Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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through the port or' Li Libertad, which is about five miles distant.

SAN SALVADOS', or BANZA, the former being the Portuguse, and the latter tha
native name a t. of Africa, the capital of Congo (q.v.). It is 120 in. s.e. by e. fro i
ij'j mo;i;!i or the estuary of the river Congo, in a mountainous district near the source
rivjr Lelumla. Pop. 20,000.


SA!TSANDINGr, a large t. in the n.w. of Africa, in Bambarra, about 20 m. n.e. of
Boiro. on ti;e left bank of the Niger, here called the Joliba. A considerable trade in
salt, b'ja Is, coral, gold-dust, and cotton cloth is here carried on. Pop. from 10.000 to

SATT3CARA, or SAXSKAUA (lit. completing, perfecting), is the name of the ten essen-
tial rite> or cer.''s of the Hindus of the tirst three castes. They are tiie c'-ivmj-
ni"s to I).- performed at the conception of a child; on vitality in the fetus, in the fourth,
sixth, or eighth month of pregnancy: and at the time of his birth, before dividing the ^trintr; the ceremony of naming the child on the tenth, eleventh, or hundred and
fi: - ; d > : th ceremony of carrying the child out to see the moon on the third luiur day
of tin: third light fortnight, or to see the sun in ths third or fourth month; of feedini;
him in ill- sixth or eighth month (or at other state I periods); the ceremony of ton-
sure in tlu g'jcond or third year; of investiture with the string in the fifth, eighth, or six-
teen', h year when he is handed to &gun.t to become a religious student: and the cere-
1 mo:iy of marriage, after he has completed his studies, and is fit to perform the sacri-
fices or laine I by his sacred writings.

SANSCULOTTES, i.e., "without breeches," was the name given in scorn, at the
beginning of the French revolution, by the court party to the democratic " proletaires"
of Paris. The latter accepted this superfine reproach with sardonic pride, and the term
00:1 bci-im:? the distinctive appellation of a "good patriot," more especially as such a
one otVn ma le a point of showing his contempt for the rich by neglecting his apparel,
and cultiva'ing rough and cynical manners. As the noblesse prided itsi If on an illus-
trious pedigree, so the genuine child of the revolution boasted that he was come of a
long line of noteless sansculottes; that his

" Ancient but ignoble blood
Hid crept through scoundrels ever since the flood."

Toward the close of the convention, the mime, connected as it had been with nil the
omnguioary excesses of the period, naturally fell into bad odor, and soon nficr totally

disappeared; nor do the French appear to wish that its memory should be preserved,

for they have not given it a place in their encyclopedias.

SAN SEBASTIAN, a rising sea-port city in the n. of Spain, capital of the Basque prov-
'ince of Guipuscoa, :>81 m. n.n.e. of Madrid by the North of Spain railway. It is built

on a peninsula, at the southern base of a conical hill, called Mont Orgullo, 400 ft. high,

mKan Salvador.
Sans 1 '.! it.

commanding a most striking view, and crowned with a castle strong enough to have
obtained for itself the name of the Gibraltar of the u. of Spain. Since its almost total
destruction during the Peninsular war, the town has been rebuilt on a regular rectangu-
lar plan. The streets are narrow, and are bordered by high houses, and having cur-
tained balconies in front. On the e. of the town is a confined gulf, formed by the
embouchure of the Uruinca; and on the w. is H magnificent roadstead, protected ag.inst
enemy ami tempest by the isle of Santa Clara and a series of rocks, which offer lo ves-
sels only a narrow and dangerous pass. The roadstead is bordered by a l.e;;u;i!ul
chore, which, on account of its suitability as a watering-place, attracts visitors from a 1
pa Is of the country. The town communicates with the mainland by a narrow t<
of land, and by a bridge leading across the Urumea. and connecting Sa:i Sebastian oil
the peninsula with the railway station on the mainland. By means of the of
Spain railway, which was inaugurated by the king of Spain, Ar.g. 15, 1864, the town
is placed in direct communication with Madrid a-.d Paris. Commerce increases. Near
200 vessels, of about 50.000 tons, yearly enter and clear 'die port; annual value of
imports 430,001), and of exports 73.000. The exports consist principally of wool,
flou -. wine, cutlery, tire-arms, copper ore, and lead; the imports are salted ii>b, sugar,
silk and cotton and linen goods, cocoa, machinery, coffee, timber, and iron wares. In
1M', :, coal, coke, wagons, rails, etc., for the new railway, were imported from Great
Britain, France, and" Belgium to the value of '588,706. Pop. estimated at 15,900.

