Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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renewed activity.

SAP; in military engineering, is a, narrow ditch or trench, by which approach is made
from the foi\ mo<t parallel toward the glad? or covert-way of a besieged place. The sap
is usually made by four sappers, the leading man of whom rolls a large gabion before
him, and excavates as he progresses, filling smaller gabions with the earth dug out, and
erecting them on one or both sides to form a parapet. The other sappers widen and
deepen the sap, throwing more earth on to the parapet. A sap is considered to advance;
in average ground about eight ft. per hour. From the nearness of the enemy's works,
running a sap is an extremely dangerous operation. When possible, therefore, it is
carried on at night; in any case, the sappers are relieved at least every hour. When a
eap is enlarged to the dimensions of a trench, it bears that namei

SA'PAJO, a' name sometimes applied to all that division of American monkeys which
have a prehensile tail, and sometimes limited to those of them which are of a slender
form, as the genera uteles (q.v ), cebus (q.v.), etc.

S.VPAJO ("t'}, the name of a group of South American monkeys including the
ordinary sapajoes (nMf*, q.v.) and other sapajoes, as the weeper or cebus (q.v.). See
also SPIDER MONKEY, ante. All the sapajoes are exceedingly active, but the fore-hands
are not as well developed as in the old-world monkeys. The thumb is longer, but more
on a line with the other fingers; facial angle about 60. They feed chiefly on fruits and
insects. One of the most common species is the Aveeper above mentioned. Ilumboldt
describes another species, ccbtt* albifrotis, about the same size as the weeper, with a gray-
ish-blue faee. and a grayish-olive body. It was found in the forests near the cataracts
of the Orinoco river. They are often kept as playthings by the Indians. Ilumboldt saw
one catch a pig every morning and ride him about on the savanna while he was feeding.
The horned sapajo has a singular tuft of hair on the forehead in the form of a crescent,
or a waterman's cap. having the appearance of two horns when viewed in front. It is a
native of French Guiana. Cebns monachus, the large-headed sapajo of the English, has
the head covered with short whitish hairs, as if shorn. The sides of the face, breast,
and belly are of a yellowish-white; fore arms, hinder extremities, and tail black; back
mottled with black and light brown. The genus AW/////// UK includes the following species;
S scinrK-iix. >'. />< j-Ki'.'inf"*. S. luf/ens, S. aw ictus. S. torquntus, & motcch, K nxlnuocleir,
and .S. infiilittux. >'. xriureiia is the */////// xciurect- of Linna?us; c<tlltt?tr/.r udm-tux of
Geoff roy: sfigoiit A//-'/////-/, mitin're of the French, saimire of the natives of the Orinoco,
and tilibt llumbo'dt. It is about the size of a common gray squirrel, being about ten
inches in length without the tail,. which measures from a foot to fourteen inches. The
body js greenish yellow above, gray on the thighs and arms, and white on the belly.
Feet le ir s niri fore-arms reddish chestnut; muzzle dark; the rest of the face and the
ears Hi - I; tail bhek at thdip. covered with hair, and not prehensile, but, when

the animal is at rot. wound romid th'- body. It is said to sleep in the milling posture
with its head hanging between its fore-lcir*. In both extremities ;he nails <> ii:e tin :m! s
are broad, but those of the lingers are more claw-like. There b considerable variation
in the classification of this group of nloukeys.



S,i pan. 1 5!

Sappho.



SAPAN WOOD, SAFPAN WOOD, or BUKKUM WOOD, the wc.-wl of Ca^.^initi Stippan
PIKIA), an East Indian tree, about 40 ft. 1 high, with twice pinnate leaves, ai.d



(see , ,

r.-ifi-int-s of yellow flowers. The wood is much used as a dye-wood, yielding a good red
color, which, however, is not easily fixed. It is a very considerable article of export
from Singapore and other ports of that region both to Calcutta and to Europe.

