Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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as a subject province, and on accouul of its value as the "granary of Rome," was care-
fully protected from invasion. It fell into the hands of the Vandals and other bar-
barians, and was recovered by the eastern empire in 534 A.D., but was finally separated
from the Roman empire by the Saracens They were driven out in their turn by the
Pisans, one of whose deputy-governors, liting supported by the Genoese, obtained the
erection of Sardinia into a kingdom (1154) by Frederick I. The popes, who had lm>g
claimed a right of suzerainty over the island* gave it, in 1296, to James II. of Aragon;
and it continued in the possession of Spain till 1708, when it was taken possession of by
the British, and by the peace of Utrecht (1713) it was yielded to Austria. In 1730 Aus-
tria gave it to the duke of Savoy in exchange for Sicily, and it has since that time
formed apart of the dominions of the house of Savoy. When Sardinia came to
Mie house of Savoy, two-thirds of it belonged to barons of Spanish descent, and
the most of the remainder to the clergy, who also levied a tithe on the whole
produce, and for a century afterward it was shamefully neglected by the govern-
ment, x However, in 1836 and 1837, patrimonial rights and compulsory labor were
abolished; and in 1838 and 1847 the peasants were freed from the rest of the vexatious

(1871) 'J43.4'"J2. Cagliari is the capital.

8AEDIN IA, KINGDOM OF, a former kingdom of Italy, and the nucleus of the present
kingttviii nf Itttly, included the duchies of Savoy and Genoa, and parts of those of Mont-
ferrat and Milan, the principality of Piedmont, the county of Nice, and the islands of
Sardinia and Caprera, amounting in all to 19,564 English sq.m. of continental ter-
ritory, wiih a pop. of (1857) 4,590,260, and 9,205 of insular territory, witii a pop.
of 577,282; total area. 28,769 English sq.m., pop. 5.167,542. In 1859 it was in-
creased by the addition of the Austrian portion of the Milanese, and diminished
by the cession in 1860 of Savoy and Nice to France, the change in the conti-
nental territory being shown by the following figures: area, 21,099 English pq.m. ;
pop., 6.530,233; the insular territory remaining unaltered. The various districts
above mentioned differ greatly from each other in physical configuration and cli-
mate, and the more important of these are treated in separate articles. See also
ITALY. The Roman Catholic religion was established by law in Mar., 1848; but
monastic orders, with the exception of those which are also benevolent institutions,
were suppressed May 28, 1855. In 1859 the army amounted to 76.172 men. and the
fleet to 29 ships (none of them men-of-war), with 436 guns; the revenue (1858), which
was mostly derived from customs, duties, and direct taxation, to 5,790.301; and the
expenditure to 5.949,902 a want of equilibrium in the finances which had long
existed, and which caused the establishment, since 1819, of n gradually increasing
national debt, that amounted (1858) to 27,080.810. The annual import trade amounted
(ia57) to a declared value of 19,123,054, and the exports to 14,605.043.

The kingdom of Sardinia was originated by a treaty (Aug. 24. 1720) between Austria
and the duke of Savoy (q.v.), by which the hitter agreed tb surrender Sicily to the for-
mer on condition of receiving in exchange the island of Sardinia, and the erection of his
states into a kingdom. In 1730 Victor- Amadeu* I., the last duke of Savoy and first" king
of Sardinia, resigned the throne to his son, Charles-Emmanuel I. (1730-73); but repent-

B-i*iHiii<iii'i(.i, j^. (i , o i^u-i;, was ai nrst an ally ot rrance;

but the directory, in 1798. compelled him to surrender all his continental poaacwiena,

which were then incorporated with France: and it was not till the first peace of Paris

814) that the house of Savoy regained its territories. The congress of Vienna

t) annexed to Sardinia the ancient republic of Genoa, and the second peace of

1 ans (1815) restored a small portion of Savoy, which France still possessed, and gave