San Sebastian has suffered from numerous sieges in the wars between France and
Spain. It was captured by the duke of Wellington in 1813, when the dispossessed
French garrison set it on fire.

SAN SEVERING, a city of central Italy, province of Macerata, 15 m. w.s.w. of the
city of that name. It is well-built, and has handsome palaces, the finest of which are the
Palazzo Comuna'.e, and that of the bishop. The neighborhood produces exquisite wine,
oil, and fruit, and cattle are reared on the pasture grounds. Pop. -4, 700.

SAN SEVERO, a city of southern Italy, province of Foggia, with 13.500 inhabitants,
stands ii; a delightful and fertile open country, producing abundance of grain, tobacco,
and wine, and affording rich pasturage. It was once remarkable for the industry and
activity of its population. In 1799, it was taken, ami nearly destroyed by the French.
The cholera committed fearful ravages here iu 1365.

SANSKRIT', or SANSCKIT' (from the Sanskrit ,iam=Gr. ayn, " with, together," and
"done," with an epenthetic . imparting greater emphasis to the sense of the
compound; hence. " thoroughly done, finished, accomplished ")isthe name of 1 he ancient
language of the Hindus; in which their whole sacred literature, and by far the greatest
amount of their numerous ritual, legal, poetical, and scientific works, are written. San-
skrit belongs to that stor-k of language's commonly called the Indo-European, or
Indo-Germanic, which includes the Indian, the Medo-Persian. the Gneco Latin, tho
G Ti-.ianic. the Lithuanian-Slavonian, and the Galio-Celtic families. It is therefore inti-
mat'ly allied to the ancient an.l modern language-; comprised in e.ich of these families,
itself being the parent of the Ptdkr'it (q.v.) dialects, the Fd'i (q.v.), and the lantruairea
spoken in the n. of India. Compared with the ancient languages kindred with if, San-
skrit has come down to us in a state of preservation and development so much superior
to theirst hat it must be looked upon as the principal means which enables us to under-
stand the affinity, and in general the linguistic laws which pervade tliestrueture < ; f these
languages. The essay of Franz Bopp, Uc''ir .-/'<'* Conjugations x>/xtcin dcr N/
Spr<i<-1>e, dated May 16, 1816, began a new era in the study of language. See PHILOL-

There are two great periods into which the hbtory of the Sanskrit language may be
conveniently divided: the first embracing the language as contained in the Vedic hymns
(see VKUA); and the second, that represented by the so-called classical Sanskrit, in which
the epic work-', the law codes, and the later literature are written. Between the two
there is a transition period of the language, to which the Brahman'a and ritual portion
of th',' Vedas, and the Upanishads. may be assigned. In the language of the Yt die
hymns, the grammar is less developed and much less settled than in the cla>.- ical San-
skrit; it contains, moreover, main' forms which at the second period became obsolete,
or altogether disappeared from use: the structure of its sentences, too, is simpler, though
it is more elliptical than in classical poetry. Another main difference between the two
periods lies in the sense of its words. Though this is the same in many words of the
Vedic hymns and the classical literature, still there are numerous words, which, though
the same in form at both periods, have a sense which differs ;;< us it belongs to

the one or the other class of writings. The difficulty thus presented by ihe Vedic hymns
is in a great measure removed by the commentators who explain the meanings of the
Vedic words, and, in doing so, follow tradition, which, considering the peculiarities
of Hindu history, and also internal evidence, is in all probability immemorial, and there-
fore the safest if not. the only guide in the understanding of 'the oldest Yci'.ic works.
That their explanations may have become unsafe in some instances, would be but natural;
but it is certain that these instances are the rare exceptions; and it is likewise certain
that when modern Sanskritists ami several of these only imperfectly acquainted with-
Sanskrit grammar have attempted to supersede those traditional meanings by inter-

