Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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government buildings. It has an active overland trade with St. Louis. Pop. in 70.
4, 765.

SANTA FE (ante), capital of New Mexico and of Santa Fe co., is on both sides of
grata Fe creek, which flows into the Rio Grande, 275 m. w. of Denver; pop. '75 about
). mostly of Spanish and Mexican origin. It is the center of trade with the sur-
rounding country. The climate is very equable and healthy. The town is irregular,
the streets are unpaved, narrow, and crooked. The houses are generally built of adobe*

1 A Q Santa.


or sua-dried bricks, and are of one story. The principal business houses are on three
taks of a public square or plaza of two acres; and on the fourth is the old palace of one
story, Hew containing the governor's residence, a legislative hall, and court-room. In
the center of the town is a beautiful park. Santa Fe contains a court-house, 2 national
banks, a jail, 2 newspapers, 5 churches, and a convent. It is a Roman Catholic arcli-
Li-uop's >ee. Silver and copper are found near the city. When it was first visited by
the Spaniards in 1542, it was an Indian settlement, and has been the capital of New
Mc\i< -o since 1042. In 16SO it was taken and burned by the Indians, and the whites
were driven away. In 1694 the Spaniards returned and recaptured it. In 1837 the
In iians made another assault, but were conquered by Manuel Armijo. The United
Sale* troops took possession in 1846, under gen. S. W. Kearney, who found there
American traders and trappers. The territorial government was established in 1851. In
18o2 the rebel troops under gen. Sibley occupied the city, but were defeated by the
Union forces under col. Slough and compelled to evacuate it.

SANTALA CE.ZE, a natural order of exogenous plants, mostly trees and shrubs. The
ie -ivt's are undivided, sometimes minute. The perianth is superior, 4 to 5 cleft. The
slamens are 4 or 5, opposite the segments of the perianth, and inserted into their bases.
The ovary is one-celled, with one to four ovules. The fruit is one-seeded, nut-like, or
drupaceous. There are about 110 known species, natives of various parts of the world,
the European and most of the North American species being obscure weeds, while the
trees of the order occur chiefly in the East Indies, New Holland, and the South Sea
inlands. Sandal-wood (q.v.) is the produce of plants of this order. The leaves of
oxyi-ia Jit'pulciistis are used for tea. Some species are used in medicine in their native
countries. FIIMHIIS acuminatus is the quaudang nut of New Holland. Its taste and
qualities resemble those of sweet almonds, as do also those of the seed of the Cervantema
t<>:n> tit os< t of Peru. Pyrularia oleifera, the buffalo tree or oil-nut, has a large seed, from
which, in the southern states of America, oil is obtained.

SAN T ALINE, or SANTALIC ACID, the coloring matter of plerocarpm santalinus, or
red sandal-wuod, is readily obtained by digesting the rasped wood in alcohol, and then
precipitating the santaline by the free addition of water. It is little used in this country
as a dye-stuff, but it is employed in India both in dyeing silk and cotton. It is in con-
sequence of the santaline contained in it that red sandal-wood is retained iu the phanim-
coi/a'in as a coloring agent for tinctures, etc.

SANTA MARGARITA, a t. of Sicily, 42 m. n.w. of Girgeuti. Pop. 7,000.

SANTA MARGHERI TA DI BELI'CE. a city of Sicily, in the province of Girgenti,
with 7.500 inhabitants. From the lands belonging toit, grain, wine, and oil are exported.
Woven goods and hats are manufactured for export.

SANTA MARGHERITA DI RAPALLO, a pleasant t. in the province of Genoa, situated
on the sea-coast about 3 in. from Rapallo. The Genoese coral fishery is carried on prin-
cipally by feluccas fitted out here, and manned. by the bold seafaring population. Pop.
'71, oi Santa Margherita di Rapalio (also called Santa Margherita Ligure). 4,750.

