Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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SARPY, a co. in c. Nebraska, separated from Iowa by the Missouri river, bounder'
on the s. by the Platte; drained by the Papillon and Elkhorn rivers; traversed bv th.
Union Pacific railroad; about 260 sq.m. ; pop. '80, 4,481 3.603 of American birth. * TK,
surface is rolling prairie or woodland. The ^oil is extremely fertile. The principal p?o
ductions are corn, wheat, and oats. Co. seat, Papillion.

SARRACE'ETA, or SIDE-SADDLE FLOWER, a genus of very singular marsh iVur.n,
natives of North America. & pvrpnrcn is common from Hudson's bay to Carol -n;' . t'.ie
other species are confined to the southern states. They are herbaceous perennia' pknts,
with radical leaves and scapes, which bear one or more large flowers. The ). ares are
of very remarkable structure, the stalk being hollow and urn-shaped, and t'^e blade <-f
the leaf articulated nt its npex, and fitting like a lid. It is from the form r/f the leaves
that the name side-saddle flower is derived. The genus is the type of the small natural
order tnrraeeniacetfr, the only other genus of which has been discovered in Guyana. The
order is closely allied



SARREGT7EMINES (Gcr. SAAKGEM^ND), formerly n frontier t. in the t. of France, but
since the war of 1870-71 in the- possession of Germany, is in the province of Alsace-Lor-
raine, 41 rn. e. of Metz. It is famous for its pottery; hempen fabrics and velvets are aiso
made. Pop., '75, 8,471.

SARSAPARJLLA. or SARSA. This much-employed medicine is the produce of several
species of ttnilax (q.v.). although the species yielding the different kirn's brought
to the market have not yet been fully ascertained. Among them, the three principal are
believed to l>e S. officinalix, S. inedica, and S. pnpyracen; twining shrubs, with prickly an
gularstems; the first with large ovate-oblong, acute, heart-shaped, leathery leaves; the sec-
ond with shortly acuminate smooth leaves; the lower ones heart-shaped, the upper ones
approaching to ovate; the third with membranous, oval-oblong, obtuse K'p.vs. These
shrubs are natives of warm parts of America; S. offlcinalis and S. papi/rnwt being found
in South America, and #. meilica on the Mexican Andes. Some botanbld regan 1 them
s mere varieties of one species.



mSarpy.
Sarto.

The part of the plant used in medicine is the dried root, of which the following are
the characters, as given in the British Pharmacopoeia: " Hoots not thicker than a goose-
quilr, generally many feet in length, reddish-brown, covered with rootlets, and folded in
hunilles about eighteen inches long, scentless; taste mucilaginous, feebly bitterish,
fuin;ly acrid " Sarsaparilla lias been analyzed by various chemists, and appears to con-
sist of volatile oil, most of which is expelled during the process of drying, of a white
cryetallizable neutral substance named umilatin, whose composition is represented by
the formula Ci B n, 3 O&, an acrid bitter resin, liguin, starch, and mucilage. Sarsaparilla
is 0:10 of the class of medicines called dirphorelics. The British Pharmacopoeia con-
tains three preparations of this drug viz., the decoction, the compound decoction
(containing sarsapanlla, sassafras chips, guaiac wood-turnings, liquorice root, and meze-
reon), and' the liquid extract. The cases in which they are serviceable are those of
chronic rheumatism, secondary syphilitic affections, chronic skin diseases, etc. To be
of any service, sarsaparilla must be taken in considerable doses. The compound decoc-
tion, formerly known as the decoction of street wood*, is the best preparation, and
should be taken in doses of four or six ounces three times a day.

The root of S. a*i>era, a native of the s. of Europe, is used as a substitute for sarsapa-
rilla, although of inferior quality, and is called Italian sarsa par ilia.

