Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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is s.w. and s., and for a part of its length, it forms the boundary between Wisconsin and
Minnesota. There are several waterfalls, and near its mouth the river expands to form
St. Croix lake, 36 m. long and 4 wide. The length of the stream is about 200 miles.

SAINT CROIX, a co. in w. Winconsin, adjoining Minnesota; bounded w. by the
St. Croix river, and drained by its branches; traversed by the North Wisconsin ami the
West Wisconsin railroads; 72') sq.m. ; pop. '80, 18,95613,130 of American birth. The
surface is hilly but fairly fertile; wheat, hay, oats, cattle, and lumber are the staples.
Co. seat, Hudson.

SAINT DOMINGO. See HAYTI.

SAINT DOMINGO BAEK. See CARIBBEE BAKK.

SAINTE BEUVE, CHARI.ES-ATTGCSTIN, a French poet and critic of great eminence,
was b. at Boulogne-sur-Mer, on Dec. 23, 1804. His father, who died two months before
his birth, was principal des droits reunis at that port. His mother, a woman of superior
character and intelligence, was by family originally English, and through her the boy
early acquired a familiarity with the English language and literature. He was educated
at an institution of his native place, and afterward at the college Charlemagne in Paris,
U. K, XIIL-3



Sainte-Claire. 1 O

8aint-Oeriiiain-en-L,aye.

On leaving college, though his bent toward literature was already pronounced, he was shy
of committing himself to it as a profession, and betook himself to the study of medicine
aud anatomy. Shortly he obtained a situation at the hospital St. Louis. Here for some
time he worked steadily; but his spare time was occupied with literature; and his articles
contributed to the Globe on topics of history, philosophy, and criticism, attracted atten-
tion, and in particular procured him the acquaintance of the celebrated M. Jouffroy.
While he was thus wavering between literature and the claims of a profession distasteful
to him, Victor Hugo's Odes et Ballades were published, and the impression made upon
him by this work, of which he wrote an enthusiastic critique, seems to have determined
him finally to a life exclusively literary. He gave up his situation at the hospital, and
attached himself to Le Cenacle, along with Alfred de Musset, the two Deschainps,.aud
others of the so-called Romantic school. Shortly, he gave to the world his Tableau Hi#-
iorique et Critique de la Poesie Franchise, au XVI.* Siecle (1828 afterward enlarged in
ed. 1843), which at once established his reputation as one of the first critics of the time.
His iieyt work, Les Poesies de Joseph Delornie, though somewhat coolly received by
the public, brought him what perhaps pleased him better than any applause of the
multitude, the emphatic approval of Beranger aud others of the literary guild. Les
Consolations, published in 1830, was considerably more successful in hitting the taste of
the public. On the cessation of Le Cenacle, after the revolution of 1830, Sainte-Beuve
attached himself to the Globe; and subsequently he wrote much in the Revue des Deux
Mo.ides, the National, and the Constitutionnel. In 1834 appeared his Volupte, a work
curious as a study of moral pathology, but more curious than pleasing; and in 1840 l.e
published the first volume of his Hutoire de Port Royal, a work which, iu 1860, he com-
pleted in five volumes. On Feb. 27, 1845, he received the most distinguished mark of
honor which can fall to a Frenchman of letters, by his election to be a member of the
a?ademy. In 1850 he began to issue, in the pages of the Constitutionnel, the famous
srries entitled Canneries de Lundi, the most delightful of all his works, and that by .which
1 e is most widely known. After the coup d'etat of Dec. 2, 1851, he became connected
'with the Moniteur, and was appointed professor of Latin poetry at the college de France.
Of this appointment some fruits are before the world iu his L'Etude sur Virgile, pub-
lished in 1857. In 1865 he was called to be a member of the senate. He died Nov.,
1869.