SANTA MARIA, a city in s. Spain, in the province of Cadiz; on the bay of Cadiz,
6 m. n.e. of the city of that name, near the mouth of the Gaudalete river; pop. 19.247.
It is 7 m. by rail from Jeres. and receives its wine for exportation. Its manufactures
include brandy, liquors, leather, soap, oil, hats, wax, etc

SANTA MARIA DI CAP UA-VETERE, a city of s. Italy, in the province of Caserta,
with about 16.800 inhabitants. It is not handsome but new, and its population increases
every year. The neighboring soil is very fertile, and produces abundance of grain,
fruits, oil, and excelhjit wines. Its manufactures consist of cloth and other woven
materials and hats.

SANTA MARTA, a t. of the United States of Colombia, the capital of a province, on
a bay of the Caribbean sea, 400 in. e.n.e. from Panama. There is a good harbor,
defended by a castle and several batteries. Pop. 8,000.

SANTA MAURA, or LEUCA'DIA (anc. also Lencadui and Lei/efts, so called from its
white cliffs, one of the Ionian islands, off the w. coast of the ancient Greek province of
Aciirnania, from which it is now separated by a passage about a mile wide, although it
was in early times connected with the main-land by an isthmus. The canal across the
isthmus, which converted the peninsula into an island, is said to have been cut by the
Corinthians. Santa Maura is about 22 m. long, and has a breadth ranging from 6 to 9
miles. Area about 180 sq.m. ; pop. 20,147. Its surface is very uneven. It is traversed
by a range of hills from north to south, which end at the southern extremity in the high
white cliffs called by the Italian sailors of the Levant cape Ducato (a corruption of
Leu&ites), but better known under the name of " Sappho's Leap."

SANTANDER, a state in the United States of Colombia; bounded on the n.e. by
Venezuela, and on the w. by the Magdalena river; about 16,000 sq.m.; pop. 425,427.
Capital, Socorro.

SANTANDER, a prov. of Old Castile, Spain, lying on the bay of Biscay, and
adjoining the provinces of Biscay, Burgos, Palencia, "Leon, and Asturias; 2, 132 'sq.m.;
pop. '70, 241,581. The surface is hilly, being on the n. slope of the Cautabrian uiouu-

Santander. 1 ~A


tains, but there are many fertile valleys. There are mines of lead, iron, and copper, and
quarries of marble and building stone. The people are extensively engaged in fishery.
The chief towns are Sautauder, Sautona, Saululaua, and Laredo.

SANTANDER, an important and thriving sea-port of Spain, in the modern province
of the same name, stands on a magnificent bay. an inlet of the bay of Biscay, about
equally distant from Oviedo on the w. f and San Sebastian on the east. The bay on
which the town is placed is from 2 to 3 m. wide, and about 4 m. long, and is accessible
to the largest vessels at all times of the tide. The situation of the town, on a headland
protected by a hill, is picturesque; among its edifices few are either interesting from
their appearance, or important from their character. Of its former convents one now
serves as a theater; another as a cigar-factory, giving employment to about 1000 people.
Numerous new houses, and handsome warehouses, and commercial establishments of
various kinds have been erected recently. The fine harbor of Sautander, with a com-
modious entrance, is accessible at all tides, and unobstructed by a bar. Several impor-
tant improvements have recently taken place here. The half of the province of
Santauder may be said to be impregnated with iron, copper, zinc, and other ores; though,
hitherto the timidity of native capitalists has rendered the quantity extracted compar-
atively small. In one year, 12,625 tons of iron and copper ores, together with a quan-
tity of quicksilver and cobalt, were shipped from the port of Santander to Great Britain
alone, and mostly to Newport and Swansea. Wheat is an important element in the
trade of Santander. The annual exports amount to about 1,500,000; and of that sum
the exports of wheat and flour alone amount to the value of 1,400,000. The imports
the chief articles of which are sugar from Cuba; textile fabrics from England, France,
Belgium, and Germany; and salted codfish from Norway amount to about 1,800,000.
A railway runs s. from Santander to Veuta de Banos on the Great North of Spain rail-
way; and in the middle portion of it, from Barcena to Eevnosa, a distance of 21 m.,
theVe are 22 tunnels. Pop. 31,000. Area of province, 2,llf sq.m. ; pop. '70, 241,581.

