Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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right wing upon the Americans. He was promptly resisted by gen. Arnold with
Morgan's sharp-shooting riflemen. A severe encounter ensued and continued for immy
hours, till night compelled a cessation. The Americans retired having lost 300 n.en.
The British lost 500 men, but held the field. Both armies rested in their fortified c;imps,
neither being anxious for a general battle. Oct. 7, Burgoyne, having vainly waited for
promised re-enforcements from the British forces near Xew York, renewed the con-
test, leading forth his best battalions with the grenadiers and artillery. His left wing
was opposed by the Americans under gen. Poor; Arnold also, with impetuous daring,
led his men into a hand-to-hand combat. The batteries were repeatedly taken and
retaken, till the British, by their own captured artillery, were driven fro'm the field.
Gen. Morgan was equally victorious over Burgoyne's right wing, whose valiant leader,
gen. Fraser, was mortally wounded. The whole Bri'.ish army became demoralized,



Saratoga. 158

Sarcina.

and Burgoyne began a retreat. The exultant Americans closely ^^^^^.^j^
the Hessians, and took a portion of his camp. Gen. Arnold was M ^ C T';'^ 1 ,
leadiii- this last charge. Night again closed the contest and before Corning Wargoj j
had retreated, and was soon entrenched in his firet fortified camp ^> j^ 6 '' ^
could not remain. The Americans had captured his supplies, and closed evtry a
for retreat Not daring to rick another battle, and despairing of the expected succor
short of provisions and hourly expecting an attack from the 'Americans llus het wuh
their recent success, he proposed an armistice to arrange the terms ot capitulation,
Gen Gates demanded unconditional surrender. This Burgoyne refused, and turns more
favorable to the British were conclude,! Oct. 15. Burgoyne surrendered nearly 6 000
prisoners of war, forty pieces of brass artillery, several thousand stand of small Bairns,
and great stores of ammunition. The report of this battle electrified the country
quietfd all fears of other incursions from Canada and rallied the waning ^ confidence and
enthusiasm of the people. To commemorate this auspicious event, it is piopose(
build a gander monument than that on Bunker Hill; and toward the estimated cost of
nearly half a million the sum of $50,000 has been appropriated by the state of 1

SARATOGA SPRINGS, one of the chief watering-places in the United States, is in
New York 32 m n. of Albany. It contains 28 mineral springs, some chalybeate; some
containing iodine, with salts of soda and magnesia; and all highly charged with car-
bonic acid They are prescribed in diseases of the liver, chronic dyspepsia, etc. In the
village are 32 hotels, some of immense magnitude; and during eacu season there are
f ronf 30,000 to 45,000 visitors. Pop. in '70, 7,516.

SARATOGA SPRINGS (ante), in Saratoga co., N. Y., on the Rensselaer and Sara-
toga and the Adirondack railroads, on a plateau about 10 m. w. of the Hudson,
hotel accommodations for nearly 20,000 persons. On the principal street, Broadway
running n. and s. several miles are the principal hotels; and beyond are lines ot hand-
some villas Lake avenue, and Circular street contain many handsome residences.
Opposite the principal hotels is Congress park. Four miles from the village is Saratoga
lake, reached by the Boulevard, a drive 100 ft. wide, and lined with trees. Six of the
28 mineral springs of Saratoga are spouting springs. All the springs are charged with
carbonic add gas, and variously impregnated with magnesia, sulphur, and iron; some
are chalybeate. The waters are valuable for chronic dyspepsia, diseases of the skin and
liver, and affections of the bowels. Some are cathartic, some tonic. The best known
springs are the Congress, extensively used as a mild cathartic, and exported to all parts
of the world; the Hathorn, a favorite cathartic, discovered in 1868; the Pavilion, much
used for biliousness; the High Rock, the Columbian, the Geyser Spouting Spring, and
the Washington. Saratoga is the resort of crowds of invalids and pleasure-seekers, and
for number of visitors is second to no other American summer resort. The mineral
waters of Saratoga were used by the Indians. The first framed house there was built
by gen. Philip Schuyler in 1784. The large hotels have been built since 1815. The
English under Peter Schuyler defeated the French under De Manteth here in 1693.




portion of it the portion to the east of the Volga was taken to form a part of the gov-
ernment of Samara (q.v.), erected in that year. One-third of the area is pasture land,
| is under crop, -f f in wood, and waste land. The chief rivers are the Volga and
the Medwieditza. A number of German colonists settled here in 1765-75, and dis-
tinguished themselves by their persevering industry and by diligent cultivation of the
soil. Their descendants have become an important section of the population. Cattle-
breeding is carried on extensively; fishing is of considerable importance.