The root of ftemidesmus indicus, a climbing shrub of the natural order tizclepiacem,
is used in India as a substitute for sarsaparilla. and is therefore called Indian sarsapar-
illa. The plant is common in all parts of India. The root has a peculiar aromatic odor
and bitter taste. In consequence of the high price charged for genuine sarsaparilla, the
root of ' liemideitmux Iiidicus or Indian sarsaparilla has been introduced into the British
Pharmacopoeia. The following are its characters: "Yellowish brown, cylindrical, tor-
tuous, furrowed, and with annular cracks, having a fragrant odor and a very agreeable
flavor. The only officinal preparation is the syrup; but in India, where this root is
highly esteemed as a diaphoretic and tonic, and is extensively used as a substitute for
sarsaparilla, an infusion prepared by infusing two ounces of the root in a pint of boiling
water, is generally employed, the dose being from two to four ounces three times a day.
The syrup is chiefly used, inconsequence of its pleasant flavor, as a vehicle for more
active medicines.

In Germany, the roots of Carex arenaria, C. disticlw, and G. Mrta (see CAREX), aro
occasionally used as a substitute for sarsaparilla, under the name of German sarsaparilla.

SARSFI ELD, PATRICK. Earl of Lucan, 1645-93; b. Ireland; entered the army and
served tinder Monraouth. but was in the victorionaarmy when the latter was defeated at
Sodge'.vick. He was a Roman Catholic and at the revolution was a member of parlia-
ment. He supported king James's effort to retain the crown, and fought at the battle of
Boyne. William III. was forced by him to raise the siege of Limerick in 1790. In 1791
he commanded the reserve at Aughrim, and after a gallant defense of Limerick obtained
fair terms of surrender and entered the French service. Here he distinguished himself
at the battles of Steenkirke (1693), and Landen (1693). He was killed in the last-named
battle.

SARTAIN', JOIIJT, b. London, 1808; became an engraver, and in 1830 emigrated to
Philadelphia. lie is noted chiefly as having introduced here the art of mezzotint engrav-
ing, and as the designer of the Washing:on and Lafayette monument in Philadelphia.
He was proprietor and editor of two magazines, and author of Poetical and Prose Ittus-
tratioiu of Celebrated American Painters, 1832.

SARTHE, an inland dep. of France, n. of the Loire. Area. 2,390 sq.m.; pop.
'76. 446.233. It is a country of plains, traversed by low hills and by undulations
clothed with vines, of large picturesque forests, and of pleasant valleys. The soil is fer-
tile, productive in grain and in clover; hemp is cultivated, and hempen fabrics largely
manufactured. The wine produced is of a mediocre quality. The climate is healthy
and temperate. Clover-seeds are exported to England and Holland, and swine and cattle
are reared in large numbers for the Paris and oilier markets. Sarthe is divided into the
four departments of Mans, La Fleche, Mamers, and St. Calais. The capital is Le Mans.
See MANS, LH.

SARTI, GtrsF.pr-E, one of the most skillful and learned musical composers of the i8th
c., was born at Faenza in the Papal States in 1729 He studied under padre Martini at
Bologna; and in 17.">2 produced his first opera, II Ee Pasture, which was performed at
Faenza with great success. He held for a time the office of hof kapellmeister at Copen-
hagen, but returned to Italy in 1765. In 1770, and the following years, he composed his
principal operas, including Le GclosieViUane Giulio Sbino, the latter of which was enthu-
siastically received throughout Italy, and is highly praised by Dr. Burncy. In 1779 he
became m/iextro di cnpelln of the Duonio at Milan, and gave himself to the composition of
church music. In 1784 he went to St. Petersburg as music director to the court of the
empress Catherine, by whom he was treated with great liberality, and raised to the
highest rank of nobility. He died at Berlin in 1802, on his way to Italy. His operas are
thirty in number; but the composition by which he is now most known is his beautiful
sacred terzett, Atnpliu* Ixira Me. Sarti was the musical instructor of Cherubim (q.v.)