SAPINDA CEJE, a natural order of exogenous plants, consisting of trees and twining
shrubs furnished with tendrils, and a fewlierbuceous climbers. Their leaves are often.
marked with lines or pellucid dots. The flowers are in racemes or racemose panicles,
hermaphrodite or unisexual. The calyx is 4 to 5-partite, or consists of 4 to 5 sepals. The
petals are 4 to 5, occasionally wanting, hypogyuous, usually having an appendage in the
inside. The stamens are usually 8 to 10; often inserted into the disk, which is fleshy,
and sometimes glandular. The ovary is generally 3-celled, the cells containing one or
few ovules. The fruit is fleshy, or sawaroid, or capsular. The order contains about
380 known species, natives of warm climates, especially of South America and- India-,
none of them natives of Europe, although the horse-chestnut (q v.)is now as well known
in many parts of it as most of its native trees. The timber of some species is valuable,
particularly that of pteroxyloji utile and hippobroma alatum, natives of the cape of Good
Hope, the former known there by the name of nieshout, and the latter of pardepis. Some
sue used in medicine as astringents. Narcotic and poisonous properties are very gen-
erally developed also, a saponaceous principle, especially in the genus sapindus (see
SOAPBERRY). Yet guarana bread (q.v.) is made from the seeds of a species of this
order; the leaves of another (cardiospermum halicacabum) are used as a boiled vegetable
in the Moluccas; and the fruits of some species are excellent.

SAPODILLA PLUM, the name givrn in the West Indies to the fruit of acJiras sapoia
and other species of achras, a genus of the natural order sapotacece. The seeds are aperi-
ent and diuretic, but an overdose is dangerous. The pulp of the fruit is subacid and
sweet, and is much esteemed for the dessert in the West Indies. The fruit of achras
mammosa is called MARMALADE. The NASEBERRY, also of the West Indies, belongs to
this genus.

SAPONIFICA'TION. See OILS AND FATS, and SOAP-MAKING.

SAP OI7INE (CaJIioOn) is a vegetable principle contained in various plants, including
the rciponaria officinali*, or soap-wort, the polygala senega, several varieties of lychnis, the
fruit of the horse-chestnut, etc. It is readily extracted from the root of soap-wort by
means of boiling alcohol, which, as it cools, deposits the saponine as an amorphous
sediment. It derives its name from its behavior with water, in which it is soluble in
all proportions, yielding an opalescent fluid which froths when shaken, like a solution
of soap, if even -nunr P al "t of saponiue be present. Its solution, or an infusion of soap-
wort, is sometimes employed in place of a solution of an alkaline soap, for cleansing the
finer varieties of wool from grease.

SAFOTA CEJB, a natural order of exogenous plants, consisting of trees and shrubs,
often abounding in mvlky juice. The leaves are leather)', entire, and without stipules.
The flowers are axillary; the calyx regular, persistent, generally with five divisions: the
corolla monopetalous, hypogynous, deciduous, regular, its segments usually equal in
number to those of the calyx, rarely twice or thrice as many. The stamens are inserted
on the corolla, fertile ones generally as many as the segments of the calyx, and generally
with alternate sterile ones. There is.no disk. The ovary is superior, with several cells,
each cell with one ovule. The fruit is fleshy; the seeds nut-like, sometimes cohering;
the testa bony and shining, with a very long, opaque, and softer scar on the inner face.
There are considerably more than 200 known species, chit fly natives of the tropics,
and the remainder of sub-tropical countries. One of the most recently discovered species
is ,-ilso already one of the most important, itonandra gtilta, which produces gutta percha
(q.v.). The fruits of some are pleasant, as the sapodilla (q.v.), and other species of the
genus achraa, the STAU APPLE, and other species of chrysopliyllvm (q.v ), different species
of itiimiiKops; imbrifaria malabarica and /. maxima, various species of lucuma, etc. The
genus bassia (q.v.) contains species valuable for the oils which they yield. The seeds of
mini uttops c.lengi also yield oil abundantly.