As a poet Sainte-Beuve, despite the fine talent he displayed, never succeeded in becom-
ing popular, nor can very high rank be accorded him. But as critic, he was "himself
alone," and his place is by common consent in the very fore-front of French literature.
His sympathies were wide aud catholic; in delicacy" of perception, and subtlety of
refined analysis, he was almost without a rival; his style is piquant, lively, fascinating,
instinct with individual expressiveness; and nothing can exceed the felicity with which
the interest of criticism proper is combined in his sketches with that of anecdotic
biography.

Of iiis works not already glanced at, the following only need be mentioned: Pc&ie*
Completes (1840); Critiques et Portraites Litteraires (1832-39); Portraits Litternires (1844);
Poi'traits Contemporains; Causeries de Lundi (1851-57); Nouteaux Lnndis (1863); Souw-
nirx et Indiscretions. Le Diner du Vendredi-Saint (1872). A selection from the Causerws
de Lundi has been translated into English, with an introduction, under the title English
Portraits (1875). See C. A. Sainte-Beuve, sa Vie et ses (Euvres, by D'HaussonviHe (1875);
and an article in No. 281' of the Quart. Rev.

SAINTE-CLAIRE SEVILLE, HENRI ETIENNE, French chemist, was b. Mar , 1818, at
St. Thomas, West Indies, and was educated in France. On quitting college, he con-
structed at his own cost a chemical laboratory, and for nine years, without master and
without pupils, devoted himself to patient studies and skillful researches. In 1844 he
was commissioned to organize the faculty of sciences of Besaneon. of which, in the fol-
lowing year, he was appointed dean and professor. In 1851 he succeeded M. Balard in
the chair of chemistry in the ecole normale. Since 1853 he has supplied the place of M.
Dumas in the faculty of sciences of Paris. In 1861 he was chosen a member of the
academy of sciences of the institute, in place of M. Berthier in the section of mineralogy.

Sainte-Claire Deville's earliest investigations relate to different essences and resins, and
the most important are in the department of mineral chemistry. In 1849 he made known
the mode of preparation and the properties of anhydrous nitric acid, a compound whose
existence had been up to that date ignored. In 1852 he published an important paper 7
on metallic carbonates and their combinations; and in the following year, a new method
of mineral analysis, known as the middle way, in which he proposes the exclusive
employment of gases and volatile reagents, against the errors arising from the use of
the filter.

About the same time he began his researches into aluminium, a metal discovered in
1827 by Wohler of GOttingen, but still very imperfectly known, and set forth its special
properties. Being commissioned by Louis Napoleon to seek the best method of obtain-
ing aluminium at a low price, lie made numerous experiments, jointly with M. Debray,
in the factory at Javel; and, after some months, succeeded in producing ingots of the
metal, which were shown in the exposition universelle of 1855. These experiments, and
the properties of aluminium, have been described by Saiute-Claire Deville in scientific



I Q Sainte-Clalre.

Saint-Germain-en-Laye.

periodicals; and among his later papers are on the "Three Molecular States of Sili-
cium;" on the "Metallurgy of Platina;" on the "Density of Vapors at very High Tem-
peratures;" on the "Measurement of High Temperatures-" on the " Permeability of
Iron to Gases at a High Temperature;" on the "Phenomena of Dissociation in Homo-
genous Flames;" and on the "Industrial Preparation of Alumium and its Compounds."
These papers are published in the Memoires and Comptes Kendus of the academie des
sciences de 1'institut, and in. -the Annaleu de Chimie et de Physique.

SAINTE GENEVIEVE, a co. in n. Mississippi, adjoining Illinois; drained by the
Mississippi river, its n.e. boundary, and by Saliue creek; about 500 sq.m. ; pop.'TO, 8,384
7,208 of American birth. The surface "is hilly, but fertile in the valleys; wheat, oats,
corn, cattle, and pork are the staples. Limestone, copper, and marble are found,
Co. seat, St. Geuevieve.

SAINTE-MARGUERITE. See LERINS ISLANDS, ante.

