Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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pura. For the translation of several of these dramas, and an account of others, see II.
H. Wilson's &'-i ,s>r/.v/eu* of Me Theater of tie Hindus (2 vols., London. 1835).

(/.) l-\ibkx <tud Narrutices. Fables, as such, occur, and are referred to. as early as in
the great epic poems; but the oldest collection of fables is the rtincluitonlrn (q.v.'); and
after it. the Ihtopjtdn'a (q.v.). These works are considered by the Hindus to belong to
the cla-s called nitix'Axtra, or works on conduct and polity, since the morals drawn from
the f.ililes and expressed in sententious verses, with wlrich they are interwoven, are the
object for which these collections were made. A different, class of writings are the
ghost-si ories, merely composed for amusement, such as the Velalapanchdvim'ati, or the
25 tales of the vampire; and the S'uknsaptati, or the 70 tales of the parrot; and the Sin-
Mtaimdtrdtrintt'nti, or the 32 tales of the statues on the the throne of Vikramaditya. A
work of a higher order is the Vr ihitlkttllia, "the Grand Tale," or Kat/idtumtudganti
"the Ocean for the Rivers of Tales," by Somadeva of Cashmere. Among narratives
of the romance class, the most celebrated are t\\z Das'akiimdrucliarilra, or the "Adven-
tures of Hie Ten Princes," by Dan'd'in, who lived about the middle of the llth c
edited, with an elaborate preface, by H. H. Wilson; Kadambari. by Yaiiahhatta; and
the V iantdattd, by Subandhu, a critical account of which work is given by Fitxedward
Hall, i;i Die preface to his edition of it (Calcutta. 1859).

(ff.) CliroitideH Historical works, in Ihe European sense of the word, do not exist


in Sac: krit literature. The same causes which have clouded all Hindu chronology and
esren, at recent periods of Hindu history, hnve transformed historical facts into myths
seem to have rendered the Hindu mind indifferent to the research and the recording of


4 Nfifntijie. Literature; - ^.) PMcsojtliy. See the articles SAKKDYA, YOG \, NTAYA,

(b.) (!rmmar. r Y\\nl a scientific study of grammar was cultivated at a very early
period of Hindu literature is borne out by the testimony of the oldest glossator on the
Yetlas, YASKA (q.v.). The oldest extant work, however, on Sanskrit grammar is pos-



tcrior to the work of YSska; it is the grammar of P&n'ini (q.v.), which was criticized 1 y
Katyayaua (q.v.) in the Vdrttikas, these, again, being commented on and criticized by
Patanjali in the MahdbMshya. (See PAN'IM, where some of the principal later works
connected with his system are mentioned.) Tliat the Pi-atiii'd/.-hyd* (w VEDA) di<l not
precede the grammar of Pan iui, has been shown by Goldslucker in his P'ndim, ///* 1 W-
lionin Sanskrit Literature, etc.- Of authors ot gi..mmars, not following the technics.!
sj'Stem of Pan'ini, the principal llemaehandra, a Jaina (q.v.) writer, ai.d Y< p;u!eva,
who probably lived about six centuries ago, and is especially esteemed in Bengal.

(c.) Lexicography. It consists of glossaries of words and Mains a term which maybe
vaguely rendered by " roots, " or "radicals," though it does not imply to the Hindu
grammarian tlie idea of a linguistic element and of commentaries on these glossaries. The
oldest known glossary of Vedic words nouns and verbs is the Rirvktd (q.v.) of Yfiska.
Kenowned glossaries of classical words are the Amarakosha, by Amarasinha, who is
is probably not later than the 3d c. after Christ; the Aihidhdnaratnamdld, byHalayudha;
the Haimakosha, by Hemachandra; and the Vis'waprakdsa, by Mahes'wara. (For other
works of this class, see Wilson's Sansknt- English Dictionary, preface to 1st ed. 1819;
and Colebrooke's Miscellaneous Essays, vol. i. p. 50, ff.) The glossaries of 'dhdhix ate
called DlidtupdtJuis. The oldest was probably composed by Pau'iui himself, and is the
groundwork of the existing works of this name, though the latter contain numerous addi-
tions of later forms. The chief commentary on the Dhdtupdt 'ha is that by the celebrated
Madhavaeharya (q.v.).