Sans), rit.

pretations which they suppose better suited to the context, or to some assumed etymol-
ogy of liicirou-n, their rendering may bettor adapt the Vedic to the classical vocabulary,
bin is sure to falsity that understanding which the Hindu miud had of its oldest and
most sacred works. ;!ud on which its further historical development is based. In i i.e. tran-
sit ion period of the Brahman a and ritual portion of the Vedas and the Upanishiids.
grammar and vocabulary offer similar difficulties to those of the Vedic hyii.ns; but
tuoug.i t'.ir ihi- reason the aid of the commentaries is likewise indispensable, ihcy an)
much less numerous; and in those works of this extended period, which probably were
con.po-ed at the classical epoch, the difference between the two is even inconsiderable.
In coin paling Sanskrit with other kindred languages, it is therefore necessary not to lust
sight of these periods of the language, and of Ihe peculiarities inherent in them.

SANSKRIT LITERATURE. The most natural, and, at the same timr, the most scien-
tific distiilmtion of Sanskrit literature would be that according to the dates at which its
vvriiiuus were composed. The actual condition of Sanskrit philology, however, renders
gucli a course impossible; for, with the exception of very few works, no date whatever
is known to which they could be saf;-ly assigned. (See INDIA Kdigion; VEDA) In
spite, therefore, of an apparent plausibility with which some authors have propounded
a regular literary chronology of Sanskrit works, even with figures or dates ;.p; ended to
then,, the general reader will do well to look upon all such dates as imaginary, and to
re.-t satisfied with the hope that perhaps future results of Sanskrit philology n.ay afford
a more satisfactory settlement of this vexed question of Sanskrit, chronology*. Under
these circumstances, the only possible arrangement of Sanskrit literature is ihat sug-
gested by their contents, irrespectively of the lime at which they were composed, but,
under each head, in that order which, within large margins, may be suggestive of con-

1. Itriirjioiis Lih.mturr. It comprises, in the first place, the Vedas, and the mystical,
philosophical, and ritual works connected with them (see VEDA and UrANisn.u>); ;>!<.d
secondly, the Puran'as (q.v.) and Tantras (q.v.), besides prayer-books and smaller 1
works, and treatises of less importance relating to the modern worship, laml on the
two latter classes of works.

2. Lutn Literature. It is comprised under the name of DJiarmas'cUtra (frrm cHarma,
]nw religious and civil and n'dstra, book), and its origin is traceable to the ritual
ffitras relating to the Vedas. A complete Dharmas'astra consists of three port ions: the
first treating of A dura, or "established rules of conduct," comprising such matters as
education, marriage, the funeral rites, the duties of a king, etc.; the second treating of

VyfiTfi/idrn, or judicature, including law, private and criminal, and under the former,
for instance, the law of inheritance and adoption; tlie third, on Pruyax'diitta, or penance,
treating, b< sides Ibis subject, also of impurity, the duties of a devotee, transmigration,
find final beatitude. The chief extant representatives of this class are the codes of Manu
(q.v.) and Yajnaiuilkya (q.v.). Legs complete than the latter for it dots not contain
the Vyavahara portion is the code of Parasara (q.v.); but it deserves special mention,
as the modern Hindus consider it to have been especially composed for the requirements
of the Kaliynga, or the present mundane age, and as it is cited, therefore, as i/.e author-
ity, for instance, on the question, and in favor, of the remarriage of Hindu widows.
For practical purpose s, especially those concerning Vyavahara, the chief actual authorities
are the commentaries on Maim,' Ydjnatalkya, and similar works, and the digests which
have grown up from them. Among the former, the Mitasharu (q.v ). by Vijnanes'-
wara, occupies the principal rank: and amongst the latter, the CJiinidmnn'i, Virmisitro-
dai/n, Vyatahdra-maytikna, Smr'itithnndrikd, and YycimLdra-Mudhatiya, which gen-
erally defer to the authority of the Mitdksfuird; and, besides these, the Dayabhaga of
Jlmutavahana, which, like the Ddyatatiwa of Raghunandana, differs from it on several
important questions, for instance, on that relating to the hereditary rights of women.
(See MriAKsH.MtA ) As on the Vyavahfira, there are numerous smaller treatises 'on the
Achara and Prayas'chitta.