SAPPE.R, the name given to a private soldier in the corps of royal engineers. The
name of the corps was formerly royal sappers and miners. The pay of the sapper is
'30 10s. 7j(i. a year, with extra pay when at work; the number of such men for 1877-
78 was 2.952. _ Only men of good character, already adepts in -a mechanical trade, are
eligible for this service, which is very popular, ns an intelligent sapper frequently passes
into some situation in civil life for which his practical military training spec-rally fits
him. Many sappers nre excellent surveyors, photographers, and' draughtsmen.

SAPPHIBE, a gem excelled in value by no precious stone except diamond, and
regarded aw a variety of corundum (q.v.), highly transparent and brilliant. It is-some-
times colorless, and the colorless kind, called white sapphire, is sometimes sold as dia-
mond. It more frequently exhibits exquisite color, generally a bright red or a beautiful
blue; more rarely gray, white, or green. The red variety is the oriental ruby (q.v.) of
lapidaries; the blue is that commonly called sapphire, and which has received this name
from ancient times. It is fouud crystallized, usually in six-sided prisms, terminated by



1 ~?: Sapan.

Sappho.

bix- sided pjTarnids; and is sometimes found imbedded in gneiss; but it more frequently
occurs iu alluvial soils. It occurs at Bilin in Bohemia, and Exp'ailly in Auvergne, but
,more abundantly in some parts of the east. Ceylon is famous both for its rubies and its
iSapphires, the latter being the more abundant. They occur with garnets and other
minerals, iu a stratum of water-worn pebbles firmly imbedded in clay, in which there
are occasional lumps of granite and gneiss. But nothing has yet been done to seek for
them in their original situation in the mountain rocks. A piece of sapphire, which was
dug out of the alluvium within a few 7nifes of Katnapoora in 1853, was valued at upward
of 4.000. The sapphire was one of the stones in the breastplate of the Jewish high-
priest. Among the Greeks it was sacred to Jupiter. The name girasol sapphire is given
to a beautiful variety with a pinkish or bluish opulescence, and a peculiar play of light.
The chatoyant sapphire has more pearly reflections. The asteria sapphire has iu the
midst of it a star of six bright rays, resulting from its crystalline structure.

SAPPHIRE (ante). The chemical formula of sapphire is A1 4 O 3 with the addition of a
minute quantity of chromic oxide, the amount of which determines the color. Common
corundum contains other oxides which destroy the beauty of the stone. It is found in
various parts of the world; in the granite of Siberia, in granular limestone in New Jersey,
and in the ripidolite of North Carolina. The finest rubies are found in Burmah and
Siam. and the finest blue sapphires in Ceylon. A barbel, blue sapphire, a fine gem, but
weighing only 6 carats, once brought, at a public sale in Paris, $350. The ordinary
price of blue 'sapphires is the square of the weight in carats multiplied by $2.50. If the
above had not been a rare specimen its price would have been about $90. The ruby, or
red sapphire, is, however, the most precious variety. A ruby of over 20 carats is com-
monly called a carbuncle, and thu finest tint, the one most prized, is what is known as
pigeon's blood. In Burmah, when a very fine stone is found, a procession of elephants
carrying dignitaries anil soldiers is sent to meet it, and one of the titles of the king is
lord of the rubies. The topaz or yellow sapphire was the second stone in the breastplate
of Aaron. A perfectly pure crystal of corundum, without any color, but transparent, is
called a white sapphire, and is so beautiful a gem that it has been mistaken for a diamond.
The emerald corundum is one of the rarest gems. Some specimens have been found in
Montana. Deville and Carou formed small crystals of sapphire by the action of boracic
acid on fluoride of aluminum at a white heat, adding variable quantities of fluoride of
chromium to impart the various colors. Gaudiii formed them by decomposing potash
alum with charcoal at a very high heat.