1 O Sardinia.


the king a protectorate over Hie small principality of Monaco. Long before this time
Charles-Emmanuel had abdicated, and his brother, Victor-Emmanuel I. (1802-21), suc-
ceeded to his rights, and made his entry into Tin in. May 20, 1814. His return restored
the ancient Ittiflgovernment; and similar political changes in the other Italian stated
ivvivvJ the societies of the " Carbonari" (q.v.) and other similar secret association?,
whose aims were supported by a portion of the nobility and army, and by the heir-
presumptive to the throne, Charles- Albert, prince of Savoy-Carignan. The insurrection,
of the army on Mar. 9-10, 1821, brought on a general revolution. But the king bavin.'
audit" 1 . ed in favor of his brother, Clidiit'n- Felix (1821-31), and the Ausirians having come
to ' rescue, the insurrection was put down. Under the protection of an Austrian
army of occupation till 1S23, Charles-Felix reestablished absolute power, recalled UK
Jesuits, persecuted the Protestants, and took various other measures for rooting out &'.-.
opposition. On his death the elder line of Savoy became extinct, and the succession
fe.l to the cadet branch of Savoy-Carignan (see SAVOY, HOUSE OF), whose rights had
been recognized by the congress of Vienna, and Charles-Albert (q.v.) (1831-49) ascended
the throne. The liberals were gratified with some slight reforms, but the power of the
clergy was untouched, and the conspiracy of JS'ov. 30, 1833, at Turin, and the mad
inroad of Mazzini, at the head of a small band of German, Polish, and Italian refugees,
in Feb., 1834, only disturbed the country, and confirmed the government in its despotic
policy. The interior administration was, however, carried on with more energy than
under the two previous reigns, through the conclusion of treaties with France, Britain,
Tin key, the Low Countries, Denmark, Austria, and the Hanse towns, etc.; the construc-
tion of .roads, bridges, and railways was vigorously prosecuted, and agriculture and
other industries were encouraged. In 1842 the king commenced a gradual but progres-
sive liberal policy, promulgated a limited act of amnesty to political offenders, relaxed
the severity of censorship, reformed judicial administration and prison discipline, and
abolished the feudal system in Sardinia. The kingdom participated in the agitations of
1846 and 1847, which affected the whole peninsula, but was wholly exempt from insur-
rections and conspiracies, the people contenting themselves with expressing their views
and wishes in petitions and demonstrations displaying entire confidence in the govern-
ment. On Feb. 8, 1848, the king announced a new and extremely liberal constitution,
which was procl-iimed some weeks afterward; a liberal law of election was decreed, the
first Sardinian parliament convoked for April 17, and the act of amnesty declared gen-
eral. In the midst of these changes the revolution broke out. and Charles-Albert, who
was saluted with the title of " the sword of Italy, "put himself at the head of the move-
ment, and declared war against Austria. (See ITALY, RADETSKY, etc.) On the day
rfter the fatal rout of Novara (Mar. 13, 1849). Charles-Albert abdicated, and was suc-
ceeded by his son, Victor-Emmanuel (q.v.), who, in alliance with France, declared war
against Austria in 1859; and by Mar., 1861, was in possession of the whole of Italy,
except Yenetia and Home, and exchanged the title king of Sardinia for that of king of Yenetia was r.dded to the kingdom in 1866, aud the papal states in 1870, when
the union of Italy was complete.

SARDONIC SMILE is a term applied by the older medical writers to a convulsive
affection of the muscles of the face, somewhat resembling laughter. It may occur in
tetanus or lock-jaw, and other convulsive affections, or may result from the action of
certain vegetable poisons, such as the ranunculus tcele-nitu*, or celery -leaved crowfoot.
The name is derived from a species of ranunculus that grows iu Sardinia, termed hcrba
tardonica or nardoa.