0. Poetical Literature. (a.) The two great epic poems. See RAMAYAN'A and MAHA-


(A.) The Modern Epic Poem*. Their subject-matter is entirely borrowed from the two
great epic poems and other legendary works; and their only merit consists in the art
bestowed by thfir authors on the versification, and all that relates to the aesthelical
canon of Hindu poets, which, in some respects, may meet with the approbation of
western critics, but. in others, would require in the European reader a total gation
of his ideas of poetical beauty, in order to make these poems acceptable to him. Minute
descriptiveness. elal>oratencss of diction, and an abundance of figures of speech, are
some of the characteristics of these poems, among which those of Kulidasa approach
nearest our rtandard of poetical worth. One of them, the Bhattikdrya. which relates to
the history of Kama, was purposely composed for illustrating rules of grammar and for-
mationH of words of special interest. In another, the lidghaca- Pdndaviyu . the ambi-

Eiity of the diction is so studied that the poem maybe interpreted as relating to the
story of Kama, or other descendants of Das'aratha (see KAMAYAN'A). or to Ilinl <;f the
descendants of Pan'd'u (see MAHABHAKATA). The Mlowing are the MtiM-kdrya., or
great poems of this class; the llaghucaiixa and J^iandrananMMiM, by Kalidisa (q.v.);



[NKMnessengef, also supposed to have Ueeu written oy ivanuasa ;i poem HI wuicn a
migo.l, separated by fate from his wife, is imagined to make; a cloud the messenger to
r of his woes, au, I incidentally, us it wen:, describes his course over a large tract of
d'u; ih,' A:n:(ru*.i,iuk,i, or hundred stanzas of Amaru, on amatory feelings and scene*,

the Nalodfiya, also ascribed, though probably wrongly, to the same poet; the Bhutt'-i/Mvya,
or the poem by Bhui'ti; the ti m' uiidUitiad,<n, by -Aiagha, hence uiso called tn<; *ku>//i~
kdv'j.t; i ho ^\it.'*/t<i'ii-/<ic/tant<i, by b'rih.irsha; ihe Knaidrjuiuya, by li,.uravi; and the
Bdg.'iava-^du'd^Diya, by Kaviraja (i.e., the prince of poets), us the auihor calls him-

(c.) Lyric and Erotic Poetry. Several works of this class are more of u descriptive
character, and would dilfer therefore from what in European poetry might be included
under this head. The principal worxs belonging to it are the lohowing: the H itutian-
fi,ii;i. or ,i description of the seasons, a.tribulcd to Kfdidasa(q.v.); ihe JL t/liudut>{, or Hie
eloud-mrsscngvr, also supposed to have been written by Kaiidiisa a poem in winch a
her of
Indi.i ;