SAINTE MAKIE-AUX-MINES (Ger. Markirch), a t. of Germany, in Alsace, on the Liep-
vrette, 12 m. n.w. of Colmar, at the foot of the Vosges mountains. It formerly owed its
prosperity to its silver mines, but these are no longer worked. Its chief manufactures
are cotton fabrics of various kinds, paper, and cherry-brandy. Pop. '71, 12,319; '76,
11,672.

SAINTES, an old t. of France, in the department of Charente-Inferieure, on the left
bank of the Charente, 43 m. s.e. of La Rochelle. In ancient times this town, under the
name OL Mediolamtm, was the capital of the Santones, from whom the subsequent province
derived the name of Saiutonge. It contains interesting Roman remains, as a triumphal
arch, and the ruins of an amphitheater, circus, etc. Pop. '76, 11,150.

SAINT FRANCIS, a co. in e. Arkansas; drained by the St. Francis and Languille
rivers; traversed by the Memphis and Little Rock railroad; 625 sq.m. ; pop. '80, 8,389
8,255 of American birth, 3,468 colored. The surface is level and fertile; wheat, cotton,
tobacco, corn, and pork are the staples. Co. seat, Forrest City.

SAINT FRANCIS RIVER, in Arkansas, rises at the base of Iron mountain in Mis-
souri, is the boundary between Arkansas and Missouri for a little distance, flows through
n.e. Arkansas, and, after a course of 450 m., empties into the Mississippi.

SAINT FRANCOIS, a co. in s.e. Missouri; drained by the St. Francis and Big
rivers; traversed by the St. Louis, Iron Mountain, and Southern railroad; 440 sq.m. ;
pop. '80, 13,82212,739 of American birth; 653 colored. The surface is hilly and heavily
wooded. The soil is moderately fertile; corn, oats, and wheat, are staples; but the
chief export is iron, of which valuable mines are found in Iron mountain. Lead is also
found. Co. seat, Farmington.

SAINT GEORGE'S ENSIGN is the distinguishing flag of the British navy. It consists
of a red cross on a white field, with a union-jack in the dexter chief corner. Formerly
it was usual that an admiral, vice-admiral, or rear-admiral should have his flag red,
white, or blue, according to the squadron to which he belonged. By a regulation of
1864, this old custom was altered; the squadrons are abolished, and the white St.
George's ensign is the badge of all ships in the navy. The red and blue ensigns are
now left to government vessels not being ships of war and merchant vessels respec-
tively. The ensign is borne at the peak, or, in harbor, on a flag-staff at the stern; in
boats, the latter is the only mode of flying it. A full-dress ensign is the largest flag
used, being often but little smaller than the quarter-deck of the ship which hoists it.

SAINT GERMAIN, COUNT DE, b. 18th c. ; in Avhat country is unknown. He came
to Paris in 1840 with the marquis de Belle Isle. He soon became famous for his
acquaintance with the natural sciences, his powers of conversation, and his apparent
great wealth. He is said to have given anecdotes implying acquaintance with persons
who were dead generations before his time. His character and career were mysterious
throughout. It is supposed that he was a spy in some governmental employ.

SAINT-GERMAIN-EN-LAYE, a t. of France, in the dep. of Seine-et-Oise, on an eleva-
tion on the left bank of the Seine, 14 m. by railway w.n.w. of Paris. It contains three
handsome squares, a parish church, with a monument erected by George IV. over the
remains of James II., several learned and other societies, and some factories. Pop. '76,
16,978.

Saint-Germain-en-Laye had its origin in a monastery built by king Robert in the
beginning of the llth c. , on the summit of the hill which was surrounded by the forest
of Lyda (Laye), and dedicated to St. Germain. The town, as well as the royal chSteau,
which was built either during the reign of king Robert, or soon after, was sacked by the
English in 1346, in 1419, and in 1438. At Saint-Germain-en-Laye the marriage of Fran-
cis I. was celebrated, and this king rebuilt the chateau in 1547. From before the time
of Philippe-Auguste, Saint-Germain-en-Laye had been the residence of the French
court during a portion of the year, but Louis XIV. transferred the court to Versailles,
and from this time the fortunes of Saint-Germain-en-Laye declined. Later the chfiteau
of Saiut-Gerniain-en-Laye was assigned b}' Louis XIV. as the residence of the dethroned
James II. of England, and here in exile that uionaceh held his morose court, devoting



Kaint Helena. f)(\

Saint John.

almost the whole day to religious observances. The chateau is now used as barracks
and for other purposes. The forest of Saint-Germain-en-Laye comprises 10,873 English
acres.