(d.) Prowdy. Sanskrit prosody admits three sorts of meter: one governed b\ y the nr.m-
ber of syllables, and which is mostly uniform, or monoschematic, in profane poetry, l,ut
not so in various passages of the Vedas; the other regulated by feet equivalent to two
long syllables, or to four short; and the third regulated by the proportion of syllabic
instants, without noticing the number of feet. Some Sutras (q.v) connected with the
Vedas contain rules on the Vedic meters; but the principal work on Vedic as well as
profane prosody is the Chhandali' s' dstra , by Pingala, which has been commented on by
various writers, the most conspicuous of whom is Halayudhabhat't'a. A short treatise
on prosody, which only exhibits the most common sorts of meter, the S'rutabodha, is
attributed, but probably wrongly, to Kalidasa (q.v.).

(e.) Art of Poetry. It is treated in works on dramaturgy, and works on the poetical
art in general. The oldest work on the dramatic art is the Svira of Bharata ; a later one
is the Das'arupa by Dhananjaya, Some of the principal works of the latter category
are the Kdvyapras' a, by Mamurat'a, the Kivyddars'a, by Dan'd'in, and the fcdhityadur-
paria, by Vis'wanatha Kaviraja. Several other works of this class are especially con-
cerned in the explanation of figures of speech.

(f.) Works on Music. In general, they treat of notes, musical scales, melodies, the
art of singing, and musical instruments; and some of them also of the art of dancing and
performing. The melodies, or Ldgas, are represented as deities, who have wives, the
Rdgiriis. Their number is uniform in the different works, and it is probable that the
passages in dramas and other poetical works intended for singing were written to suit
these fixed melodies, and not that the melodies were composed after the poet had per-
formed his task. The principal works of this kind are the Sangitaratndkara, by tf'rn-
fadeva, the Sangitadarpari a, by Damodara, and the Sangitaddmodara, by S'ubhankara.
pecial treatises relate to the melodies alone.

(g.) Amatory Art. Works treating of this art purport methodically to explain and to
classify all that relates to love, and they refer for many of their statements to the oldest
authorities. The. chief work on the subject is the Kama-Sutra of Vatsyayana.

(7;.) Astronomy and Arithmetic. The calendars connected with the Vedas are the
earliest evidence of Hindu proficiency in astronomy; they presuppose a knowledge of a
solar year of 365 days, and their date is assumed by Colebrooke to belong to the 18th c.
B.C., while others would place them a few centuries later. The scientific works of later
Hindu astronomers are professedly based on five ancient systems, or SiddhSntns, called
the Paulis'a-, Romaka-, VSs'isht'ha-, Saura-, and Paitamaha-SiddhSnta; and the enyliest
renowned author among these astronomers is Aryabhat't'a, who, according to Cole-
brooke's calculation, did not live later than the 5th c. after Christ. From the quotations
by Brahmagupta, it appears that Aryabhatta "affirmed a diurnal revolution of the earth
on its axis, that he possessed the true theory of the causes of lunar and solar eclipses,
and that he noticed the motion of the solstitial and equinoctial points, but restricted it
to a regular oscillation, of which he assigned the limit and the period." See, for further
detail, Colebrooke's Algebra, etc. (Lond. 1817, p. 38). His principal work, \\:c Argd*M -
as'ata, is at present only known from the quotations of Brahmagupta, Bhat't'otpala, and
others; but his other works, the Das'agitikA and Aryabhat't'iya, are extant. Varflhami-
hira, the next important astronomical writer, a native of Ujjayini, lived about the begin-
ning of the 6th c. after Christ. His compilation of the five Slddhantas, the P<nwl*id-
dhdntika, is not yet recovered; but several of his astrological treatise?, and the scholia
on them by Bhat't'otpala or Utpala are preserved, and his Br'ihatmnhild has been r< ccntly
edited by for. H. Kern (Calc., 1865). Another great astronomical authority is Tn'gir.a-
gupta, who appears to have written toward the close of the sixth, or the beginning of
the following century; his work bears the title of Brahmasiddhdnta,, and it was f< 11 owed
up by Bhaskara, who in the middle of the 12th c., composed a celebrated word, the
- U K. XIII. 10 ^