8ARTO. ANDRKA DEL, one of the most famous painters of the Florentine school, was
b. at Florence in 14S8. According to later writers the family name was Vannucchi, and



Sanim. 168

Andrea ot.lv received the name of del Sarto (the Tailor) from the occupation of his
father; but this statement is probably erroneous. Sarto was a pupil of Pierodi Cosimo,



senuiuons iioin me me <>i o\. ria(>p<.i utun.i.1, iu j^^i^.. v~. . - ^

ence; and in these the characteristics of his genius dignity of composition, purity of
form' freshness of color, and grace of expression are seen at their best. In 1514 he.
commenced a series of frescoes from the life of John the Baptist, which were not rm-
idhed, however, till 12 years afterward. The finest works, of what may be called Ins
middle period are the "Madonna di San Francesco, "and the "Contending Theolo-
gians" both ia the Florentine galleries. In 1518 Francis I. invited Sarto to Paris,
where he painted, amon-/ other things, the picture of "Charity" in the Louvre; but at
the solicitations ot'liis wife, he returned to Florence, where he died in 1530. To the
later years of his life, which were neither happy noj honorable, belong his " Piety," his
most 'celebrated fresco the "Madonna del Sacco" (in the Ammnziata at Florence), the
"Madonna with Saints" (in the Berlin museum), and the "Sacrifice of Abraham" (in
the Dresden sjallery). His largest fresco is the " Lord's Supper," in what was formerly
the abbey of San Saivi, near Florence. See Reumont's Andrea del Sarte (Leip. 1835).

SA RUM, OLD, an extinct city and borouch of England, wag situated on a hill 2
m. to the n. of Salisbury, in Wiltshire. It "dated from the time of tne Romans, by
whom it was known as Sorbwdninim, and remained an important town under the Saxons.
A Witenasemote was held at Old Sarum in 960; and here William the conqueror assem-
bled all the barons of his kingdom in 1086. It was the seat of a bishop from the reign of
William the conqueror till 1220, when the cathedral was removed to New Sarum, now
Salisbury (q.v.), aud was followed by most of the inhabitants. In Henry VII. 's lime it
was almost wholly deserted, aud has so continued till the present time. 'Some traces of
walls end ramparts, and of its cathedral and castle, are still seen. Though without a
single house or inhabitant, two members represented it in parliament, till, like many
other rotten boroughs, it was disfranchised by the reform bill of 1832. William Pitt,
earl of Chatham, first sat in parliament for Old Sarum in 1735.

SARVASTIVADAS, or SARVASTIVADINS (lit., those who maintain the reality of all exis-
tence), is the name of one of the four divisions of the Vaibfidfhika system of Buddhism:
its reputed founder was Riihula, the son of the Buddha S'akkyamuui. See C. F.
Koeppen, Die Religion des Buddha, (Berlin, 1857); and W. Wassiljew, Der BuddJiismus,
eine Dogmen, Geschicte und Literatur (St. Petersburg, 1860).

SARZA NA, a city of northern Italy, in the province of Genoa, 8 m. e. of Spezia.
Its cathedral, built in 1200, is very rich in paintings and marbles. There is also an
ancient fortress built by the Pisaus in 1262. It is the birthplace of pope Nicholas V.
Pop., '71, 5,396.

Sarzana is a very ancient city, founded 176 B.C. The adjacent city of Luni hav-
ing been sacked and destroyed by the Vandals and by the Normans, its inhabitants aban-
doned it. and took refuge in Sarzana, to which place they removed the episcopal see in
1204. There are still remains of the amphitheater at Luni.

SASH, in the British army, is a military distinction worn on duty or parade by offi-
cers and non-commissioned officers. For the former, it is of crimson silk; for the latter,
of crimson cotton. By officers it is worn over the left shoulder, and by non-commis-
sioned officers it is worn over the right shoulder. There are no sashes in cavalry regu
ments.

SASH. The frames in which the glass of windows is inserted are called window-
sashes. Common windows are usually made with an upper and lower sash, contrived
so that, by means of cords or chains, pulleys, and balance-weights, they slide up and
down in a wooden case.

SASIN. See ANTELOPE.