SANTAREM . an interesting old t. and river-port of Portugal, on the right bank of
the Tagus, 46 m. n.e. of Lisbon by railway. It carries on an active trade in the prod-
ucts of the -fertile vicinity with Lisbon, 'with which there is steain-conimunicatiou by
river as well as by rail. Pop. about 8,000.

SANTA ROSA, a co. in w. Florida, bordering on Alabama, with the gulf of Mexico

Jon the s., and Escambia river on the w., and drained by Yellow and Blackwater rivers;
. 1440 sq.m. ; pop. in '80, 6,645. The surface is level and mostly covered with forests of
' pine; the soil is poor. The island p of Santa Rosa, in the gulf of Mexico, is a part of the
county, and is situated at the entrance of Pensacola harbor, which is defended by fort
Pickens, which stands on the western extremity of the island. Lumber is the chief
export. The main productions are Indian corn, rice, molasses, cattle, and swine. Co.
seat, Milton.

SANTEE', a river of South Carolina, which rises in the Blue Ridge, in North Caro-
lina, by two principal branches, the Cong.iree and Wateree, and flowing s.e., emp-
ties into the Atlantic ocean. Lat. 33 6'. It is navigable 150 m. to Camden, and is bor-
dered, in its lower course, by rice-swamps and pitch-pine forests.

SANTEBRE, ANTOIXE JOSEPH, a French revolutionist, who for some time exercised
an influence quite disproportioned to his feeble abilities, was b. at Paris, Mar. 16, 1752.
He followed the trade of a brewer in the faubourg Saint-Antoiue, and his wealth, pro-
bity, and generosity toward his employes gave him an immense influence in the district.
On the establishment of the national guard in 1789 lie received the command of a bat-
talion, and took part in the storming of the bastille. During tlte year 1792 the Jacobin
agitators of the faubourgs often met in the brewery of Santerre, and it was there that
the r.ineute of June 20 was preconcerted, on which occasion Santerre, along with Saint-
Huruge, marched at the head of the mob who invaded the assemblee nationale, and
turned out the Girondists. He also played a conspicuous part on Au<r. 10, when he
was invested with the dignity of gen. commanding of the national guard. In October
lie was named field-marshal (marechal de camp), and in April. 1793, he got the "authori-
ties" to let him off scot-free for a debt of some 50,000 livres, which he owed the
exchequer in the shape of taxes on the beer manufactured by him the minister of
{finance arguing that, inasmuch as Santerre's beer was drunk for the most part by
''patriots" (not always careful to pay their score), it ought not to be subjected to "duty."
Hut greater things were yet in store for the privileged brewer. On July 30 he was
appointed a gen. of division in the French army, and wishin-r to do something to ius-
tify this strictly military office, he marched at the head of 20,000 men against the Ven-
Sean royalists, but was miserably beaten, and in consequence recalled. Shortly after,

was arrested and imprisoned, and only obtained his liberty after the death of Robes-
He then withdrew into private life; but his fortunes nnd his popularity alike
declined, and in 1800 we find him beguing money and employment from Bonaparto.
lie latter, who saw clearly enough that Santerre was intrinsi6ally an incapable fool,

;med to employ him. but restored him to his military rank. Santerre died Feb. 6,
. Owing to the calumnies of royalist writers. Santerre commonly fknires as one

the ferocious monsters of the revolution. There is positively no evidence however

~| SI Santamler.


for such an opinion. Though he was hugely fond of "brave words," and menaced
his opponents with all*the bellicose grandiloquence of a French revolutionist, he was
nearly as soft in the heart as in the head. Some witty contemporary made the fol-
lowing epitaph on him:

Ci-^it le g6n6ral Santerre,

Qui n'eut de Mars que la biSre.

