAKGAJTICO, a t. of southern Italy, iu the province of Fo-gia. 6
m. n. of the city of Foggia. Pop. 8,180. It is situated on mount Gi.r^ano. and is .me
of the populous towns among those nidunlains The lands beion.jiig h> ii are
very fcrtde, and great herds of cattle and sheep are reared there. 1" tn;ues iu i_iain,
wool, and wine.

SAN 1TIC OLAS, or SAN NICOLAO, one of the Cape Verd islands (q.v ), and re.-Mcnceof
the bishop of the, group.

SAX PATUI'CIO, a co. in s. Texas, on the gulf of Mexico, n. of Corpus Chiisti bay,
drained by tlie Nueecs and the Aranhas rivers; about f;65 sq.m.; pop. 'cU, 101* - , .;> i.f
American birili. The surface is level and heavily linibereil. Tlie soil is krnle. The
principal production is live stock. Co. seat, San'Patricib.

SAN PETE, a co. in e. Utah, adjoining Colorado; drained by Green, San P<i-', and
Whi.e rivux about 6,8UU >q.m. : pop. ';0, G,T8(5y,890 of American birth. Ti.i- siu-lace
is traver . ed iu the w. by u.e Wahsatch mountains, it consists in the c. ,f large \ alleys,
and is he.tviiy timbered. '1 he soil in the e. and along the San PcteTivcr is fertile. 'l"he
principal productions are corn, wheat, oats, wool, and cattle. Co. st'st, Manti.

SAN EE MO, a city of northern Italy, province of Porto Maurizi, 7 in. e.n.e. of X'ice.
It is I'Liik on the slope of a rising ground on the shores of the iMcui'crr; .nean. l;s line
cathedral, the Santuario della Guardia, and the Santuario dell' As-unia a:e worthy of
nolice, the last having four hand-ome pillars of alabaster. The palace of ihe niarquia
Borrea d'Oimo contains a fine pieiure gallery. There is a seminary for ] r'ests. besides
a college and many schools Its little harbor carries on a brisk trade in oils and lemons.
Nine ion-ign consuls reside in the towu San I {(.-mo is an nncici.l c.ty, and obscure in
its origin. In 1170 it was Self-governed, and made an alliance with the G' noese against
the PUuis. One of its bishops afterward sold it to Genoa. " San P( mo Is perhaps Ihe
n.iitL':-t filiation on all the Riviera. Here palms, lemon, and orange trees ,<>TOU with
the grcahst luxuriance, and the fruit of the date palm almost attains maturity." Mur-
ray's iluiidboitk. In recent years it has begun to be resorted to by Engii.-h visitors, and
Sbvcral new and excellent hotels have been erected. Pop. 9,017.

SAN RO^TJE, a t. of Spain, in the modern province of Cadi/,, on the bay of Glbrr.lfar,
and 8 in n.u.vv. of the town of that name. The salubrity of the ci'rr.ate. Mid the cheap-
ness of living, have attracted hither many foreign families, especially Enirlish. Pop.
about 7,0(jO.

SAX SABA, n co. in AV. Texas, bounded e. and n. by the Colorado, and d reined
by ibc San Saba river; 980 sq.m : pop. in '80, 5,825. The surface is billy and covered
with Iriige forests: the soil is partially fer ile. The main productions are wheat, sweet
potatoes, honey, wool, molasses, cattle, and swine. It contains sulphur springs. Co.
seat, San Saba.