the natural sense of winch commentators have twisted also into one of a mystical char-
acter, so a-; to ;nake iheni appear less objectionable, especially as tney were supposed by
iome to have been composed by ihe celebrated theologian b ankara, whe.i he nad ani-
mated th ' d,-a 1 bodv of king Amaru (see S'ANKAUA); these stanzas have an epigramma-
tic character, and share in this respect the stylo of the first S'ataku, or huuured verses
on love, by lihartr'ihuri; the B/tdminwUdnt. by Jagaunatha Pan'd itaraja, in four books,
the seco:i i of which is eonnccJed with amatory subjects, while tiie third is a beautiful
elegy 0:1 UK; deata of t'u poet's wife; the G&igoviiu&l, by Jayadeva, who probably lived
in the l.'tii c., which, in ten sections, describes the amours of Krishna with tne cow-
herdesses, his separation from his wife lladha, and his ultimate reconciliation with her, and
which, lik th.- Am i ;;';< '.tf.-iki, has also been explained in a mystical sense, Kr'ishiia then
being represented as the soul which, for a tiaie, becomes estranged from ihe supreme
soul, its original soure;, but finally returns to it. This poem diHers from those men-
tioned before in being intended for singing and for representation at. a festival held in
honor of Vishn'u; ii combiaeo the .yric and the melo-dramatic character.

((/.) !>' I, "'>'< P.\'i->/.\ portion of this class of poetry may be included under the
former head, since even such works as the Amarus'ataka, and the erotic stanzas of
Bhnrtr'Unu'i, have much of the sententious character; another is contained in the episodes
of the .Miihii'.:'iilriit:!, and another forms a considerable portion of the books of tables.
The cliu'f special representatives of this cla-s are, "the three lfata,luis"i hundred
stanzas 0:1 love, good and wise conduct, and renunciation of worldly desires, by
tr'ik/trl. Similar pieces of poetry are the hundred stanzas of C/idruikya, and some stun/.is
in the anthology of iJarnyidhara, called the SdrngndharapadllKiti. Others have been
collected in various modern anthologies, such as the Nltinan/calana and tha liitM(di)ir
r'i(a'.:/l;tii. For the poem B!iar/iica(1gita, see under YOGA.

(e ) D/'n;ii,ttfi. Th plays of the Hindus are not numerous; they were only acted on
special occasions, and the subject of the plot is with predilection borrowed from the
legendary literature of ancient India. Hindu dramatists have little regard for unity of
time, place, and action; and with the exception of Kaiidiisa, they must be considered as
inferior in poetical worth to the renowned dramatic writers of ancient Greece and of
modern Europe. Besides the reasons to be sought for in the religious, mystical, and
metaphysical tendencies of the Hindu mind, a free development of the Hindu drama
was probably also impeded by thy heavy and artificial canon which weighed upon Hindu
dramaturgy, and which, ascribed to sacred sources, and looked upon as a law not to be
transgressed by any dramatic poet, did not allow much scope for poetical imagination,
and woul.l keep down any free movement upon which it might have ventured. The
various kinds of dramatic performances, the number of their acts, the characters of the
plays, the conduct of the plot, the sentiments to be represented, and even the modes of
diction all these were strictly regulated; so much so, that in spite of the differences
which must exist between different authors r.nd plays, there is still a kind of uniformity
which pervades the whole Hindu drama, and must strike any one unacquainted with this
elaborate dramatical canon. It must suffice here to mention a few of its peculiarities.
All dramatic composition is divided, according to it, into two great classes ihe rupaka. or
performance, and the uparujmka, or the minor rupnlta; the former containing ten species,
from the itd!'<tk, or the play, par excellence, which represents exalted personages, down
to the pnthiixaini, or farcical comedy; and the latter with 18 species. Neither class con-
tains the species "tragedy" which is incompatible with a belief in fate, one of the
main features of the Hindu mind. Every drama opens with a prelude in the form of H
dialogue between the stage-manager and one of his company, in which the name of the
author and of his work, and such prior events as the spectators should know, are brought
before the audience. The first part of this prelude is a prayer invoking the benediction
of some deity in favor of the assembly. The piece thus being opened, is then carried
on in the usual manner; but so long as the same act lasts, the stage is never left
empty, but the entrance of a new personage is always announced by a special
person. The piece closes as it began, with a benediction. The principal characters
of the play are the hero (ndyafat) and the herione (ndyiM). The former is either
lalitti, gay, thoughtless, and good-humored; or a'dnta, gentle and virtuous; or dhiro-
dAtta,, High-spirited, but temperate and firm; or vddtta, ardent and ambitious; but
as each of these categories is again subdivided, they become multiplied to 144 kind*.