SAINT HELENA, a parish in e. Louisiania, adjoining Mississippi, watered by the
Amite and Tickfaw rivers, and Natulbany creek ; about 460 sq.m.; pop. '80, 7,504
4,178 colored. The surface is rolling, and mostly woodland. The soil along the streams
is fertile. The principal productions are corn, cotton, wool, and cattle. Co. seat,
Green sburg.

) SAINT HELENS, a municipal borough of Lancashire, on a small affluent of the
Mersey, 3$ in. u.e. of Prescot by railway. It is a straggling, ill-built, but thriving town,
with an extensive trade in coal, 'and containing plate-glass, copper, bottle, and other
works. The town also contains potteries, breweries, tan-yards, iron and brass foundries.
Pop. '61, 18,396; '71, 45,134.

SAINT HELIEES, capital of Jersey (q.v.), the chief of the channel islands, is situated
on the s. shore of the island, and on the e. side of St. Aubin bay. lat. 49 11' n., long. 2'
6' west. It is defended by Elizabeth castle, on a rocky island off the shore, approached
by a causeway at low water; and by fort Regent, on the s.e. side of the town, built about
1806, on a scarped granite rock, at an enormous expense. In the year 1867 a great exten-
sion of the harbor works was found to be necessary. At spring tides, the water rises 40
feet. Victoria college a handsome edifice, built on an eminence, in 1851 the hospital,
the theater, and the churches, are the chief buildings. The area of the town has rapidly
increased within recent years. An active trade is carried on with England, France, and
India. Pop. of town and parish '71, 30,756, including a garrison of upward of 500 men.

SAINT HYACINTHE, a eo. in s. Quebec, dominion of Canada, having the Riche-
lieu river for its w. boundary; intersected by the Grand Trunk railway; 263 sq.m.; pop.
'71, 18,310. It is drained by the Richelieu and Yamaska rivers, the latter forming its e.
boundary. Its surface is generally level, and the soil is fertile. It has manufactures of
woolen goods, wooden ware, lace, iron castings, organs, boots 'and shoes, etc. Co. seat
Saint Hyacinthe.

SAINT HYACINTHE, a city in s.w. Quebec, dominion of Canada, on the w. bank
of the river Yamaska, and on the Grand Trunk railway; pop. '71, 3,746 in the city pro-
per; in the parish of Saint Hyacinthe, 2,581, and in Saint Hyacinthe le Confesseur, 788.
It is 35 m. n.e. of Montreal, and has daily communication by steamboat with St. Cesaire
on the river 20 m. above. The river is here crossed by 4 long bridges. It contains a
court house, an academy, a city hall and mnrket, and a Roman Catholic cathedral. It
is the seat of Saint Hyaciuthe college, having a fine edifice 700 ft. long. It is the seo of
a bishop, and has a bishop's palace, a hospital, and a convent of gray nuns. It has 3
banks, several hotels, 3 newspapers, and a monthly magazine, 1 weekly in English, the
rest in the French language. It is the center of an active trade, and has important
manufactures; the leading industries being the manufacture of mill machinery, leather,
lace, boots and shoes, woolen goods, etc.

SAINT IGNATIUS'S BEANS. See IGNATIUS (ST.) BEANS, ante; Nux VOMICA.
ante.

SAINTINE (the pseudonym of JOSEPH XAVIER BONIFACE), 1798-1865; b. Paris; puk
lished in 1823 a collection of poems of some merit. He won in 1837 the Monthyon
prize by his story, Picciola, the most popular of his novels. He published in conjunction
with Scribe and other dramatists, more than 200 plays.