SAPPHIRE D'EAU, or IOLITE, a mineral, called also dichroite and Cordierile, one of
the anhydrous silicates of alumina; crystalline form, six or twelve-sided rhombic or
hexagonal prisms, but often found in an amorphous condition. The color is of various
shades of blue deeper in the axial direction; yellowish-gray transversely; transparent
to translucent, having much the appearance of glass. Hardness, 7 to 7.5; specific grav-
ity, 2.6 to 2.7. The following is an analysis by Stromeyer of a specimen from Boden-




to Jackson, gave: Silica, 48.15; alumina, 32.5; magnesia, 10.14; protoxide of manganese,
0.28; protoxide of iron, 7.92; water, 0.5 = 99.49. lolite fuses slowly on the edges in
the blow-pipe flame to a blue transparent glass; with borax it forms a clear bead. When
in fine powder it is partially dissolved in concentrated mineral acids. It occurs at



Norway; and at Tunaberg in Sweden. In Cevk
there is a transparent variety occurring in small, rolled masses of an intense blue color,
which is particularly the aapphire d'eau of the jewelers. lolite occurs at Haddam,
Conn., associated with garnet and anthrophyllite in gneiss, and in various other parts of
Connecticut and Massachusetts, and at Richmond, N. H., in talcose rock lolite is
sometimes used as an ornamental stone, and, when cut, has a very fine play of colors,
which vary, as above stated, when viewed in different directions. The word iolite
means violet stone. It is called dichroite from its dichroism (q v.), and Conlierite after the
geologist, M. Cordier. lolite becomes soon altered on exposure to air and moisture.
The change may be caused by simple hydration, as in fahlunite, or the removal of part
of the protoxide bases by carbonic acid, or by the action of water containing alkaline
carbonates, forming pinite and mica. There are several other altered forms, as . giga nto-
lite, aspasiolite, praseolite, weissite, pyrargellite, liebenerite, iberite, and Iluronite, the latter
from Canada, near lake Huron, considered analogous \.o fnJdu nite by T. Sterry Hunt.

SAPPHO, along with Alceeus, the chief representative of the ^Eolian school of lyric
poetry, was b. either at Mitylene or at Eresos in Lesbos. She was only six years old
when she lost her father Scamandronymus. She was contemporary with Alcseus,
Stesichorus, and Pittacus, with the first of whom she lived in friendly intercourse, as is
seen in the surviving lyrics of both. All that we know of her is contained in an obscure
reference in the Parian marble, and in one of the epistles of Ovid, to her having fled
from Mityleue to some place of refuge iu Sicily, between, 604 and 592, Her famous



Sapporo.

Saratoga.

pluuge into the sen from the Leucadian rock, on finding her love for Phaon unrequited,
seems to 1)0 ;m invention of later times. At .Mitjlene she is supposed to have been the
center of a literarv coterie, all of them females, ami most of them pupils of her own iu
the art of poetry. " Her moral character has been the subject of controversy in modern
time-; the iios't recent disputants being the late col. Mure and the well-known F. G.
Wclcker ot Bonn, who, in the Itheiitisc/ic* Must am (1857-58), appeared, the former, for
tiie prosecution, and the latter for the defense. To whatever opinion on this subject we
may incline, there is no doubt of her high lyriCal genius, which was the admiration of
antiquity fro:n Solon downward, and which" as still surviving in her matchless ode to
Apmodite, enhances our regret that, of the nine books of her poems, we only possess
fragments. The best text is that contained in Bergk's PveteLyrtd (jneci (1854); the best
separate edition is Neue's (1827).