SA'SINE. (See INFEFTMENT.) The ceremony was as follows: the attorney of the
party giving the right produced his warrant of title, and gave it to the bailie or repre-
sentative of the other party, who gave it to the notary to be explained by the latter to
witnesses, and then the first party delivered earth and ground, that is, part of the very
soil, to the other in presence of the witnesses. The notary then drew up an instrument
reciting what had been thus done, and which was signed by the notary and two wit-
nesses. In England, sewn never had so narrow and technical a meaning as it had in
Scotland.

SASKATCHEWAN, a large, important, and only recently explored river of British
North America, draws its waters from the Rocky mountains, and is formed by two
head-waters called the south branch or Bow river, and the north branch. The south
branch issues from a lake about 4 m. long, fed by a glacier descending from a mag-
nificent tmr df, fflace, and by a group of springs in the vicinity. A few yards n. of
this group of springs is another group, from which the north' branch takes its rise.
The height above the sea is 6,347 ft, : the lat., 51 40' n. ; the long., 117 30' west. The
south branch flows s.e. io its junction with the Belly river in long. 111 40' w., then



1 Q



Sarum.



n.e. to its junction with the north branch in long. 105 west. Fed mainly from the
same glacier that feeds the south branch, the north branch Hows u. past Mt. Murchi-
sou. 15,7b9 ft. above sea-level, and one of the highest peaks of the Rocky mountains,
n. through Kutanie plain, a tine prairie abounding in game, and then flows in a general
eastern direction to its confluence with the south branch. From long. 105 w. , the
river flows e., and falls into lake Winnipeg. Length of main river, 200 in.; of north
branch, over 050 miles. From its mouth it is navigable (on the north branch) about two-
thirds of its entire length. It flows through a country rich in coal and iron, with a
healthy chniaie, and comprising almost boundless plains suited to the cultivation at
grain. At the sources of the Saskatchewan, there are several easily practicable routes
across the Rocky mountains, especially the Vermilion pass. Journal of the. Geograph-
ical Society for I860; earl of Southesk's Saskatchawan (1875). See NELSON RIVER.

SASSAFRAS, Simstifras, a genus of trees or shrubs cf the natural order lauraeea,
having dioecious flowers, a 6-parted membranous perianth, 9 stamens, a succulent fruit
placed on the thick fleshy apex of the fruit-stalk, and surrounded by the unchanged
perianth. The sassafras tree (S. oflicinale) of North America, found from Canada to
Flo.ida. a mere bush in the n., but a tree of 50 ft. in the s., has deciduous leaves, yellow
flowers which appear before the leaves, and small dark-blue fruit. The wood is
soft, light, coarse in liber, dirty-white and reddish brown, with a strong but agreeable
smell, resembling that of fennel, and an aromatic, rather pungent and sweetish taste.
The wood of the root possesses these properties in a higher degree than that of the
stem, and the thick spongy bark of the root most of all. The wood is brought to market
in the form of chips, but the bark of the root is preferred for medicinal use, is a power-
ful stimulant, sudorific, and diuretic, and is employed in cutaneous diseases, gout, rheu-
matism, and syphilis, generally in combination with other medicines. It contains a vol-
atile oil, oil oj ' xastttifrHx, which is often used instead. An agreeable beverage is made
in Nor;h America by infusion of sassafras bark or sassafras wood; and a similar bever-
age was once very commonly sold at daybreak in the streets of London under the name
of naloop. A few saloop-venders are still to be seen plying their vocation. The leaves
of sa.-safras contain so much mucilage that they arc used for thickening soup. Another
species of sassafras (S.parthenactyon). possessing similar properties, is found in Sumatra.

SAS3AFEAS NUTS. See PITCHTJRIM BEANS.