SARDOU, VICTOIJIEX, b. Paris. 1831; studied medicine, and wrote, many articles
for newspapers and reviews In 1854 his first comedy, La Taverne des Ktndiants, was a
complete failure. He fell into extreme poverty, and. in 1857 was nursed through a dan-
gerous fever by Mile, de Brecourt. ihe lady who afterward became his wife, and by
whom lie was iniroduced to Mile. Dejazet. proprietor of the Theatre Dejazet. For this
tlieaVer he wrote pieces, of which Moimieiir Garut and Lex Pret-SainUGervafa were most
pucoessful. He at once rose in fame and fortune, and has since produced a very large
number of comedies and rfitidetillf*; and one tragedy, L>i Maine. 1874. Among the
most popular of his works are No* Intimcx, 1861; LSI Perk Noir, 1862; Lcs Pointnes dn,
V'lim'ii, 1804; LP Rri Curotte, 1872; and Dora, 1877. L'Oncle Sum, 1873. purported to be
a satire, but is in reality a libel, on American society. Sardou was elected to the French
academy 1877. has acquired a large estate, and has the decoration of the legion of honor.


SARGENT, EPES. 1814-1880; b. Mass.; educated at Boston Latin school, and spent
two or three vears at Harvard college. On leaving college he devoted himself to litera-
ture in New York and Boston, and was connected with the editorial staffs of many
periodicals. He was a frequent contributor to the Knickerbocker Magazine, and to the
early volumes of the Atlantic Monthly. He assisted S. G. Goodrich in preparing his
geography and some of his Peter Parley books. He wrote, in 1836, The Bride of (Jenta,
a play, produced with success at the Tremont theater, Boston. In 1837 lie wrote for
Miss Ellen Tree the tragedy Vdti*v>, which was produced with success in Boston. New
York, and Washington, and in 1850 in England. He wrote two other plays, a comedy,
Change Make* Change, and a tragedy, The Prie#tes; also the lives of several of the

Sargent. 164


English poets prefixed to editions of their works. Some of his son-s obtained popular
currency, and a scries of school reading-books, edited by him. was very popular. His
Cyclopedia of Poetry appeared posthumously m 1881.

ENT II-suY 1770-1843; b. Gloucester, Mass.; con of Daniel, and brother of
anlius- educated at Dummcr academy, went to Lumlon and entered .t
siuuio 01 sir Benjamin West. Returning to thu country Lo bcc^ie auj gen. of t he
state of Massachusetts, and aid to gav. Drools and gov. b.roiig. He x^s a LH mbe
the academy of arts and sciences, and iavcator of a:i elevated .a.lway One ot
productions of his brush, "The Landing of t'.ic Pil 5 ri:a3. valued at i^.OOO. W:H P .c-


studio of sir I>cnj:

., .

lontcd by him to the Pilgrim society of Plymouth. ::ml m still
hall- other interesting works are "The Dinner Party a.iJ "Cans

hall- other
salem. "

still preserved in Pil.siim
t s Latnmce into Jeru-

S YRGENT Jonx OSBORNE, b. Mass., 1810; graduated at the Boston Latin school,
Harvard collee in 1830 racticed law in Boston; was a membr of the legisla-

. ...graphical

Parity books and some of his school histories.

SARGENT, Lucius MANLIUS, 178G-1867; b. Boston; studied law. but did not prac-
tice. He had considerable influence as a writer and lecturer upon temperance. He was
the author of Temperance Tales, which passed through more than 100 editions; Life of
Samuel Dexter, 1858; and Dealings with the Dead, by a Sexton vf ih* Old School, 156.

SARGENT, NATHAN, 1794-1875; b. Putney, Vt. ; studied law and commenced prac-
tice at Cahawba, Alabama, and was appointed county and proliatc judge 1810. Ho
removed to Buffalo, N. Y-, and resided there 1826-30. In the latter year he began the
publication, in Philadelphia, of a newspaper in the interest of the whig party, and sub-
sequently wrote letters from Washington to the United States Gazette, over the signature
of Oliver Oldsshool. He was at one time president of the Washington reform school, and
was sergeant-at-arms of the U. S. house of representatives 1849-51. Ho was register of
the treasury 1851-53, commissioner of customs 1831-71. Ho wrote Life of Henry Clay,
1844; and Public Men and Events, 2 vols., 1875.