SAINT IVES, a municipal and parliamentary borough of England, in the co. of Corn-
wall, beautifully situated on the n.e. shore of the bay of the same name, with an outlook
on the Bristol channel, about 10 m. n.n.e. of Penzance. It is a very old and pictur-
esque town; its church, a granite building of the early part of the 15th c., stands on the
beach, and is reached by the spray in rough weather. Its harbor admits vessels of 200
tons. Saint Ives is the head-quarters of the pilchard -fishery. In the vicinity are several
important tin and copper mines. Pop. '71 of parliamentary borough, which returns one
member to parliament, 10,034.

SAINT IVES, a small market t. of England, in Huntingdonshire, is situated on the left
bank of the Ouse, 6 m. e. of Huntingdon. A very large weekly cattle and corn market
is held here. Brewing and malting are the chief branches of industry. Pop. '71, 3,248.

SAINT JACOB, a Swiss hamlet a mile s. of Basle, noted as the scene of a great bat.
tie in 1844 between 1600 Swiss and a much larger French force. The Swiss fought for
ten hours, and slew three times their number, but were themselves all destroyed except
ten men. The place is known as the Swiss Thermopylae, and the wine of the neighbor-
hood is called Schweizer blut, or Swiss blood.

SAINT JAMES, a parish in s.c. Louisiana, bounded by lake Maurepas on the n.e.-,
drained by the Mississippi; on the New Orleans, Mobile, and Texas railroad; about 325
sq.m.; pop. "80, 14,714 9,864 colored. The surface is level. The soil is fertile. The
principal productions are corn, cotton, tobacco, rice, molasses, and sugar. Capital,
Convent.



O1 Saint Helena.

" * Saint John.

SAINT JAMES OF THE SWORD, a military order in Spain, first instituted in the
reign of Ferdinand II., king of Leon and Gallicia. In the lirst instance it was organ-
ized with a view to stopping the inroads of the Moors, and its members pledged them-
selves to secure the safety of the roads. They entered into a league with the brethren
of St. Eloy, and the order was confirmed by the pope in 1175. The highest rank in the
order is that of grand-master, which is united to the crown of Spain. The knights were
obliged to prove their noble descent at least four generations back, and to show that
they numbered among their ancestors no Jews, Saracens, or heretics, and had never
been cited by the inquisition.

SAINT JAMES'S PALACE, a large inelegant brick structure, fronting toward Pall
Mall, succeeded Whitehall as the London residence of the British sovereigns, and
remained as such from William III. to Victoria. It was reconstructed and made a
manor by Henry VIII., having before been a hospital dedicated to St. James; Henry
also annexed to it a park, which he inclosed with a brick wall, to connect St. James's
with Whitehall, the then royal residence. Additions and improvements gradually made,
totally changed the original palace, so that at the present time little, if any, of the old
structure remains. In 1837 the royal household was transferred to Buckingham palace,
and St. James's is now used only for levees and drawing-rooms. The court of St.
James's is the usual designation of the British court.

ST. JAMES'S PARK lies southward from the palace, and extends over 87 acres.
Within the last 40 years it has been greatly improved, and is now richly embellished
with avenues of trees, and a fine piece of water in the center, which is stocked with
waterfowl. On the e. side is the parade, where the body-guards on duty are mustered,
and where the regimental bands perform in fine weather. On the outskirts are situated
the Buckingham and St. James's palaces, Stafford house, Marlborough house, etc.