SANTIAGO, the "largest of the Cape Verd islands (q.v.).

SANTIAGO, a province in central Chili; bounded on the e. by the Argentine repub-
lic, on the w. by the Pacific; drained by the Maypu river; 7,800 sq.m. ; pop. about
375,000. The surface is mountainous, intersected "by the Andes. The soil in the low-
lands is fertile. Many cattle are raised, and agriculture is more advanced than in
any other part of South America. Silver and copper mines are worked. Capital,

SANTIAGO, or SANTIAGO DEL ESTKRO, a province in the central part of the Argen-
tine republic; bounded on the u. byTucuman, on the e. by El Gran Chaco, on the s. by
Cordova, and on thew. by Catamarca; drained by the Salado, Dulce, and other streams;
about 35,000 sq.m. ; pop. '69, 132,763. The surface is mountainous in thew., level in
the east. There are many lakes and large forests. The climate is warm, but health-
ful. The soil is fertile. The principal productions are corn, wheat, and sugar. Much
of the soil is pasture land. There are manufactures of woolens and laces. Capital,

SANTIA GO DE CHILI, capital of the republic of Chili, and of a province of the
same name, an archbishop's see, and the seat of the supreme government, stands at the
western base of the Andes, 1800 ft. above sea-level, and 90 m. e.s.e. of Valparaiso. It
was founded in 1541 by Pedro deValdivia, but it has only recently acquired importance.
Its climate is delightful; the plain on which it stands is extensive, and fertile in vines,
figs, melons, and other fruits, and the scenery, looking toward the range of the Andes,
is of the grandest description. The valley or plain of Santiago is sprinkled with
tasteful villas and well-cultivated farms. The city is arranged in squares, and the
houses are generally low, and are built around a court or garden, which is intended as a
place of refuge during the earthquakes that frequently occur here. But of late years
it has become the fashion, in spite of the earthquakes, to build costly houses of two,
three, and even four stories, with a fj^ade toward the street. The Alameda, shaded
with poplars, and cooled by two streams of running water, is a pleasant promenade.
The mint, a portion of which serves as one of the president's palaces, and as offices for
the ministers, is the handsomest of the public buildings, many of which, however, arc
beautiful structures. The university comprises the five faculties of philosophy, mathe-
matics and physical sciences, medicine, law, and theology. There are important edu-
cational institutions (including a normal school), and a library and museum. On the
west side of the great square, which is adorned with a fine fountain, is the cathedral.
On Dec. 8, 1863. one of its churches, that of La Compania, was destroyed by fire during
service, and 2,000 out of the 3.000 of the congregation the victims being mostly
women met a dreadful death. Gold, silver, and lead are exported, and the imports are
chiefly manufactured goods, wines, and spirits. The chief trade is with Valparaiso by
the Valparaiso and Santiago railway, opened in 1863. Pop. '75, 148,264. Area of prov-
ince, 9,000 sq.m.; pop. '75, 362,712.

SANTIA'GO BE COMPOSTELLA, an important and once famous citv of Spain, for-
merly the capital of Galicia, and, from the number of pilgrims by whom it was annually
visited, the Mecca of Spain, is extremely picturesque in appearance, from its hill-girt
situation on an irregular uneven site, 40 m. s. of Cornnna. The cathedral, occupying
the site of a former edifice of the same nature, was founded in 1082, and its buildings,
comprising a cloister, the archbishop's palace, etc.. cover more than 3| acres. The
great square is a spacious area, and occasionally used as a bull arena. In front of
the town-house is an equestrian statue of Sant Jago(St. James the elder, the patron
saint of the city and of Spain), whose body, according to a monkish legend, was dis-
covered near this by a hermit a star miraculously pointing out the spot, whence the
name Compostella (campus stelto, "field of a star"). It was removed to Santiago in
829. The bones of the saint are believed by the people to be built into the foundations
of the cathedral. A desolate appearance is imparted to the town from the number of
tenantless and ruined nunneries and convents which it contains. Leather is manufac
tured, and the making and carving of small silver graven images employ a number of
silversmiths. Pop. about 30,000.