SARGENT, PAUL DUDLEY, 1745-1828; b. Gloucester, Mass.; son of col. Epcs. He
was col. in the patriot army during the revolution, commanding a rogi:ne:it when Boston
was besieged by the British. He fought in the battle of Bunker hill; was wounded;
promoted to brig. gen. 1776. He participated in the engagements at llarlnm, Trenton,
Princeton, and White Plains; and was appointed judge of the court of common pleas,
Hancock, Maine, soon alter the war, holding the office many years.

SARGENT, WINTHROP, 1753-1820; b. Mass.; joined the American army in 177"),
and became navy agent at Gloucester in 1776. He served through the war in" the artil-
lery, attaining the rank of maj. In 1786 he was appointed surveyor of the North-west
territory, in 1787 its secretary, and 1798-1801 was its governor. Ho was adj. gen. of
St. Glair's forces in the expedition against the Indians in 1791, and of Wayne's forces in
the campaign of 1794-95. He wrote Boston, a Poem, 1803.

SARGENT, WINTHUOP, 1825-70; b. Philadelphia; graduated at the university of
Pennsylvania and the Harvard law school, lie settled in New York, where he prac-
ticed law. Among his works are Loyalist Poetry ofilic Revolution, 1857-60; History of an
Expedition Against Fort Duquesne; and a Life of Andre, 1861.

SARI , the capital of the province of Mazanderan, Persia, is situated on the banks of
a small stream, the Tejend, 18 m. s. of the Caspian sea. It is a modern town, built near
the ruins of a very ancient one, and contains a pop. of about 25,000, who carry on a
small trade in the produce of the province with Russia, through the Caspian ports, and
with the interior of Persia. It stands in the midst of fine orange pardons adorned with
beautiful cypresses. It used to ba distinguished by a tower 100 ft. high and 30 in
di.uneter, without a staircase, and built of brick and mortar. The great causeway of
shah Abtias the great without which the forests of Mnzanderan would be impervious,
runs through San. See History of Persia by C. Markbam (1874).

SARK, one of the Channel islands. See JEUSEY THK CHANNEL ISLANDS.

8ARMA TIANS. The root s-rm in this word is in nil probability the same as ft-rb, so
that it has been conjectured the name Sarmatians has the same ethnological meaning as
Serbiiwd Rcrci. The oldest Greek form of the word (and the only one found in Herodo-
tus) is Sauromafa. The region occupied by the Sarmatians embraced (according to
Ptolemy, our chief authority) a portion both of Europe and Asia. 1. The European
Sarmatians are found as far w. as the Vistula; as far n. -s the Venedicus Sinus (gulf of
Riga?), or even further; as far e. as the Crimea and the Don; and as far s. as Dsicia.
Roughly speaking, their territory corresponded to modern Esthonia. Lithuania, western
Rnssia, and parts of Poland and Galicia. The principal, or at least the best-known

I '/ S Sargent.