SARATOV, a city of Russia, capital of the government of the same name, on the right
bank of the Volga, 400 m. s.e. of Moscow. Though its houses are generally built of-
timber, the town has a rich ajid picturesque appearance. Its 16 churches are ornamented
with numerous towers and cupolas; and its broad streets, from the character of the
houses and of the elegant equipages that roll through them, have quite a European appear-
ance. It manufactures pottery, bricks, tobacco, silk, hosiery, etc. Pop. '70, 85,220.

SARA WAX, a kingdom on the n.w. coast of Borneo, is bounded s. and w. by Sambas, e.
by Brunai, and n. by the bight of Datu. The coast stretches from the w. of cape Batu, in
Lit. 2 n. and long. 109" 55' c., to thee. of the river Samerahan, in long. 111 3' e., a distance
of nearly 70 miles. Area, 3,000 sq. miles. Pop. 50,000. The Sarawak is the most
important river; it has two navigable mouths, the oi;e entering the bight of Datu in lat.
1 42' 30" n., and long. 110 20' 30" e. ; the other, a few miles further to the east. Other
considerable rivers are the Rejang (navigable for 120 m. for vessels of more than 1000
tons^the Lundu, Samerahan, and Sadang. A chain of mountains, 3,000 ft. in height,
rises in Sarawak, and, with increasing elevation, tends toward the n.; while others are
detached, as the Samerahuns. and the steep, densely-wooded Lflndu. Sandstone and
granite are the prevailing rocks; porphyries, basalt, and quart /osc schists also occurring.
In some parts the soil is clayey; in others, it is a rich mold. With the exception of
some cultivated spts, the surface is covered wuh forests, which abound with wild swine,



-IK q Saratoga.

Siir ciaa.

harts, and a variety of monkeys. There is excellent coal near the river Sadang. Anti-
mony ore, which can be both easily worked and shipped, is obtainable in any quantity;
copper and gold have been found, and irou ore is plentiful at Lundu. Fine timber
trees, as iron-wood, ebony, sandal-wood, teak, and other sorts peculiarly adapted for
shipbuilding, grow on the lands near the mouths of the rivers. Overtopping them all is
the tall camphor tree (dryobalunops aromatica), from which, by incision, the valuable
camphor-oil is obtained; or by felling and splitting the wood, the crystallized camphor,
which is prized above that produced in any other part of Asia.

The climate is not considered unhealthy. Much rain falls from September to March,
and the thermometer usually indicates about 83 F. Edible nests, wax, and aromatic
woods are collected by the Dyaks for the Singapore market, and the plains are well
adapted for the growth of rice a'nd sago. In 1862 two cargoes of choice timber for ship-
building were sent to the royal dockyards of Great Britain, and more attention is now
being paid to that natural source of wealth. In 1871 the exports, the chief articles of
which were gutta-percha, sago flour, antimony ore, and edible birds' nests, amounted to
280,000; and the imports, chiefly gray and colored shirtings, tobacco, brass-ware, opium,
rice, and cocoa-nut oil, amounted to 315,000. The exportation of antimony and sale of
opium are monopolized by the government, and with a small head-tax, form the chief
revenue.

The original inhabitants are Dyaks, divided into some 20 tribes, and speaking differ-
ent dialects; they are, for savages, mild, industrious, and honest. Malays live on the
coast, and the mines are worked by Chinese. From 1841 to 1868 Sarawak was governed
by sir James Brooke (q.v.), as an independent rajah appointed by the sultan of Borneo,
in return for distinguished services in putting down rebellion and restoring order; and
even on the testimony of the Dutch, who view with extreme jealousy the increased influ- .
ence of the British on that coast, his rule has done much to promote the civilization and
prosperity of his people.

The seat of government is the town of Sarawak, formerly called Kut jing, near the
mouth of the river,- which is navigable for large ships. Mission- stations and schools
have been erected, and the population has increased to 25,000. Trade, which has multi-
plied tenfold since sir J. Brooke was appointed rajah, is principally carried on with
Singapore.