Equal minuteness is displayed in specifying the classes of the heroines. The tero
had iiis antagonist in pnttin&ynkii, i.'r counter-hero: arid e;.cii of im se im.y have
his OIUC-.TS, ministers, friends. Tue Heroine, on her pai\. has aiwa\.- a couiiuential
comp.uiion. is ottea her foster-sister. Tne subordinate are desciliHjdaS
being euuiKMS, mutes, d wart's, to rested or barbarians. Two c;iai\.eicrs, however, de-
aervc speci .1 notiee; as being peculiar to the Hindu stage tne w/'.atrd the KidushaJtu,
may be the companion of a man or woman; he is generally on, yet
adenl terms, with his associate, and though somewhat tike Hie parasite oi the
; <*nincdy, yet not rendered contemptible; if a female. sLe is c>K,rlesaii. The
.,:i/,'d is i Tie humble companion 01 a prince or a man of rank; he is always lively,
*ome:imcs wit.y, and. according to the deiiiiiuon of his attributes, he is to excise mirth
by bei.ig ridiculous 1.1 pjron, age, and allire. He is, curiously enough, al<vay., a Brah-
man. 'Tiie plays have eight, or. accordii.g to some, nine ru*a, or Chan ct< rLjie flavors:
these i-tixiu are love, mirm, tenderness, tieivcness, heroism, terror, d;sgu..t, wonder, and
tranqailliiy; and tncy again consist of conditions with numerous uivisious ami sub-
divisions. The manner according to which me form of speech is regulated, is another
peculiarity of the Hindu drama. Ouiy the. hero and the principal personages speak
Sanskrit, luit wo.nen with rare exci-p.ioii.s and the inferior personages speak Jr'riiKr it,
the various, higher or inferior, idioms of that language being adapted to their higher or
inferior character. Se 1'iiAKit'ir. Taj o.dejt known Sanscrit drama is the Mr'iLitJihi.i-
hit'i, or "the Clay Cart," by king S udraka. which, in the opinion of 11. II. Wilson
who translated it i.i his Select Speciine/us of t/u Theater of the Hindus was writen in the
1st c. u.c. Of oilier dramas may here lie menlioucd Abhijnd.uis'ak mtal<i (see ^AKUN-
TALA)and Vikramurrait'i, by Kalidasa (q.v.). to whom also ihe drama Malatikdgniiiyltra
is attributed: .)/ luliiiuidhnca, ^laluidi-acuuriia. and Uttarar&uiackanht, by Lhavabliuti;
llalndrnli, by S'riharsha; Mudr r ks.'i'mu, ly Visakhadatta; HauniiM/ui HUM, fabled to
have been composed by the monkey Ha.iumat (q.v.); and Auarghar yltaca, by .Murari.
A drama of a peculiar nature is the t^raboa/utchundrodaya, by Kr'ishu amis ra, who in
the opinion oi Goldstucker, expressed in the preface to his translation of this drama,
lived at the end of the 12th century. Its leading personages are all of a transcendental
kind; such as the supreme spirit, faith in Vishnu, volition, organ of imagination,
opinion, devo;io:i, quietude, friendship, e:c., on the one side; and error, egotism, hypo-
crisy, love, voluptuousness, anger, avarieiousuess, etc.. on the other; and its object is to
represent the victory of the former over the latter. The general dullness of the play is
relieved by a number of sectarian worshipers, who appear on the scene, each eulogizing
Ihe truth of his own religion, ant) ridiculing that of his antagonist. That this drama,
whica would bailie the patience of a European audience, was acted " before kmir Kirtivar-
man, who, with his whole assembly, was very eager to see it.' ? the poet relates in the
prelude to it. An imitation of this drama is'the Chaitanynchaiulrodaya. by Kavikarn'a-

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 33 of 203)