nations among the European Sarmatians, were the Peucini and Baetarnae, about t'.ie
mouths of the -Danube, and in Moldavia and Bessarabia; the Jazyges and lioxolani,
probably in Kliersoti, Tauris, and EkaU rinoslav; the Venecli and Gythones, about Riga,
Mtmel, and Elbing; and the Avareni, at the sources of the Vistula. 2. The Asiatic
tidrniatiaiix are found as far \v. as the Tanais (Don), as far e. as the Caspian, as far s. as
the Euxine and Caucasus, and as far n. as the water-shed between the rivers that fall
into the White sea and the Black, but \ve have no distinct knowledge of their territorial
possessions. North of the Don, in the region now occupied by the Don Cossacks, dwelt
the I'r.ricrbiili; s.c. of it, about Astrakhan, the JaxamaUe. Beyond the Perierbidi lay
the Asrei, the "horse-eating" (Ilippophugi) Sartnataj, the "Royal" and Hyperborean
SanmiUc. and many others, besides a multitude of nations in the region of the northern
Caucasus. The question naturally arises: What were these Sarmatiau*? The vast
extent of territory over which they spread, and the manifest inclusion under the name
Sarmafians of different races, as, for example, Goths, Finns, Lithuanians, Circassians,
Scythians, and Slaves, prove that the term was loosely used by Ptolemy and his contem-
poraries, just like the older Herodotean term Scythia, and is not strictly ethnological;
yet. Dr. Latham's view (see Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, arts.
Sarmatia and Scythia), that it designated on the whole Slavic races, and in particular
the north eastern portion of the great Slavic family, may be regarded as tolerably cer-
tain. The Sarmatians figure prominently among the barbarians who vexed the north-
eastern frontiers of the Roman empire.

SARMIENTO, DOMINGO FAUSTINO, b. Buenos Ayres, 1811; a teacher at San Luis
in 1836; opposed Rosas and was exiled to Chili in 1831; returned and established a
school for girls at San Juan in 1836; edited a literary paper; went to Chili in 1840, where
he interested himself in education. In 1845 he was sent by the Chilian government to
visit the educational institutions of Europe and the United States. In 1851 he returned
to the Argentine republic, became col. in the army, minister of the interior, governor of
the province of San Juan, and minister of public instruction; was minister plenipoten-
tiary to the United States 1864-68, when he was chosen president of the Argentine
republic. The country was very prosperous under his administration, commerce being
encouraged, laihvays and telegraphs constructed, schools established, and a national
observatory founded. His important works are: Manual de la Ilistoria de las Pueblos
Antique; Arji Ropolia 6 In Capital de los Eatados Confederation; Viajes por Earopa, Africa,
\ America; Vida de Abraui Lincoln.

SARNIA, or PORT SARNIA, a city in s.w. Ontario, Dominion of Canada, opposite
Port Huron, at the mouth of St. Cltur river: pop. '71, 2.929. It is in Lambton co., 61
m. w. of London, on the Great Western and Grand Trunk railways. It is connected
with Port Huron by a steam ferry. It contains Point Edward, formerly Port Sarnia, at
the Canada terminus of the Grand Trunk railway opposite Fort. Gratiot in Michigan,
with which place it is connected by transfer ferry boais, which convey the railway cars
across the river. It has 5 churches, public schools, 2 branch banks, a telegraph office,
and 2 newspapers. Its trade is important, and its commerce both by rail and steamer is
increasing in consequence. It has manufactures of ale and beer, lumber, iron castings,
mac!. in TV, wooden -ware, woolens, leather, etc.

EAR'TO, n city of southern Ifoly, in the province of Salerno, on the river of the snme
name. 13 in. n.w. of Salerno. It is a well-built town, with a very handsome cathedral
containing some good paintings, and has a seminary for priests, a hospital, several paper
manufactories, and foundries. Its environs are famous for the produce of very fine
silk. In the center of the town there are springs of sulphureous and chalybeate waters.
Ariong the buildings worthy of notice is the ancient castle of the Barberini family.
Pop. 10,933.

In the plain near Sarno, Teias king of the Goths, in a desperate battle with the
Greeks, commanded by Narses. in 553, was vanquished and slain, and the reign of the
Goths in Italy brought'to a close.

SA'ROS, a co. in n. Hungary, drained by the Topla, Tarcza, and other rivers; inter-
sected in the n. by the Carpathian mountains; about 1400 sq.m.; pop. '70, 175,292. The
surface is uneven, and broken by ridges of the Carpathians. The soil along the river val-
leys is fertile. The principal productions are grain, tlax. hemp, oats, and fruit. There
are salt and iron mines. Opals and other precious stones are found. Capital, Eperies.