SAPPORO. The capital of that division of Japan called the Hokkaido (circuit of
the Northern sea), including Yezo, the Kurile islands, etc. * The city is laid out after the
general manner of an American town, and is situated on a fertile plain iu the valley of
the Ishikari river, 10 in. from the sea of Japan; pop. 10,000. The broad streets cross
eacii other at right angles in the direction of the cardinal points, but the buildings are
ni'sily in Japanese style, which is unsurpassed for good taste and economy both in
Convenience and construction. The government buildings are iu American style, the
capitol being a somewhat imposing structure, surmounted by a dome-like cupola. Its
lat. is 43 y n., long. 141 22 e. from Greenwich. Water for factory-power, irrigation,
and drinking is furnished by the Toyohira, a mountain stream which flows through the
city. The Ishikari river is 11 m. from the city. The character"!' the vegetation is like
that of Virginia. Under the superintendence of American engineers and scientific men,
model farms, saw-mills, steam factories, improved roads and mining machinery, canning
esiablishments. etc., have been introduced, and railways on the American model of con-
struction and rolling stock are now in progress with a view of bringing to shipment the
produce of the immense areas of coal fields, whose possible output is estimated to equal
that of the present yield of Great Britain, continued for 1000 years. Distance from
Hakodate, loO miles.

SAPUCAIA NUT. the seed of lecythis ollnria, a lofty tree, -which is plentiful in the
forests of the n. of Brazil, and belongs to the natural order lecythidacew. The fruit is
urn-shaped, as large as a child's head, and opens by a lid which falls off. Each fruit
contains a number of seeds or nuts, as in the case of the allied Brazil nut. The flavor is
liner than that of the Brazil nut, although, hitherto, the sapucaia nut is much less com-
mon in our shops. Its form is oval, somewhat pointed at both ends, which are .slightly




prize.



SA'RABANDE. originally a slow dance, said to be of Saracenic origin; and hence a
short piece of music, of deliberate character, and with a peculiar rhythm, in lime,
the accent Ix-ing placed on the second crotchet of each measure. The sarabande is
of frequent occurrence among the suites or series of short pieces written by Handel,
Sebastian Bach, and others of the old masters, for the harpsichord or clavichord.

SARACENIC ARCHITECTURE. See ARABIAN ARCHITECTURE.




employed as a synonym for all infidel nations against which crusades were preached, and




authors; Hottinger (Bib'io. Orient.), from the Arab, saraea, to steal; Forster (Journey)
from sakra, a desert; while others strove to see its origin in the Hebrew sarak, poor; but
the opinion which has been most generally supported, and prevails at the present time,

that the word was originally Sharkeyn* (Arab, "eastern people"), corrupted bv the,
Greeks into Sarakeiim, from which the Romans derived their word Surai-fni The epi-
thet Sarnkenoi was applied by the Greek writers (from the 1st c. of the Christian era) to
pome tribes of Bedouin Arabs in eastern Arabia, though they do not aree among them-
selves as lo the particular tribe so denominated. Pliny and Ammianus place the Sara-
iri Arabia Petnea and Mesopotamia, on the common frontier of the Roman and

sum empires; and the description of them by the latter, a most painstakin" and accu-
rate historian, coincides, in every important particular, with what is known at'~tbe present
day of the Bedouin tribes of those regions.

SASACEN'S HEAD, a not unfrequent bearing in heraldry. It is represented as the
head of an old man, with a savage countenance.

* fVwrlcei/n. orSJinrnki/oHn "eastern people." is thus opposed to Maqharibt. or Marihribe "western
people, the Belfstyied appellation of the inhabitants of Maghrib (' the west ") or JforocSv



1 X*7 Sapporo.

Saratoga.

