Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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wood." Tenuent's Ceylon.

SATIRE (Lat. satirn; older form, stitura), the name given by the Romans to a specl's
of poetry of which they may be considered the inventors. The word satura (from Ilia
root sat, enough) is strictly and originally an adjective, meaning " full" or " tilled;" b ",
afterward it came to possess also a substantive signification, and denoted a dish tilled
with a medley of ingredients, like \\\a pot-pourri (q. v.) of the French, or the olla poilridti
(q.v.) of the Spaniards. Hence, in its figurative application to a brand) of literature, it
throws a light on the primary character of that literature. The oldest Roman satire was
a medley of scenic or dramatic improvisations expressed in varying meters (Livy, lib 7,
cap. 2), like the Fescenniue verses (q v.); but the sharp banter and rude jocularity of
these unwritten effusions bore little resemblance, either in form or spirit, to the earnest
and acrimonious criticism that formed the esseutial characteristic of the later satire.
The earliest so far as we know who wrote naturae, were Ennius (q.v.) and Pacuvius;
but the metrical miscellanies of these authors were little more than serious and prosaic
description-*, or didactic homilies and dialogues. Lucilius (b. 148, d. 103 B.C.) is univer-
sally admitted to be the first who handled men and manners in that peculiar style which
has ev;r dnee been recognized as the satirical; and the particular glory of Lwilius, in a
literary pjiut of view, consists in this, that he was the creator of a special kind of poetry,
which in all subsequent ages has been the terror and aversion of fools and knaves. The
serious and even saturnine gravity of the Roman mind must have readily disposed it o
a censorious view of public and private vices After the death of Lucilius satire, as well
as other forms of literature, languished, nor do we meet with any satirist of note till Mic
age of Horace (q.v.), whose writings are as a glass in which we behold mirrored the tastes
and habits of the Augustan age. His satire, though sharp enough at ti.nes, is in the main
humorous and playful. It is different when we come to Juvenal (q.v.) a century later,
when satire became a s/rm uiclignatio, a savage onslaught on the tremendous vices of the
capital. Persius (q.v.), who lived in the generation before Juvenal, is every way inferior,
in force of genius, to the latter. After Juvenal we have no professed satirist, but several
writers, prose and poetic, in whom the satiric element is found, of whom Martial, the
epigrammatist, is perhaps the most notable.

During the middle ages the satirical element showed itself abundantly in the gen T. (
literature of France, Italy, Germany. England, and Scotland. Men who have a cl..i";
to the character of satirists, par excellence, are Ulrich von Hutten, one of the authors of
the Epixtolw 01)*ciiror>im Virorum (q.v.), Erasmus (q.v.), Rabelais (q.v.), sh David Lind-
say (q v.), George Buchanan (q.v.). In all of these writers, priests are the special objects
of attack; their vices, their greed, their folly, their ignorance, are lashed with a fie-co
r&gc. But it was in France that satire as a formal literary imitation of antiquity first,
appeared in modern times. Vauquelin (q.v.) may be considered the true founder of
modern French satire. The satirical verses of Mottin, of Sigogne, and of Bert helot >f
Mathurin Retrnier, UEzpadnn Satiriqne of Fourqueraux. and Is. Pnrnasze Satinque,
attributed to Theophile Viaud, are very impure in expression, and remind us that at this
time a satire was understood to be an obscene work the 17th c. scholars supposing that
the name had something to do with Satyr, and that the style ought to be coiiformr.d *,o
what might be thought appropriate to the lascivious deities of ancient Greece! Dii/ing
the 17th and 18th centuries, both England and France produced professed satirist* if
the first order of merit, who have not been surpassed by the best cither of their predeces-
sors or successors. The names of Dryden (q.v.), Butler (q.v.). Pope (q.v.), and Churchill
(q.v.) on this side of the channel, of Boileau (q.v.) and Voltaire (q.v.) on the other are
too well known to require more than mention. Dr. Edward Young (q.v ) and Dr. John
son (q.v.) have also made a name for themselves in this branch of literature. It may he
noticed, however, as a distinguishing characteristic of Dryden. Boileau, Young, Pop-\
Churchill, and John-on, and as a mark of the difference of the times in which they Jived
from those of the satirists of the reformation, that it is no longer the church that is assailed.
but society, political opponents, literary rivals, etc.; the war is carried on, not so much
against bad morals in the clergy as against the common vices of men in general, or is



Satrap.
Saturnalia*



even the -expression of partisan hatreds. Swift (q.v.) and Arbuthnot (q v.) are perhaps
as great satirists as any of those we have mentioned.