SuWdntctfiroman'i. translated by Lancelot Wilkinson (Calc. , 1861). The SuryasiddMnta
has been edited bv Fitzedward Hall (Calc., 1859); and two translations of it are due, one
to E Burn-ess in'the Journal of the American oriental society, accompanied with notes
by Whitney (New Haven, 1860): another to BSpudeva S'Sstri (Calc. 1861); but whether
this Siddhanta is the Saura, one of the five original Siddhantas above mentioned, or a
later work bearin- a similar title, is matter of doubt. That Hindu astronomy is largely
indebted for its progress to the kindred sciences of western nations may be inferred
from the occurrence in Sanskrit of terms which are of Arabic and Greek origin. I bus,
the terms hard, dreshkdn'a, lipta, kendra, etc., are easily traced to the Greek hara, deka-
nos, lepta, kentron, etc. That works on Hindu astronomy contain more or fewer chap-
ters or passages which no longer concern astronomy, but belong to the sphere of astrol-
ogy, can be no matter of surprise, considering the intimate connection iu which, in
India religion and superstition stand to every branch of human knowledge, and much
more especially to one concerning the heavenly bodies. There arc, moreover, numerous
works which are purely astrological, merely treating of nativities and the influence of
the planets on certain periods of the day or month, and the occurrences that would take
place at them. Among celebrated writers on algebra, it must here suffice to name Vara-
hamihira and BhSskara. See Colebrooke's Algebra, as quoted above.

(i.) Medicine. The origin of Hindu medicine is referred to the god Brahman, from
whom the Ayurveda, or " the science of long life," was obtained by Daksha, who com-
municated it in his turn to the As'wins. Some time after this, mankind, in consequence
of their wickedness, becoming afflicted with numerous diseases, the Munis, or saints,
met in the Himalaya mountains to search for a remedy. A long list of these saints is
given by Charaka, one of the greatest medical writers, and it is so far of interest as it
contains several names known in Hindu history, and which thus may be probably con-
nected with the early study of Hindu medicine. The two greatest medical authorities
the works of whom are still extant are Charaka and Sus'ruta(q.v.). Both treat of the
duties of physicians and their pupils, of anatomy and physiology; hygeology; materia
medica, pharmacy, and preparations of medicine; surgery; the diagnosis, prognosis, and
treatment of a considerable number of diseases; midwifery, toxicology, etc. Several

mythological detail than the latter. Of the authorities quoted by Charaka, Atrey;
seems still preserved in a work, the Atreyasanhitd, which is far less scientific and com-
plete than either the work of Charaka, or Sus'ruta, and therefore appears to have pre-
ceded them. See also T. A. Wise, Commentary on the Hindu System of Medicine (Lond.,

(j.) Architecture. Treatises on architecture, sculpture, etc., are collectively called
Silpas'dslra. There appear to have been 32, or, according to some, 64 standard treatises
on these arts, but of these only a few are probably still in existence. The most impor-
tant of them is the Manasdra, which consists of 58 chapters, each of which is devoted to a
particular topic such as measures used in architecture; the different sites to be selected
for building temples and houses; the mode of determining the different points of the
compass; the several sorts of villages, towns, and vlties, with directions for building
them; the different parts of an edifice, its ornaments, pedestals, bases, pillars, etc.; the
various sorts of temples; the construction of porticoes, gates, palaces, etc.; the con-
struction of images, and cars in which the gods are carried in procession, together with
the ceremonies attending the consecration of images; the mode of determining the
propitious moment for commencing to lay the foundation of an edifice, etc. See, for
further detail, Rfim Rfiz, Essay on the Architecture of the Hindus (London, 1834).