SAN SALVADOR, the smallest, though the second in point of population, of the Cen-
tral Amer;can republics (see AMRKICA), consists of a strip of territory stretching along
between Honduras and the Pacilie. and bounded on the w. by Guatemala, and on the e.
by Fonseea bay, which separates it from Nicaragua. It averages 180 in. in length, by
about 40 in breadth, and contains an area of 7,286 English sq.m.. with a | op. (according
to the most recent estimate) of 000,000, or 83 to the sq. mile. The northern frontier is
formed by a portion of tlie great Cordillera chain, and parallel to this range, and
between it and the Pacific sea board, runs another range of mountains along the whole
length of the country, breaking it up into an inland valley, and a long. low. rich belt
along the coast. This central range is highly vokanic in character, and has 16 volcanic
peaks, ranging in height from 7,386 to 4.000 ft. high San Salvador possesses numerous
lakes, tlie largest of which is Guija, about 90 m. in circumference, and abounding in
fish. The greater portion of the interior valley, and the alluvial strip lyirg along Ihe
coast, are of extreme fertility, and agriculture is extensively and successfully prac liced,
to the almost total exclusion of pastoral pursuits. The principal agricultural products
are indigo, sugar, and maize, cotton also being successfully cultivated in the districts
around L-i Libert ad and the bay of Jiquilisco. The coast from Acajutl.i (30 in. from the
western frontier) to La Libertad is known as tho ('oxtn <:<[ ]>,ilxinn". or Balsam coa>t, as
in the woods of this district Is produced the famous balsam known as " balsam of Peru,"
in such quantities that from 17,600 to 22.000 Ibs. av. are annually exported. The
mineral wealth of San Salvador is not great, but rich veins of silver are found at
in the u.e., and mines of iron in the w. near Santa Ana. San Salvador has consider-
able export trade in indigo (which is known in trade as "indigo of Guatemala," and is
reckoned the finest of all) and sugar, as well as turpentine, cocoa, cotton, and spices.
The annual value of exports amounts to about 3,200,000, and that of imports to
$2,000,000. The revenue is between 2,000,000 and $3.000,000, the expenditure being a
little less. The debt in 187". was $4.360,000.

The climate of San Salvador is salubrious, and the temperature is lower than might
be expected from the low latitude and general want of elevation of the country.

The bulk of the population is composed of Indians and mixed races, there being
about COO, 000 of the former, and about 190,000 of the latter, There are about 9,000
whites (of Spanish origin), and 1000 negroes. The Indians arc of the Aztec race, speak

Sail ,S::Zv:;dor. 1 if)

8*...-. ^^

prcs;.l,":t vice-president and two mini-tor*, one for foreign affairs and finance, ami th
other for in;ern-d busings and war. Tlie legislature consists of two chambers, :iu upper
one of 12 senators, and a lower of 24 representatives. Education is well provided tor,

eve:-v \ ill;:-' of 5') inhabitants being bound by law to support a school, and there 4^ a
univoiry in !!; capital, Sau Salvador (q.v.), which is well endowed by the state, ihe
!in:r "army is 1,000 men.

. Salvador, originally called Cutcfitlan. " the land of riches, ' is said to have been,
previous to I!K> immigration of Europeans, the best peopled and most civilized country
in Am-ri-i. It was conquered after a long and obstinate contest by Pedro de Alvarado,
a li i' of Cortes a:ul u:idcr the Spanish rule was one of the most flourishing portions
of the Guatemalan kingdom. In 1821 it threw off the yoke and joine.i the Mexican eou-
fc,! -ration, from which", however, it seceded in 1823. The several trial.-; since made of a
union among the Central American status have ended in the dissolution of all political
connection; and San Salvador is now an independent republic. In 1863 war broke out
b.''n San Salvador and Guatemala, in which Honduras joined the former, and
Ni.-i-a :.:a lh latter. The result was the defeat of San Salvador, and the expulsi
the pie-iirnt from the country. The government has taken active measures toward
dcvelop : nz the resources of the country.

SAN SALVADOR, the capital of the republic of Sau Salvador, was founded in 1589,
and supplanted an older town which had been built in 1528 by a 'brother of Pedro da
Alvav;'.d.). It was the capital of the Union of Central America from 1823 till 18&). la
1854 it was a line, well-built city, adorned with numerous splendid buildings, and con-
tai.ilur a pop. of more than 30.000, but on the night of April 16 it was completely
d'sT.n-e.l by an earthquake, and about. 100 lives lost. In J; n., 1855, it again became
the seat of "government, and its pop. is now above 20,000. The trade, which equally
suffered, is gradually assuming its former flourishing condition, and is carried on mostly

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 32 of 203)