Satire in the sliape of political squibs, lampoons, etc., is very abundant in the 17th and
jth centuries. Butler's Hudibnis is simply one long lampoon against the Puritans; most




piece of very tine political satire. Gifford (q.v.)and Wolcot (q.v.), better known as Peter
Pindar, also deserve mention in a historical point of view, though their intrinsic merits
aie small. Incomparably superior to all their contemporaries, and among the first order
of satirists, are Robert Burns (q.v.) andCowper (q.v.). Meanwhile, in France, since Vol-
taire, uo great name has appeared, except, perhaps, that of Beranger (q.v.). though the
spirit of satire has pervaded most of the current literature, more particularly political lit-
erature, of which one of the latest expressions is the pamphlet published in 1865 by M,
Rogcard airamst the system of government pursued by Napoleon III., and entitled Les
J'ropo* de l^ibienua. In Germany the most conspicuous'modern names are those of Hage-
dorn, Rabener, Sturz, Stol berg (q.v.), KRstuer, Wieland (q.v.), Ticck (q.v.), and Goethe
(q v.), but none of these have adhered very strictly to the classic models of satire. Of
19th c. satirists in England, the best names are Byron (q.v.), the brothers Smith (q.v.),




history of Roman Classical Literature (Lond. 1853): Thomson's lli*Mry of Roman Litera-



ture (forming a volume of the Encyclopedia Metropolitnna); Mommsen's Hitiory of Rome;
Niebuhr's Lectures on Roman History; M. Viollet le Due, article " Satire" in the Diction
nuire de la, Concer nation; and James Haunay's Satire and Satirists.

8A TRAP, in the ancient Persian monarchy, was the governor of a province, whose
power so long as he enjoyed the favor of the king was almost absolute. He levied
taxes at his pleasure, and could ape the tyranny of his great master without let or hin-
drance. "When the monarchy of Cyrus began to decline, some of the satraps threw off
their slight allegiance, and founded independent kingdoms or sultanates of their own. the
most famous of which in ancient times was the Mithridatic kingdom of Pontus. See

PONTUS and MlTHRIDATES.

SATSUMA, a province in the s. of Japan, on the island of Kiushiu; pop. 1,200,000.
The ancient, possessions of the hereditary lords of Satsuma extended over a large part of
?f iushiu, but from the 16th c. their fief was greatly restricted. They were humbled by
T..iko, and sigain by lyeyasu. In 1609 they conquered and occupied the Loo Clioo
elands. Always native and jealous of the Yedo usurpation, they were the first to rise
a.L'ainst it in the restoration of 1868, since which time, having handed over their power to
tie mikado, their lands have formed the Kagoshima ken or prefecture, after the name of
their chief citv, at which Xavier first landed in J549, and which in 1863 was bombarded
by a British fleet, in revenge for the killing of a British subject near Yedo, by men in
the procession of Shimadzu Saburo. An indemnity of 100,000 was paid the British.
In 1877 about 30,000 rebels, mostly from Satsuma, actuated by the idea that Japan was
dishonored by not going to war with Corea, and that the mikado's ministers in Tokic
were ruining the country oy extravagance and oppression, rose in arms iigainst the impe-
rial government. To suppress this rebellion cost the nation 2u. 000 lives and $ 50,000.000.
The surface of Satsunia is mountainous, and the , foil not very good: but manufactures
and commerce flourish, and the mines are rich. Satsuma faience has long been noted
for the richness of its gilding and painted decoration. The white clay was tirst discovered
in 1624, and the characteristic decoration in gold and blight colors begun about 1690,
Nearly all the matchless ceramic triumphs of Satsuma have been the work of Coreac.
captives or their descendants.

SATTEP.THWAITE, THOMAS EDWARD, b. N. Y., 1843; graduated at Yule, 1864;
and at the college of physicians and surgeons, New York, 1867. He was surgeon in the
Franco-Prussian war, has disiinguished himself as a rricroscopist and pathologist and
has published many papers on medical subjects. His treatise on The Structure andJh"vel-
ojniient of Connectite Sub#tancc received the alumni prize of the college of physicians and
surgeons in 1876.

SATURDAY, the seventh and last day of the week, receives its name from the Latin
die* Satnrni (Saturn's day). It is the Jewish Sabbath; and it is held by mr.ny that the
application of that name to the Lord's day (Sunday) is incorrect. In the breviary of the
Roman Catholic church, Saturday is still called Dies Sabbati.