For a more copious supply of titles of books on the subjects mentioned, the reader
may consult Gildemeister, Bibliotheca Sanskrita, Bonn (1847), and the printed catalogues
of the library of the India office, of the Sanskrit MSS. of the Bodleian library at Oxford,
and of the Sanskrit MSS. of the royal library at Berlin.

SANSON, NICOLAS, 1600-67; b. Abbeville, France; educated at the Amiens Jesuit
college. In 1616 he made a map of ancient Gaul. He engaged in business, but with
little success, and in 1627 visited Paris, where he attracted the notice of Louis XIII.,
and became his instructor in geography. By him he was made engineer of Picardy,
and later, geographer to the king and councilor of state. His maps were not remark-
able for accuracy, but he has the honor of being the creator of French geography.

SANTA ANNA, a co. in n.w. New Mexico, having the territorial line of Arizona
for its w. boundary; 7,000 sq.m. ; pop. '70, 2,5992.587 of American birth. It is drained
by the Rio Grande, the Rio de Cliaco, the Rio Puerco, and other streams. Its surface is
mountainous, a range of mountains occupying the e. portion, the Sierra de Chusca the
s.w. The rainfall is very slight, and the farming lands require irrigation, but arc very
fertile, and produce wheat and corn. The country is adapted to raising cattle and sheep,
particularly the valley of the Rio Grande, where large quantities of wool are produced.
Co. seat, Jemez.

SANTA A NNA, or ANA, a t. of Central America, in the state of San Salvador, and
32 m. n.w. by w. from the town of San Salvador. Pop. about 10,000.

1 A <7 Sanson.

JL^' Santa.

SANTA ANNA, DON AXTONIO LOPEZ DE, ex-President of Mexico, was born in Jalapa,
in 1798. While a mere youtli he entered the Spanish army, and became lieut.col. in.
1821. When Mexico determined to throw off the Spanish "yoke. Santa Anna greatly
distinguished himself at the head of the Mexican troops. The Spanish royalists were
expelled from Vera Cruz, and he was elected governor of the city and province. Itur-
bide had established an imperial rule over Mexico (q. v.), but his tyranny having worked
his downfall, Santa Anna proclaimed in 18:2:2 a Mexican republic, which was recognized
by every foreign state except Spain. He was incessantly engaged in quelling the civil
wars kindled by the aristocratic and democratic factions. In 1829 he engaged and put
to flight a division of Spanish troops which invaded Mexico by way of Tampico, with
the view of again bringing Mexico under Spanish rule. The separation of Texas (q. v.)
from the Mexican union was vigorously but unavailingly opposed by Santa Anna. In
1837 differences arose with France, and a division of French troops lauded at Vera Cru/..
They were gallantly engaged by Santa Anna, who drove a portion of them into the sea
at the point of the bayonet. In this action he received a bullet in the leg, which
rendered the amputation of the limb necessary. In 1838 the French took Vera Cruz,
and obtained the settlement of their differences. In 1847 war having been declared by
Mexico against the United States, Santa Anna took the command of the Mexican force".
He offered a gallant-but ineffectual resistance to the troops of generals Scott and Taylor.
The city of Mexico having been stormed and taken by the Americans under gen. Scott,
the war was at an end, and Santa Anna retired from Mexico. During 30 years he had
disputed the direction of affairs with Bustamente, Herrera, Cevallos, and other chiefs of
parties, being at one time dictator, and at another disgraced and an exile. In 1853
Mexico, torn by civil dissensions, and falling into anarchy, again recalled Santa Anna.
He declared himself president for life, and a civil war was The immediate result. In
1855 he was driven from the country. During the government of Juarez, 1858-63, Santa
Anna was looked up to as their chief and future ruler by an influential party in Mexico.
On the establishment of a hereditary monarchy under Maximilian of Austria as emperor,
Santa Anna, returned to Mexico, having first signed an act of adhesion to the empire.
He soon, however, began to intrigue for his own return to power, issuing addresses to
the people as emperor, and was' ordered to leave the country. After some residence in
the United States, Santa Anna planned an expedition against Juarez; but ere a landing
at Vera Crnz had been effected, Santa Anna, with his secretary, was taken prisoner.
He was condemned to death, but pardoned by Juarez, on condition of his leaving
Mexico. He afterward resided on Staten island, N. Y., where he spent his time cock-
fighting and playing at three-card monte. On the death of Juarez in 1875 ho returned
to Mexico, where he died in 1876. He was regarded by his countrymen as their ablest
general, and he was more successful than any other Mexican ruler "in quelling the miser-
able civil wars, though he sometimes showed unjustifiable cruelty. He was also accused
of being greedy of wealth, and unscrupulous in the means of obtaining it. He received
the grand cross of Charles III. of Spain, and the grand cross of the red eagle of Prussia.