SASSAIJI2S, the dynasty which succeeded that of the Arsacida? on Ihe throne of
Persia (q.v.). derived its name from Sassan, the grandfather of the newly elected mon-
arch ARDISHIR. The reign of the Sassanidoe is remarkable in the history of Peisia, not
for the extent of their sway, or the luxury and mangificence of their court, though in
these respects they could vie with the Acbtcmenidae at the epoch of their greatest power
and splendor, but for the intense energy which they succeeded in infusing into the
people at large. A comparatively small army of Greeks might and did succes.-iully strive
against the immense hordes of a Xerxes and a Darius; but the veterans of Rome could
gain no permanent laurels in a conflict with an equal force of Persians under the
Sassanida?. Ardishir made the desert of Khiva and the Tigris his boundaries, and
resigned the throne to his son, SHAHPCR I. (SAPOR) (240-273 A.D.), who subdued
Armenia, took Alirezira (258) and Nisibis, totally routed the Romans at Edessa, taking
prisoner the emperor Valerian and the relics of his army, and overruning Syria, Cap-
padocia, and other portions of western Asia. This monarch paid as much attention to
the prosperity of his subjects and the encouragement of the fine arts as he did to the
extension of his power; but his enlightened plans were not carried out by his immedi-
ate successors. NAUSI (NAUES) (294-303) retook Armenia, and signally defeated the
Romans under Galerius; but fortune deserted him in the following year (297). His
grandson, SHAIIPUH II. (310-381), surnamed POSTHUMUS, an infant, succeeded, and
Persia, during his minority, was much harassed by the Arabs. Romans, and Tartars;
but Shahpiir had no sooner taken in his hands the reins of government than in return
lie ravaged Yemen, punished the Tartars, and took the sole revenge at that time in his
power ngainst the Romans, by commencing a dreadful persecution of the Christians in
his dominions. A regular war speedily followed: the army of Constant! us was routed
at Singarah, and he was compelled to sue for peace. But the war continued; Constan-
tius's successor, Julian, was defeated, and lost his life (368) near Clesiphon, and the
Romans were glad to conclude the humiliating peace of Dura. Armenia, Iberia, and
the other Caucasian principalities were then reduced by Shahpur. The wholesome
terror thus infused into the Romans effectually restrained them from aggressions for
many years. Among his successors were BAHARAM V. (420-448). surnamed GOUR, who
recommenced hostilities with the Romans, the result being a partition of Armenia and
a truce for 100 years; and KOBAD (COBADES or CABADES) (488-498, 502-531), a wise and
able monarch, who. on the Romans refusing any longer to pay the stipulated tribute,
declared war against them, and defeated them in every engagement, concluding peace
(505) on receiving 11.000 Ibs. of gold. A second war, which commenced in 521, was
from beginning to end in favor of the Persians, though the Romans at that time pos-
sessed a staff of generals unsurpassed at any previous epoch of their history. The war
continued for some time after the accession of KIIVSRU I. (q.v.) (531-579). and was con
tinued at intervals till nearly the conclusion of the century, when another great Persian



fUtaCKCG rOrSlU WllllllUl BUCCB, ui;iui; .1 uuiu uix-i-'i -

annv at Kmisrah (Cadesia) with iMniH-u.se loss. Yesdigerd made another cm-is
attempt to rescue his kingdom; but tlie great battle of Nafcawml, in _ which more
tlrin 100000 Persians are said to have been slain, extinguished all hope ut success; an.
the unfortunate monarch became a fugitive and a wanderer iu northern Kborassaii til
6>1 when he wavs treacherously murdered. -Thus perished the dynasty which had puled
down the Koimins from their proud pre-eminence among nations by the
hor.'e of robber fanatics, under whose barbarous rule the extensive conm^vial ]
pcritv :ind refined civilization which had been so carefully fostered ior lour centv. tes,
were utterly swept away, leaving only such traces as ruined aqueducts, choRett-U(i
canals, and the still magnificent remains of almost forgotten cities.

SAS'SAIU a province of Italy, in n. Sardinia, bounded e., n., and w. by the Medi-
terranean, and on the s. by Cagliari; drained by the Posada, Tirso, C >ghmus, and o a.-r
rivers; about 4,000 sq m. ;" pop. '72, 243,453. The surface is mountainous. Ihe pau-
cipal produc'.ions are wheat, barley, and dairy products. Capital, S.is^ari.