SAT URN, an ancient Italian divinity, who presided over agriculture. His name, from
UK- same root as *<tt>im (*cro, to sow)." indicates what was probably one of the earliest
personifications in the Italian religion. Saturn being the god who blessed the labors of the
power. His identification with the Greek Kiioxos'by the latter Gra-cising myth-mon<rers
i* H peculiarly infelicitous blunder, and has led to more than ordinary confusion,. The
two him- absolutely nothing in common except their antiquity. The Gr^ck Demetet
(Ceres), it has been observed, approaches far more closely to the Italian cone* plion of the



1^-0 Satrap.

- 1 < O Saturnalia,

character of Saturn. The process of amalgamation in the cases of Kronos and Saturn if,
visible enough. First, there is the Greek inyili. Kronos, sou of Urunos (heaven) and
Ga;a (earth,), "is L-here the youngest of the Titans. He married Rhca, hy whom he liad.
several children, all of whom he devoured at birth except the last, Zeus (Jupiter), whom
his mother saved by a stratagem. The motive of Kronos for this horrible conduct was
his hope of frustrating a prophecy which declared that his children wo J i one day deprive
him of his sovereignty, as he had done in the case of his father Jranos; but fate is
stronger even than the gods, and when Zeus had grown up, he began a great war against
Kronos and the Titans, which lasted for ten years, and ended in the complete discom-
fiture of the latter, who were hurled down to Tartarus, and there imprisoned. So ran
the common myth. But other myths added, that after his banishment from heaven,
Kivonos fled to Italy, where he was received hospitably by Janus, who shared his sove-
reignty with him. At, this point the Greek myth coalesced with the Italian. Saturn,
the old homely deity of tne Latin husband. nen. 'was transformed into a divine king, who
ruled the happy aborigines of the Itali.m peninsula with paternal mildness and beneri-
ccncc, taught them agriculture and the usages of a simple and innocent civilization, and
softened the primitive roughness of their manners. Hence the whole land received from
him the name of Saturnta, or "land of plenty." His reign was that "golden age," of
which later poets sang as the ideal of earthly happiness, and in memory of which the
famous SntuniaUn (q v.) were thought to have been instituted. At the toot of the Capi-
toline, where the fugitive god had formed his first settlement, there stood in historical
times a temple dedicate;! to his worship. Ancient artists represented him as an old man,
with long, straight hair, the back of his head covered, his feet swathed in wooL'ii rib-
bons, a priming-knife or sickle-shaped harp iu his hand. Other attributes, as the scythe,
Serpent, wings, etc., are of later invention.

SATURN (PLANETS, ante). The mean distance of Saturn from the sun is 872,137,000
m., but the greatest and least distances differ nearly 49,000,000 m., being 930,973,000
and 823,301,000 miles. The eccentricity of his orbit is 1.055993. and he completes
a circuit around the sun in a period of 29 years 167.2 d;iys. While the volume of Saturn,
is 700 times that of the earth liis mass is only about 90 times as much; his density being
less than that of any other planet or planetoid. Taking the earth's density as uniiy,
Saturn's is 0.13. Compared to the density of water, that of Saturn is as 73 to 100. His
mean diameter is about 70,000 m., with a polar compression of about T x ff . so that the
polar diameter is about 63,500, and the equatorial about 73.500 miles. The rings of
Saturn are his most remarkable characteristics. Tiie breadth of the system of rings from
the outside of the larger to the inside of the smaller is about 29,905 m., and the diam-
eter of the outer ring is 167,000 miles. Three rings are usually counted, as with ordinary
telescopic power they present that appearance, but increased power together with cal-
culations made upon the effects of light make it probable that each of these three rings
is subdivided into numerous others Inside of the system of bright rings, there is a dark
ring having a breadth of 87,000 miles, or more than the diameter of the earth. It was
discovered by the elder Bond of Harvard university. This is also probably a multiple
ring, and the inner diameter is about 90,000 m., leaving a space of about 10.000 m.
between the innermost dark ring and the surface of the planet. In regard to the sub-
division of the rings, recent investigations have made it probable that they are composed
of numerous small satellites mingled with vaporous matter traveling in pianos. The
bright rings of Saturn were discovered by the Dutch astronomer Huygens in 1659. He
bad already discovered one of the satellites with a telescope of his own construction,
having a focal length of 10 feet. The instrument with which he discovered the ring had
a focal length of 22 feet, and was much the largest telescope ever constructed up to that
time. The appearance of two luminous bodies on either side of the planet at various times
had been observed by Galileo, but his telescope did not permit him to make out what
the phenomena were. Huygens ascertained that the luminous appearances were caused
by the reflection of the sun oa two parts of the rings. From a calculation made from
the position of the rings and the planet's revolution, he predicted the return of the lumin-
ous appearances in 1671, a prediction which was verified. The late prof. Peirce of
Harvard came to the conclusion that the major plangts must be still in a state of intense
heat. Sir W. Herschel, Bond, Airy, and others also observed that changes of figure
took place, consisting of bulgings out of regions corresponding to our temperate zones,
with depressions at the poles and equator, or elevation of one polar region with depres-
sion of the other. This is accounted for by supposing the existence of great and dense
cloud masses in the atmosphere of the planet.