SARCINA (Lat. a package), or SARCINULA, a genus of minute plants of very low
oi^ranh&tion, sometimes reckoned among algos, and sometimes among fungi. A number
of forms or species are known. The first discovered, called 8. ventriculi, was originally
observed by Goodsir in matters vomited from the human stomach. It is of a roundish
quadrangular form, about y^ to ^ of a line in diameter; the individuals generally
grouped in cubes of 4, 16, or 64 in the cube, separated by rectangular striae. Although,
the most common scat of sarcinae is the human stomach, they have likewise been,
detected in the stomach of the tortoise, the rabbit, the dog, the ape, and in the caecum of
the fowl; in the urine, in a considerable number of cases; in the lungs; in the faeces and
intestinal canal; in the fluid of the ventricles of the brain; in cholera stools; in the fluid
of hydrocele; in the bones; and Dr. Lowe has noticed its existence in stagnant water.
It appears from the measurements of Welcher that the sarcina? occurring in urine are
about half the size of those occurring in the stomach, and the aggregations of sarcina
cells are also smaller.

The occurrence of the sarcina in the urine, the fluid of the ventricles of the brain,
etc., is probably a post-mortem phenomenon of litlle diagnostic or pathological impor-
tance. Its appearance in vomited fluids is, however, characteristic of a peculiar and
important form of dyspepsia. The vomited matter in these cases has a faint acid smell,
like that of fermenting wort, and is obviously in a state of fermentation. After standing
a few hours it becomes covered with a thick, brownish, yeast-like froth, and deposits a
brown flaky sediment. On examining the froth and the deposit under the microscope
sarcinae are found in great abundance, together with the torulae characteristic of yeast
(q.v ). The fluid is always acid, if sarcinae are present. The amount of vomited matter
is always large, and sometimes enormous. It is usually ejected in the morning, after a
night spent awake from a sense of heat, gurgling, and distention in the epigastric region;
and its discharge gives almost immediate relief. Dr. Budd, one of the highest authorities
in diseases of the stomach, believes that the disease consists, primarily and essentially, in
some organic change, which prevents that organ from completely emptying itself, and
which causes a secretion from its coats, capable, when mixed with food, of undergoing
or exciting a process of fermentation; and that the development of the sarcinae bears to
this process, or to some stiiire of it. the same relation which the development of torulae
be:irs to simple alcoholic fermentation. The well-known power of sulphurous acid in
checking the fermentative process induced prof. Jenuer to try the effect of sulphite of
soda a salt which readily yields its sulphurous acid in this disease; and experience lias
fully confirmed the accuracy of Jenner's induction', for this salt, administered soon after
a meal, or when the fermenting process is commencing, in doses varying from 10 grains
to a dram, dissolved in water, is the most effectual remedy at present known for reliev-
ing this disorder. The hyposulphite of soda, in somewhat larger doses, has a similar
action.



Saroine. 1 (\()

Sardinia.

SAECINE (Gr. wnr, gen. sarcos, flesh) is the name now given to a nitrogenous s-ab
stance (I lu H,N 4 O a ) which has been obtained from Hie muscular tissue of the horse, ox,
and hare; and i'n.in various glandular ortrans, as the liver and the spleen of the ox, the
ti;y:mis dam! of tho calf, ana the human" liver in cases of acute atrophy of that organ,
ia which i-ase it i> as>ociated \\ilhxanthine (d.Hil^PO, a substance differing from it
only by two aioms of oxygen. It is identical wiui l^e substance formerly known as
Lypiixaiithine.

SAECOLEMMA is the term .applied to the delicate sheath which invests each primary
muscular liber. See MUSCLE.

SABCO MA is a somewhat vague term used by Abernethy and many subsequent sur-
gical writers to designate a fleshy or firm morbid tumor. The term sarcoma is compara-
tively rarely met wiili in recent works on surgery.

SARCOMA (ante). The large group of tumors now classed together under the name
of sarcomata or sarcomas includes many which were until recently known by a variety
of other names and grouped in other divisions, and the term sarcoma, which now has a
definite meaning, was formerly applied to many soft growths. Many hard sarcomas
have been clashed as scirrhus or hard cancer, but several tumors formerly known as
fibro-plastic, fibro- muscular, fibro-nuclear, malignant fibroid, and mycloid, have been
placed among the sarcomas. See TUMOR.

SAECOPH AGI. See CANNIBALISM.

SAECOPH AGUS (Gr. flesh-eater), any stone receptacle for a dead bod}-. The name
originated in the property assigned to a species of stone found at Assos in Troas, and
used in early times, of consuming the whole body, with the exception of the teeth, within
the space of 40 days. The oldest known sarcophagi are those of Egypt, some of which
are contemporary with the pyramids. The earliest of these are of a square or oblong
form, and either plain or ornamented with lotus leaves; the latter are of the form of
swathed mummies and bear inscriptions. The Phenician and Persian kings were also
buried in sarcophagi. The Roman sarcophagi of the earlier republican period were plain.
Sarcophagi were occasionally used in the later republic, although burning had become
the more general mode of disposing of the dead. The use of stone chests for the inter-
ment of distinguished persons has not been altogether discontinued in modern times.