SANTIAGO DE CU'BA, formerly the capital of the island of Cuba, and now the
chief t. of the eastern department of the island, stands on a bay on the s. coast at the
mouth of a stream of the same name. It is hemmed in by mountains, and is reputed
tne most unhealthy place in the island. Its harbor is deep, well protected, and forti
fled. It communicates by railway and telegraph with the other towns of the island As
a seat of commerce it takes rank after Havana and Matanzas. Pop. 45,000.


Surto. 152


ri; ante.

SANTONINE (C 30 H 18 O 8 ) is a vegetable principle possessing slightly acid properties
r>b -lined from the seeds and flower-heads of several species of tirtumxia. Ihe \
Pinrm-icopa-ia sives santonica, "the unexpanded flower-heads of an undetermined
->rrk'.s of artemwia," imported from Russia, as its source. It is one of the most efflca-
C-HHU of the class of medicines known as anthelmintics or vermifuges, the most obstuia
c sea of asearides and lumbrid almost always yielding to its prolonged use. Fare

authorities on the subject of intestinal worms., prefers the use of santonate of soda,
which lie obtains by digesting an alcoholic solution of satonine with carbonate of soda,
evaporating and crystallizing. The dose is from two to eight grains mixed with sugar.
Two very peculiar" symptoms occur after the administration of santoniue. The urine
often acquires a reddish tint, which may give rise to an unfounded suspicion of the
presence of blood in that fluid; and under its influence, vision becomes remarkably
affected for a few hours, every object appearing either yellow or green to the patient.
No satisfactory explanation of the latter phenomenon has yet been given.


SANTOS, one of the chief ports of the province of Sao Paulo (q,v.) in Brazil, 34 m.
e.s.e. of the city of Sao Paulo, of which it is the port. It stands on the northern side of
the island of Engua Gaagu, and commands a' fine bay. Sugar, coffee, and other prod-
ucts of the interior are transported to Santos by troops of mules; and salt, flour, and
other imported goods find their way back by the same means. It is stated that 200,000
mules arrive here laden during the year. 160,000 sacks of coffee are exported annually.
Pop. stated at 8,000.


SAO FEANCISCO, a large river of Brazil, rises, as the Paraopeba, in the province of
Miu is Geraes, in lat. about 20 40' s.; long. 43 25' west. It flows n., u.e., and e., and in
, its lower course it separates the provinces of Bahia and Sergipe from Pernombuco and
Alagoas. Its first considerable affluent is the Rio das, which joins it from the
riglii in lat. 17 45' south. Above the junction of the Velhas, at Pirapora, where the river
is 1782 ft. broad, and 1700 ft. above sea level, there is a fall of 17 feet. From the mouth
of the Velhas (1666 ft. above sea level) to the falls of Paulo Affonzo the river is naviga-
ble for 920 m. ; and from these falls to the mouth of the river, a distance of about 140
m., it is navigable for larger vessels arid steamers. Its entire length is 1652 in., and its
breadth at its mouth is 3,486 feet.

SA ONE, a river of France, an affluent of the Rhone (q.v.), rises inthe'dep. of Vosgos,
at Viomenil, in the Faucelles mountains, at the height of 1476ft. above sea level, and
flows s. past Gray, Chalons, and Mapon to its confluence with the Rhone at Lyons.
Entire length, 312 m., of which 170 in. are navigable.