SAS3ASI, a city in the n.w. of the island of Sardinia, the chief t. of the province of
the same name 8 m. from the shore of the. gulf of Asinara. It is a handsome a:i 1
important archiepiscopal city, and has a vast cathedral, with many sculptures, one ot
which is by Canova; a university, founded in 1776; a college; and a nca library, with



the MSS. of the A/uni. Sassari is a very busy town, and trades especially ia graitt,
wine, fruits, wood, olive oil, and tobacco. Its harbor, Torres, is 10 in. irw. of Sas=>art;
it is narrow and shallow, and does not admit large vessels. Pop. '72, 32,674.

SATA LIAII, another name of Adalia (q.v.).

SATAN. See DEVIL.

SATARA, generally' spelled Snttnrn, a collectorate in the southern division of the prov-
ince of Bombay, British India, is bounded on the n. by the state of Poona, and on the
w. by the lofty ridge of the western Ghauts. Area, 5,371 sq.m.; pop. '72, 1,032.853.
SATAKA, the capital, from which the state derives its name, one of the most salubrious
and pleasant stations in the Deccan, 133 m. s.e. of Bombay. Pop. '7'2. 24,484.

SATELLITES (Lat. satelks, an attendant) are certain celestial bodies which attend upon
and revolve round some of the planets, as these latter revolve round the sun: and hence
(scientific men frequently apply to them the generic term, "secondary planets." Y:ie
earth. Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune each possesses one or more of these
attendants. The eclipses, inequalities, inclinations, and reciprocal attractions of the
satellites have been carefully noted from time to time, and the theory of their motions,
at least of the most prominent of them, has been found to coincide with that of the
moon. The satellites of Jupiter are invested with additional interest, from their eclir. 33




than when it was in conjunction (i.e., furthest from the earth), a phenomenon which

could only be accounted tor by the supposition that light requires 16' 26" to pass over *

'distance equal to the diameter of the earth's orbit.

SATIN, a fabric in which so much of the weft is brought uppermost in the weaving

as to give a more lustrous and unbroken surface to the cloth than is seen when the warp

and weft cross each other more fre-
quently; this will be better under-
stood b}' reference to the figure than
by any verbal description. A are
the warp threads, of which only
every tenth one is raised to allow
the shuttle to pnss, but they are all
raised in regular succession, so
that the weaving is quite uniform
throughout; B arc the weft threads;
and is the selvedge, which ia
formed on each side of the p : ec. of
stuff by the regular method of plain-
weaving, that is. by raising every
other warp thread for the passage of
the weft. The term satin is very
rarely applied to any other than silk

fairies, woven as described ; but there are woolen, linen, and cotton satins known iu ih

markets.




Saftsarl.
Satire.



SATIN-BIRD. See BOWER-BIRD.



SATINET, an inferior satin, woven much thinner than the ordinary kind. The terra
is also occasionally applied to a variety of cloth woven with cotton warp and woolen
weft.

SATIN-WOOD, a beautiful ornamental wood obtained from both the West and East
Indies. The former is the better kind, and is supposed to be the produce of a moderate-
Bized tree, ferolin Guianemtix, and probably other species, as there are several varieties of
the wood. That from the East Indies is less white in color, and is produced by chlorox-
ylon nweitenia. Both are much used by cabinet-makers, and for marquetry, etc. The
logs are usually only 6 or 7 in. square.

Cldoroxyloii sweiteniii is a tree of the natural order cedrelacece, growing on the moun-
tains of the Oil-cars in India, and in Ceylon. Sir James E. Tennent says that "in point;
of size and durability, it is by far the first of the timber-trees of Ceylon. The richly-
colored and feathery logs are used for cabinet-work, and the more ordinary for building
purposes, every house in the eastern province being floored and timbered with satin-



Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 39 of 203)