SARPI, PIETRO, better known by his monastic appellation, FUA PAOLO, or brother
Paul, was b. at Venice In the year 1552; became an early proficient in mathematics as well
as in general literature, resolved to embrace the monastic life, and in his 20th year took
the vows in the religious order of the Servitcs (q.v.). Soon afterward he was appointed
by the duke of Mantua to a professorship of theology in that city; but he held it only for
a short time; and returning to his order, of which he was elected provincial in his *27th
year, he continued to pursue in private his studies in languages, in mathematics, in
astronomy, and in all the other branches of natural philosophy, including the medical and
physiological sciences, in which he attained to great proficiency, being by some writers
regarded (although, as it would seem, without sufficient grounds) as entitled to at least a
share in the glory of the discovery of the circulation of the blood. The freedom of some
of his opinions led to his being charged at Rome with heterodox views, and although.

held free from actual heresy, his opinions became an object of suspicion; and in the
dispute between the republic of Venice and Paul V. (q.v .) OP the subject of clerical
immunities, Sarpi justified these suspicions by the energy with which he threw himself
into the anti-papal party. On being summoned to Rome to account for his conduct, lie
refused to obcv, and was accordingly excommunicated as being contumacious. The
zeal of Sarpi's opposition to Rome drew upon him the hostility of the partisans of the
Roman claim; and an attempt was even made upon his life by a band of assassins.
whom the ardor of party-spirit at the time did not hesitate, although upon mere pre-
sumption, to represent as err.; , arics of the Jesuits. Fra Paolo himself openly professed
to share this suspicion, and believing his life in danger, confined himself thenceforward
within the 5nclo>ure of his monastery. It was in this retirement that he composed his
celebrated lli*tor;j of the Onnial of Trent, which has long been the subject of controversy
and criticism. It was public-Led in London by Antonio de Dominis, the ex-bishop of
Spalatro, who had recently conformed to Protestantism, at first under the pseudonym
of Pt'ttr .Sw Polniiu, an anagram of the real name of the author, Ptioio Sarpi VCD do;
I and it almost immediately rose into popularity with the adversaries of Rome us well in
! England as throughout the continent. It is by no means a simple history of the pro-
ceedings of the council, but rather a controversial narrative of the discussions, in which
the writer freely enters into the merits of the doctrines under discussion, and in many
cases displays a strong anti-Catholic bias. His judgment of the motives and of the con-
duct of the members of the council, especially of the representatives of the pope and his
partisans in the assembly, is uniformly hostile, and has been accepted by Protestants as
a strong testimony against Rome from a member of the Roman church. It must be
confessed, however, that whatever judgment we may form of Sarpi's credibility on his
own merits, it is idle to look upon him in the light of a member of the church of Rome.
It is plain, from numberless declarations in his work, and from remains of bis corre-
spondence published after his death, tLat his opinions were strongly biased, not merely
with an anti-Roman, but even with rationalistic leanings; and Rankedoes not hesitate
to declare that his unsupported statements cannot be accepted with security, when there
is question of a damaging narrative of some intrigue of the legates in the council, or some
cabal of the Italian bishops in the interest of Roman views. A voluminous counter-
history of the council of Trent was written by the Roman Jesuit (afterward cardinal)
Pallavicino, which follows him into the details as well of the history as of the contro-
versy. It would be out of place here to enter into any comparison of these rival his-
tories of the council. The history of Sarpi has been translated into most of the European
languages. The French translation is by the celebrated Cpurraycr, and is enriched with
copious vindicatory and critical annotations. Sarpi lived in the full vigor of intellect to
the age of 71, and died of a neglected cold, which led to a protracted illness, in ihc year
1623. His life as an ecclesiastic was without reproach; and his long tried in the
cause of the republic had made him the idol of his fellow-citizens. He was honored
accordingly by the republic with a public funeral. His History of tlie Council of Trent
has been reprinted in numberless editions; and his collected works were published at
Verona in 8 vols. 4to, 1761-68, and again in Naples, in 24 vols. 8vo, in 1790.

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 38 of 203)