8AONE-ET-LOIBE, a dep. of France, bounded on the e. by the dep. of Jura and the
river Saone, aud on the w. by the dep. of Nievre and the river Loire. Area, 3,300 sq.m. ;
pop. '76, 614,309. The country consists for the most part of vast and fertile plains,
separated by rich vine-clad hills. The fertility is greatest in the vicinity of the two
main streams. Horses of a small but vigorous breed are reared; the excellent and
abundant pasturage supports numerous herds. The wines, of which 15,400,000 gallons
are made annually, are well known as wins de Macon. Agriculture, iron-mining, and
manufactures of cotton fabrics, leather, pottery, fire-arms, etc., are all actively can-led
0:1. The dep. was formed in 1790 out of four districts of the ancient province of Bur-
gundy Maconnais, Charollais, Chalonnais, and L'Autunois. It now forms live arron-
dUscnients, of which Macon is the capital,

SAONE. HAUTE, a dep. in the n.e. of France, bounded on the n. by the dep. of
V i -.res, and on the e. by that of Haut-Rliin. Area, 2,050 sq.m.; pop. '76, 304,052.
About one-half of the entire area is in cultivable land, and more than a fourth part,
comprising the n. and n.e. districts, is covered with forest clad mountains. In the
s. _a:id s.w. ai\j fertile pl-iin*. bounded by hills, covered with vines or timber. The
climate of this rich champagne district, with its bulwark of mountain* atrninst the n. and
n.e. winds, is remarkably mild and healtly. Sheep, includinu some flock- ol ;].cni rino
breed, and cattle are reared in large numbers. Fruits are largely cultivated: and G.S();U>00
gallons of wine and 220.000 gallons of brandy are made annually. The arroniulissemeuts
are Gray, Lure, and Vesoul, and Vesoul is the capital.

SAO PAULO, a southern maritime province of Brazil, bounded on the n. by the province
of Minas Geraes. Area, 169,050 sq.m.; pop, '72, 837,354. Its roast-line part of which
in the n.e. is high and rocky, though the rest is low is about 400 m. in length. Sun'ar,
coffee, rice, millet, aud tobacco are staple crops; horses, cattle, and swine are reared for ex-

-I s q Santo.


port ; ar.d among flic minerals are the precious metals and gems. There are several commodi-
ous harbors, and the capital is Sao Paulo.

SAO PAULO, a city of Brazil, capilal of the province of the same name, stands on an
uneven elevation heiween two small streams, tributaries of the Tiete, 220 m. w.s.w. of
Kio de Janeiro. There is an academy of laws, attended by about 500 legal students. Ti i
genera! appearance of the town is picturesque, and the vicinity and suburbs are beauti-
ful. Pop. stated at 22.o;;2.


SAP, the lluid whieli circulates in plants, and is us indispensable to vegetable life ,"*
the blood to animal life. Entering by the roots of the plant (see ENDOBMO8E), it ascends
through the cells and vessels of the stem, proceeding to the surface of the leaves and
utnios. ex.ieiniiivS of the system, and having been exposed, chiefly in the leaves, to the
influences of air and light, returns through the bark, it portion ultimately reaching the
root and being excreted there, while another portion probably enters again into circula-
tion with the new fluid entering from the soil. See CIRCULATION OF SAP. Sap in its
most simple state, the ascending or crude sap, consisls chiefly of water, mucilage, and
sugar; the elaborated sap varies much more in its properties in different plan s, forming
the peculiar juices of the plants. The elaborated sap always contains much less water
than the ascending sap. Plants seem to derive their supply of sap not only from the
soil by their roots, but also from the atmosphere by the Btomata (q.v.) of their bark and
leaves; and some, especially succulent plants, are capable of existing and increasing in
size although entirely severed from the- soil. The' ascending sap ap.pears to find its way
through the whole wood of the stem in ligneous plants, but chiefly through the alburnum
or sap-woi.d. The elaporated sap has been named Latex (q.v.). The ascent of the sap
is one of the most wonderful phenomena of spring, and seems to depend not so much
on i he state of the weather, for it begins in the depth of winter, as on the plant having
had its sufficient period of repose, and being therefore constrained by its very nature to

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 35 of 203)