SAINT JANUA'EIUS, a martjT of the Christian faith under Diocletian, was a native
of Benevento, or at least became bishop of that see in the latter part of the 3d century.
According to the Neapolitan tradition, he was taken prisoner at Nola; and the place of
his martyrdom, in 305, was Pozzuoli, where many Christians suffered the same fate.
His body is preserved at Naples, in the crypt of the cathedral, and in a chapel of the
same church are also preserved the head of the martyr, and two phials (arr.pullce) sup-
posed to contain his blood. On three festivals each year, the chief of which is the day
of the martyrdom, Sept. 19, and on occasions of public danger or calamity, as earth-
quakes or eruptions, the head and the phials of the blood are carried in solemn proces-
sion to the high-altar of the cathedral, or of the church of St. Clare, where, after prayer .
of greater or less duration, the blood, on the phials being brought into contact with the
head, is believed to liquefy, and in this condition is presented for the veneration of the
people, or for the conviction of the doubter. It occasionally happens that a consider-
able time elapses before the liquefaction takes place, and sometimes it altogether fails.
The latter is regarded as an omen of the worst import; and on those occasions when the
miracle is delayed beyond the ordinary time the alarm and excitement of the congrega-
tion rise to the highest pitch. Those who are curious as to the literature of the contro-
versy regarding this celebrated legend, will find many documents in the 6th volume of
the Bollandist Acta Sanctorum for September.

SAINT JANTJAEITIS, ORDER OP, an order of knighthood, founded by king Charles
of Sicily (afterward Charles III. of Spain), on July 6, 1738. It was abolished after the
French invasion of 1806, and reintroduced in 1814. The badge is a gold octagonal
white and red enameled cross, with gold lilies in the upper and side angles. The
obverse represents St. Januarius in episcopal robes, with an open book. The round
middle of the reverse shows a golden open book, and two phials partly filled with blood.
The knights are either Cavalieri di Giustizia, who must count four noble generations, or
Cavalieri di Grazia.

SAINT-JEAN-D'ANGELY, a small t. of France, dep. of Charente-Inferieure, 15 m.
n.n.e. of Saintes. Pop. '76, 6,309.

SAINT JEAN MOLEXBEEK. See MOLEKBEEK.

SAINT JOHN, the most considerable river of New Brunswick, in British North
America, rises in a lake of the same name in the state of Maine, and after a s.e. course
of 450 m., the last 225 of which are within British territory, it falls into the bay of Fundy
by an estuary 5 m. in width. Near the sea it is navigable for large vessels; while for
craft of 120 tons it is practicable as far as Fredericton, which is 80 m. from its mouth,
and the seat of the colonial government. Tho stream is of some historical interest in
connection with the- long-contested adjustment of the international boundary, Through
most of its upper course, it separates Maine from Canada. I

SAINT JOHN (ante), a river in Maine and New Brunswick. 550 m. long, the divid-
ing line between Somerset co.. Maine, and Dorchester co., Quebec; drainage, 26,575
sq. miles. It is known ns the s.w. branch at its rise in the Metjarrnette portage, as the
Wnlloostook or Maine St. John, for the first 112 m., and 150 m. below its source unites
with the St. Francis running along the n. boundary of Maine for 75 miles. Just beyond
the line it descends in tho Grand Falls, with a perpendicular fall of 75 feet. It is navi-
gable at high water to Woodstock, 145 m., and in the spring as high as 40 m. abova



Saint John. QQ

Saint Johns.

Grand Falls, by lighters, to the mouth of the Madawaska. By the Ashburton treaty
navigation is free to United States citizens. At its entrance into the bay of Fundy it
contracts into a narrow channel, and the passage of vessels in and out of the river
depends on the state of the tide. At high tide the harbor is from 5 to 8 ft. higher than
the river, at low tide the river falls 12 ft. to reach the level of the harbor. It has 11
branches; the principal affluents are the Alleguash, the St. Francis, the Madawaska,
and the Aroostook.

SAINT JOHN, a co. in s. New Brunswick, lying on the bay of Fundy and drained
by the St. John and Kennebaccasis rivers; traversed by the Intercolonial and the
Grand Trunk railroads, 585 sq.m. ; pop. '71, 52,120 30,128 of Irish descent. This is
the most populous co. in the province. The surface is diversified and the soil fertile.
The greater part of the inhabitants are engaged in fishing and ship-building.

SAINT JOHN, the commercial capital and largest city of New Brunswick, stands on
the n. or left bank of the estuary of the river of its own name, in lat. 45 14' n., and



Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 4 of 203)