SANTA BAR'BARA, a co. in s. w. California, having the Pacific ocean on the s.
and w., the Guavmaa river on the n., comprising several islands on the coast; about
2,800 sq.m.; pop" '80, 9.5228,124 of American birth, 378 colored. It is drained by the
Santa Clara and Santa Inez rivers. Its surface is crossed in the e. by the Sierra San
Rafael and the Sierra Santa Inez; in the w. it is less hilly; throughout its entire
extent the low land and river banks are fertile, producing grain, potatoes, dairy prod-
ucts, oranges, and all tropical fruits, and grapes which are made into wine and raisins.
The climate is warm and mild; and the rainfall is slight from May to November.
Orchards of mulberry trees have been planted, and large numbers of cattle are raised.
Its mineral products are asphaltum, largely exported, salt, petroleum, sulphur, copper,
and iron. Gold is found. Co. seat, Santa Barbara.

SANTA BAR'BARA, a t. in s. California, 90 m. n.w. of Los Angeles, 260 m. s. of
San Francisco; pop. '70, 4,255. It contains an old mission cathedral, and is the seat of
Santa Barbara and Franciscan colleges and St. Vincent's institute. It has 7 churches,
a public school, a bank, 5 newspapers, a circulating library, masonic and odd fellows'
lodges, and a patrons of husbandry society. It has several extensive vineyards and hot
springs, and on account of its soft and salubrious climate is much frequented by con-
sumptive invalids from the eastern states. Live stock is raised in large numbers, and
the exportation of wool is important. It has flour and lumber mills.

SANTA CATHARINA. a province in Brazil, bounded e. by the Atlantic, and on
the other three sides by the provinces of Parana and I\io Grande de Sul; 18,924 sq.m. ;
pop. 159,802. Except on the coast, which is low, the surface is mountainous, traversed
by the Semi Catharina on the w., and well watered. On account of the mildness of the
climate, fertility of the soil, and beauty of the scenery, it is called "the paradise of
Brazil." The principal productions are rice, manioc, millet, sugar, coffee, and cochi-
neal. Beds of bituminous coal have been found. The chief towns are Desterro, Sao
Francisco, and Laguna. There are prosperous German colonies in the province. Off
the coast, separated by a strait, is the fortified island of Santa Catharina, 30 m. long, 8
broad, forming the fine bay of the same name.

Santq. 1 JQ


20 m. wide, forijis the greater part of the county, and lie,, between the coast and Santa
Clara mountains, the DJghcflt point of which is mount Hamilton, 4.449 ft. high. The
valley is furnished with water from nearly 1000 artesian wells; the climate is uniform,
and there is abundance of good fruit. The principal productions are lumber, grain,
hay, wine, cattle, wool, and hops. It contains asphaltum, copper, petroleum, mineral
anil hot springs, and the New Almaden and Gaudaloupe quicksilver mines, the richest
in the world, which yielded in 1875, 31,106,200 Ibs. It has manufactories of tanned and
curried leather, carriages, wagons, machinery, paper, saddlery, harness, tin, copper, and
sheet-iron ware, flour, planing, and saw-mills, and establishments for smelting quick-
silver. Co. seat, San Jose.