SATURNA LIA, an ancient Italian festival, instituted, according to the common belief
of the ancients, in memory of the happy reign of Saturn (q.v.). Discarding all mythical
explanations of the institution of the Saturnalia as simply incredible, and not worth the
trouble of refutation, we may rationally conjecture that the Saturnalia was a rural festi-
val of the old Italian husbandmen, commemorative of the ingathering of the harvest, and
therefore of immemorial antiquity. It is not, we conceive, to be doubted for a moment
that the untrammeled jollities of the Saturnalia were familiar to the farmers of Latium
long before their homely national god, who blessed the laborsof seed-time with abundant
fruit, had been decorated with incongruous Hellenic honors, and transformed into a



S;itiu niun,
haul.

skyey Titan. Later ages may have introduced novel elements into the Saturnalia befit-
ting the hybrid uiyln of king Saturn, but originally no thoughtful investigator can
doubt that the cessation from Toil, and the wild self-abandoning mirth that marked the
feast, were expressive of the laboring man's delight that the work of the year was over,
and not an artificial enthusiasm for a "golden age" that never had been. The great
feature of the Saturnalia, as we know the festival in historical times, was the temporary
dissolution of the ordinary conditions of ancient society. The distinctions of rank dis-
appeared or were reversed. Slaves were permitted to wear the pileus, or badge of free-
dom, and sat down to banquets iu their master's clothes, while the latter waited on them
at table. Crowds of people filled the streets, and roamed about the city in a peculiar
dress, shouting lo Saturnalia; sacrifices were offered with uncovered head; friends sent
presents to cacn otner; all business was suspended; the law courts were closed; school-
boys got a holiday; and no war could be begun. During the republic the Saturnalia
proper occupied o'nly one day Dec. 19 (xvi. Kal. Jan.). The reformation of the calen-
dar t>y Juiius Caesar caused the festival to fal^l on the 17th (xvi. Kal. Jan.), a change
which produced much confusion, in consequence of which the emperor Augustus
ordained thai me Saturnalia should embrace the whole three days, Dec. 17, 18, and 19.
Subsequently the number was extended to five, and even seven, though even iu the
times before the empire, it would appear that the amusements often lasted for several
days. But while the whole week was regarded in a genera! sense as devoted to the
Saturnalia, three distinct festivals were really celebrated the Saturnalia proper; the
Opulia, in honor of Opts, the wife of Saturn, and the goddess of field-labor (from opus,
a work; and the Sigillaria, in which sigilla, or little earthenware figures, were exposed
for s-ale, and purchased as children's toys. The modern Italian carnival (q.v.) would
seem to be only tile old pagan Saturnalia baptized into Christianity.

SATUE'NIAN VERSE, the name given by the Romans to that species of verse in which
their oldest poetical compositions, a-id more particularly the oldest national poetry, were
composed. In the usage of the later po ts and grammarians the phrase has two different
significations. It is applied iu a general way to denote the rude and unfixed measures
of Ihe ancient Latin ballad and song, and perhaps derived its name from being originally
employed by the Lalin husbandmen in their harvest-songs in honor of the god Saturn
(q. v.). In this sense it simply means o^d-fashioned, and is not intended to determine the
character of the meter. It is 'also applied to the measure used by Nsevius, and a com-
mon opinion, sanctioned by the great name of Bentley. is that it was a Greek meter
introduced by him into Italy. But though the Saturnian verse is found among the
measures employed by Archilochus, scholars generally incline to the opinion that this is
an accidental coincidence, that the measure of Naevius is of Italian (Hermann even thinks
of Etruscan) origin, and that it merely improved on the older ballad-meter the primi-
tive Saturnian verse. It continued iu use down to the time of Enuius(q.v.), who intro-
duced ihe hexameter (q.v.). According to Hermann, the basis of the verse is contained
in the following schema:

\ \

which, as Macaulay happily points out, corresponds exactly to the nursery rhyme,

The quefin was in her pdrlor | bating br&id and h6ney,

and is frequently found in the Spanish poem of the Oid, the Nibelungen Lied, and
nlmo^t all specimens of early poetry; but in the treatment of it a wide and arbitrary
freedoir. -.vas taken by the old Roman poets, as is proved by the still extant fragments of
Nawils, Livius Andronicus, Ennuis, and of the old inscriptionary tables which the
ti"iinitt>ludon* set up in the capitol. in remembrance of their glorious 'achievements. See
HWory of Roman Li1cr<tinre. by Thompson, Arnold, Newman, etc. (Encyclopaedia. Metro-
jvlitana, 1S52); Browne's Iliatory bfChtxtrical Itoman Literature (1853); Niebuhr's History
of Rome; Preface to Maeaulay's Lays f Ancient Rome; and Sellar's Roman Poet* of tJie
Itef/tiMtc (18(W).



BATYRI ASIS (see SATYH) is the insanity, or the ungovernable sway of the lowest
instincts and propensities, by whifh man becomes an animal in its savage and excited
state. Ihf ancu-nts were ncqra'mted with this loathsome form of alienation in which
man is the snort of foul and dangerous instincts. md recognizes no law or hindrance to
the promptings of hunger, thirst, or lust. It still appears at puberty and in dotae but
is more rnrdv met with; and its disappearance may be hailed as significant of the pre-
dominance of the higher nentiments, or of the subjection of propensities to law decency
Mason Good. Study of Medicine, vol. v. p. 124; Sauvages, vol. ii. p. 214
SATYRS, in Greek mythology, were a race of woodland deifies, first mentioned by
esiod. who d sigriatcs them "the raee of worthless satyrs unfit for work " Subse-
sjure in great numbers in the train of Dionysus (Bacchus) their lender
being that model of tipsy revelers, the never-sober Silenus! In appearance they were
at once grotesque and repulsive, like all old woodland demons. They are described as
>lmst in frame, with broad snub noses, large pointed ears like those of animals (whence
they are sometimes called ttera, "wild beasts"), bristly and shagiry hair, rouch skin,
e horny knobs on their foreheads, and small tails. The satyrs are of course sensual



IrrK Suturnian.

' J Saul.

in vheiT Inclinations, and ravishers of the woodland nymphs, fond of music, dancing,
wine, and of the deep slumbers that follow a debauch. The Roman poets identified
them with the fttttni of their own mythology, and gave them larger horns and thort,
goats' feet with which they are so often represented. Ancient sculpture was foud of ths
satyr as a " subject" one of the most famous specimens of ancient art being the ' Satyr"
of Praxiteles (q. v.).

SAUCES are preparations of various condiments, used for the purpose of giving
piquancy and flavor to various kinds of food, chiefly animal. Sauces have been in use
from the earliest times of culinary art. The ancients prided themselves much upon
them, and used them almost wholly with fish. Sauces were used by the Greeks, but
ec-em to have ariived at the summit of tlieir reputation in the time of the Roman empire,
when that called garum, made from a tish called garon by the Greeks, probably the
anchovy, was considered one of the greatest luxuries of the table. Besides the garum,
many other sauces were made of the tunny and other fishes. In modern times we have
sauces in great variety: there are those ready prepared, as Harvey's, Worcestershire,
Yorkshire Relish, etc., the basis of which is ketchup (q. v.), which of itself is one of the
most extensively known sauces; and there a.-e a large number prepared, when wanted,
byldc cook, to suit every kind of dish sent to the table. These usually consist of rich
gravies, thickened with Hour or other materials, and flavored with some suitable condi-
ment. One of the reproaches of British cookery is the extensive u*e of a sauce called
melted butter, which is usually little belter than bill-stickers' paste, and which at the best
is a little Hour, water, and butter warmed together, and well mixed; and it is the habit
to serve this to almost every kind of disli needing a sauce, whether animal or vegetable.

SATT CISSON, or SAUSAGE, is a fascine of more than the usual length; but the princi-
pal application of the term is to the apparatus for firing a military mine. This consists
of a long bag or pipe of linen, cloth, or leather, from 1 in. to 1| i"- i n diameter, and
charged with gunpowder. One end is laid in the mine to be exploded; the other is con
ducted through tiie galleries to a place where the engineers can tire it in safety. The
electric spark is now preferred to the saucisson. See BLASTING.

SAUERKRAUT, a preparation of the common white' cabbage, well known and in.
extensive use in Germany and the n. of Europe, where it supplies during the winter the
place of fresh vegetables. The cabbages are gathered when they have formed firm while
hearts; and these, sliced into thin shreds, are placed in a succession of thin layeis in a



Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 40 of 203)