SAEDANAPA LTT3. See ASSYRIA.

SAEDE, or SARDA, a variety of quartz, differing from carnelian only in its very deep
rod color, blood-red by transmitted light. It is rare, and brings a much higher price
than common carnelian. The name is probably from Sardis. The sarde was one of the
stones of the breastplate of the Jewish high-priest. There were also two m the ephod.
The SARDONYX is an onyx (q.v.) containing layers of sarde.

SAEDES, or SARDIS, anciently a city of Asia Minor, the capital of Lydia, was situ-
ated in a fertile plain between the northern base of mount Tmolus and the'river Hermus,
about 60 m. e.n.e. of Smyrna. Through its agora, or market-place, flowed the Pactolus,
a tributary of the Hermus. The city is first mentioned by ^Eschylus. It was taken by
the Cimmerians in the reign of king Ardys (680-631 B.C.-). In the reign of Croesus, the
last Lydian king, Sardes attained its highest prosperity. It became the residence of the
Persian satraps after the overthrow of the Lydian monarchy. The Athenians burned it
503 B.C., and it afterward passed under the Romans, ancl was the seat of a separate
provincial government. It is one of the seven churches mentioned in the book of Reve-
lation. Strt, the modem Sardis, is a poor village, worthy of mention only for the ruins
of the ancient city to be seen in the vicinity. Of these the chief are those of a stadium,
of a theater, and "of the Acropolis.

8AEDINE, Clupea sardina, a fish of the same genus with the herring and pilchard,
smaller than the pilchard; abundant in the Mediterranean, and found also in the Atlantic
ocean, although not so far n. as the British shores. It is much esteemed for its flavor,
and sardines preserved in oil are exported in large quantities from some of the Mediter-
ranean ports. But the "sardines" of the west coast of France, wliich are largely
imported into Britain, arc generally not true sardines, but young sprats the garvies of
the firth of Forth and sometimes young herring.

Sardines appear in shoals on the coasts of the Mediterranean at particular seasons,
^ herrings and pilchards on those of Britain. The sardine fishery on the coast of
Provence is chiefly in the months of May, June, and J.uly; but the fishery for sprats,
which are cured as sardines, and sold under that name on the coast of Bretagne and
elsewhere in the west of France, takes place in the winter months. The quantity of
both kinds cured is so great as to amount in value to 3.000,000 or 4 000 000 francs
annually, about 120,000 to 160.000. They are exported to the most distant parts of
the world, cured with oil in tin boxes, forming a much esteemed delicacy, and at the
same time a most wholesome article of food. To cure them in this way "they are first
carefully washed in the sea, then sprinkled with fine salt, and after a" few hours the
head, gills, etc., are removed; they are then washed again, and spread out on willow-
branches or wire-work exposed to the sun and wind if the weather is dry, but in damp
and rainy weather to a current of air under cover. They are next put into boiling oil.



mSarcine.
Sardinia.

in which they remain for a short time, and when they are taken out the oil is drained
away from thorn as much as possible, and they are put into the tin boxes of which the
shape and appearance are so familiar to every one. The boxes being tilled with sardines
arc filled up witu oil, the lid is soldered on, and they are placed for a short time m
boiling water or exposed to hot steam. The boxes which have leaked or have burst in
boiling are rejected, and those which remain sound are now ready for the market.

In the south of France sardines are sometimes cured in red wine, and those so cured
are called sardines anrhoixecs. or anchovied sardines.

In 1875 the " Cornish sardine company" was formed at Falmouth for the purpose of
preserving pilchards in oil after the manner above described. The result is a delicacy
hardly to'be distinguished from French sardines. The company is thriving; and thus,
it is to be hoped, tons of hitherto waste food will be utilized.

Several species of small dupeidce much resembling the sardine are found in different
parts of the world, and are used in the same way as the sardine of the Mediterranean.
One species frequents the southern and eastern coast of Ceylon in such vast shoals that
400,000 have been taken at a single haul of the nets in a little bay; and when the shoal
approached the shore the broken water became as smooth as if a* sheet of ice had been
floating below the surface.