SANTA CRUZ, a co. in w. Cal., bounded by the Pacific ocean and Monterey bay on
the w., on the e. by Santa Cruz mountains, and on the s. by Pajaro river; crossed by the
Santa Cruz railroad, and drained by the San Lorenza and SoqueJ rivers; 4o2 :-q.m. ;
pop. '80, 12,801. The surface Is mountainous and heavily wooded with oak. pine, and
redwood trees of large growth, the redwood often attaining the size of 15 ft. in diameter.
The soil in the valleys is fertile, and large crops are raised. The main productions are
grain, potatoes, wine, butter, and cattle. It contains copper, limestone, petroleum,
gold, and sand that is used in making glass. It has good water-power, and there are
manufactories of gunpowder, barrels, lime, saddlery and harness, engines and boilers,
tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware, tanned and curried leather, flour, planing and saw-
mills. Sardines and other fish are abundant in the bay. Co. seat, Santa Crux.

SANTA CETJZ (Teneriffe), the capital of the Canary islands (q.v.), and the chief sea-
port of the group, stands on the n.e. side of the island of Teneriffe. Its port, the safest
in Ganaria, has recently been extended and improved by the construction of two moles,
with a united length of about 5,400 ft., which inclose a large space of water, affording
excellent anchorage in from two to nine fathoms. When completed, these works will
be of inestimable value, in a commercial point of view, to the island. The si reels of
Santa Cruz are broad, the houses whitewashed and flat-roofed, and several of the public
buildings striking in appearance. The town is defended by several forts and redoubts.
Formerly large quantities of wine of excellent quality were grown in TenerilTe. and
.'hipped for export at Santa Cruz; now, however, the principal article of export from
this, and also from the other islands, is cochineal. Coals from England, together with
manufactured goods, hardware, and furniture are imported. Of the imports at Santa
Crux., more than a third come from England, and the annual imports amount to about
160,000. Pop. 13,228.


SANTA CBUZ DE LA PALMA. the capital of Palma, one of the Canary islands (q.v.).
It stands on the e. coast of Palma, on a spacious bay from 7 to 10 fathoms deep. Pop.
about 5,000, employed partly in manufactures of silks and hosiery.

SANTA FE, a prov. in the Argentine republic, on the w. bank of the Rio Parana',
separating it from Entre Rios; bounded by Buenos Ayres, Cordova, Corrientes, and
Santiago; 37,500 sq.m.; pop. 89,117. It is divided into the departments of Santa Fe,
San Jose, San Geronimo, and Rbsario. It is drained by the Rio Solado and the Tercero.
In the s. are level plains rising into hills in the n., and diversified by salt lakes. Much
of the country is occupied by extensive forests; in the cultivated portions, wheat, maize,
tobacco, wax, honey, and tropical fruits are produced. Agriculture and stock-raising
are the chief pursuits. The chief town is Rosario. Capital, Santa Fe.

SANTA FE, a co. in n. central New Mexico; drained by the Rio Grande and its
branches, and the Pecos; about 1900 sq.m.; pop. '70, 9,6999,383 of American birth.
The surface is mountainous, and heavily wooded. The soil is fertile jn the Rio Grande
valley, but on the high table-lands sterile and uncultivated. The principal productions
are wheat, corn, wool, and cattle. Gold, iron, and coal are found. Co. seat, Santa Fe.

SANTA FE, a t. of the Argentine republic, on the right bank of the Salado, a large
branch of the Parana, 250 m. n.w. by n. from Buenos Ayres. Pop. 15,000.

SANTA FE, city and capital of the territory of New Mexico, U.S., built nmonsr the
Rocky mountains, on a plain 7,047ft. above the sea. It is an old Spanish Mexican
town, and contains 4 Roman Catholic churches, a Presbyterian mission church, and the

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 34 of 203)