SARAGOSSA. or ZARAGOZA, a city of Spain, the capital of a province of the same
name, uiul formerly of the kingdom of Arugou. It stantis on the Ebro, here n muddy
stream, which divides the city into two parts, ami is crossed by a noble stone bridge,
built in 1437. The city lias an imposing appearance from a distance, being adorned
\vith numerous slender towers and spires; but the traveler, on entering it, finds it full of
narrow winding lanes, instead of streets, although the houses which are built of brick
are of most solid structure, and many of them are the palaces of a nobility who have
DOW ceased to reside here. These buildings, rich in finely carved decorations and mag-
nificent cornices, are now mostly inhabited by agriculturists of a rude class; their
spacious courts converted into farm-yards, and filled with dung-heaps. Everyihing
about the city indicates decay and poverty. Saragossu was the Cehiberian Saldvba, I, lit
received the new name of GWm/ Augusta in 25 B.C., of which the present name is a
corruption. It was a place of importance under the Romans, but there are few rem;,ir,s
of the Roman city. Saragossa was one of the first cities of Spain in which Pagair ra
Was generally renounced and Christianity adopted; it afterward became rich in relics, to
which miraculous powers were ascribed. Saragossa was taken by the Moors in the 8lh
c. , and recovered from them in 1118, after a siege of five years, during which great part
of the inhabitants died of hunger. It was taken by the French in Ifc09, after "a siei.e of
eight months, and one of the most heroic defenses recorded in the history of modern
warfare. See PALAFOX. Saragossa has a university, founded in 1474. It has two
cathedrals, both interesting as specimens of architecture; but the older is in a simple
and severe style: the modern one that of Nuestra Senora del P/lar is very ornate.
1 he latter cathedral boasts of a pillar on which the Virgin descended from heaven, 40
A.D. an event so strongly attested, that Diego de Astorga, primate of Spain, on Aug.
17, 1720, excommunicated all who even questioned it. "Pilgrims flock from all neigh-
boring parts of Spain to this pillar and the image of the Virgin, which came down from
heaven. Saragossa suffered grievously at the bands of the French in 1809, ai:d lost most
\.f its treasures of ait. It has a considerable trade in agricultural produce, mostly carried
on by the Ebro; and manufactures of silks, woolens, and leather. Pop. about 3,500.

SARAGOSSA, MAID OF. See AGUSTIXA.

SARANSK', a t. of European Russia, in the province of Penza, and 80 m. n. from
Penza, at the confluence of the Saranga and Insara, feeders of the Sura. Pop. '07,
14,384.

SARASWATI is, in Hindu mythology, the name of the wife, or the female energy, of
the god Brahman, the first of the Hindu trimfirti or triad. She is also the goddess of
speech and eloquence, the patroness of music and the arts, and the inventress of the
Sanskrit language and the Devanagari letters. She was induced to bestow these benefits
on the human race by the sage Blarala, who, through his penance, car.sed her to
descend from heaven, and to divulge her inventions. Hence she is also called Blioniti,
She wis very white, hence another of her names, Mahds'wdd, or Mnli'i* i/kh\ (from
mahat, great, and s'wefa or s'vkla, white). Saraswati is also the classical u:.me r-f the
river now called Sursooty, which rises in the mountains bounding the n.e. part of Delhi,
whence it runs in a south- westerly direction, and is los* in the sands of the great desert
in the country of the Bhatti. According to the ITirjiis, the river only di>n]-pcars in this
place, and continuing its course underground, joins the Ganges and Jumna at Alla-
habad.

SARATOGA, a co. in e. New York, bounded on the e. by Hudson river, on the K by
the Mohawk; drained also by the Sacondoga river; traversed by the Ohamplaiii crnal,
the Adirondack, and the Rensselaer and Barataga railroads; about 840 sq.rn. ; pop. '80,
55,135 47,597 of American birth. The surface is hilly, mountainous in .he n., r.nd
heavily timbered. The soil is fertile. The principal productions are corn, rye. Lay,
and oats. Saratoga Springs is the most important place in this co. Co. sea'., Lallston.

SARATOGA, BATTLE OF, was fought at a critical period of the America., revolution.
Gen. Burgoyne. having captured fort Ticonderoga in July, 1777, was pursuing get). Sehuy-
ler in his retreat from fort Edward, intending to force his way to thenavLable w;,ters of
the Hudson. Gen. Gates on taking command of the American forces bid forthwith
moved his nrmy back to Stillwater. Sept. 14 Burgoyne crossed the Hudson, ;ird took
position on the heights overlooking the American camp. On the 19th lie advanced his



Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 36 of 203)