SARDINIA, ISLAND OF, the largest, after Sicily, of the islands of the Mediterranean,
lies directly s. of Corsica, from which it is separated by the strait of Bonifacio, a chan-
nel only 7 m. wide in its narrowest part. Sardinia is situated about half-way between
central Italy and Africa, and between southern Italy and Spain. Its length is 166 m.;
greatest breadth, 90 m. ; and area, 9,361 sq. miles. The country is mostly mountainous,
some of the peaks of the central chain having an elevation of 6,300 feet; The Limbara
range, in the n.w., is granite, the diagonal chain palaeozoic, and the central range of the
tertiary calcareous formation; many of the peaks, especially within the semicircle
formed by the Limbara range, are extinct volcanoes. The coasts are generally steep and
rugged. A few islands lie off the coast, and all, of any considerable size and importance,
are situated at the corners; off the n.e. corner are the Maddalena group, consisting of
Maddalena, Caprera. and tive or six minute islets; off the n.w. corner is Asinara; and
off the s. w. corner are San Pietro and San Antioco. The island is well supplied with
streams, but none of them have a long course, and only one is partially navigable.

Soil and C'imate. Between the mountain ranges are several wide valleys of remarka-
ble beauty and fertility. There are also several large sandy or stony districts (mace/tie),
of almost irremediable sterility. The mountain sides are partly rocky and barren, partly
clad with woods, and partly fitted for pasture. The climate is mild, the temperature
ranging from 34 to 90; but in the low lauds, which are largely of a marshy character,
and in the neighborhood of the littoral lakes, a deadly malaria (intemperie) prevails,
especially in autumn. The inhabitants of those districts, who can afford to do so,
migrate annually during the unhealthy season; and those who are compelled to remain
never leave their houses till an hour after sunrise, and carefully return before sunset,
taking all precautions to prevent the entrance of the poisonous gas by door or window.
The inhaling of the miasma by a stranger is considered among the inhabitants to be as
deadly as a dose of strong poison.

Products. Wheat, barley, maize, oranges, and other fruits are produced in abun-
dance, and are esteemed for their excellent quality. The vine is extensively cultivated,
but from carelessness in the process the wine is not so good as might naturally be
expected. The olive-grounds are extensive, and the produce excellent. Tobacco (of
inferior quality), cotton, linseed, flax, hemp, saffron, and madder are also produced.
The woods which clothe the mountain sides are chiefly composed of cork, chestnut, oak,
pine, and other timber trees, which form a considerable item in the export trade. Many
mountain-slopes have, however, been much deteriorated in fertility by the excessive cut-
ting down of timber.

The bullock is the favorite animal for draught, but horses are also used; and a small
species of pony, which in ancient times was much esteemed by the Roman matrons, is
still found. The sheep are of ordinary quality, and the swine are said to be among the
best in Europe. Few cows are kept, and cheese is obtained almost wholly from sheep's
and goat's milk. Wild boars and deer are not uncommon, and the moufflon (q.v.) is
found in the Alpine woods. Foxes, rabbits, hares, and martens are so abundant that a
large export trade in their skins is carried on. The fisheries are important.

Manufactures are insignificant, being mostly the result of home industry; hut the
royal manufactories of gunpowder, salt, and tobacco are of considerable importance.
Sardinia is rich in minerals, but these, like its other resources, are as yet little devel-
oped; silver, mercury, granite, gypsum, marble, alabaster, amethyst, and other precious
stones are found; and lead, iron, and copper are in considerable abundance. Gold,
bismuth, and antimony are said to exist.

Inhabitant*. The inhabitants bear a considerable resemblance to the Greeks, and
speak a barbarous dialect, composed chiefly of Spanish, Arabic, and Italian; they are
ignorant and bigoted, having been subjected to misgovernment and oppression from
their emancipation from Roman rule till 1836, when feudal tenure was abolished, and
the enormous power of the clergy somewhat reduced. They are generally stupid and
indolent, clothe themselves in sheep-skins, and invariably profess the Catholic religion.

u. K. xm. 11



Sardinia. 1 <)

Surge ut.

The custom of the Vendetta is frequently practiced, though not to the same extent as In
(Orsica. *

li; x f ,,-ii .Sardinia, at first called by the Greeks Iclinusa and Sandnliotis (from its
resemblance to a human foot-print), and afterward &trtl by the Romans, was colo-
nized at :i verv early period. The first really historical event is its conquest, about 480
B.C., by the Carthaginians, who, during their occupation, rendered the island a cele-
brated 'corn-producing country. They' were forced to abandon it to the Romans (238
B.C.). who Gradually subdued "the rebellious natives, and made it a province of the
republic; but on three several occasions formidable outbreaks required the presence of a
consul with a large army to restore the authority of Rome. From this time it was held



Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 37 of 203)