Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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cask, each layer being sprinkled with fine suit, 'to which some add juniper berries, cumin
seed, caraway seeds, or other condiment. A board is then placed on the top, with a
heavy weigh', so as to press the whole down firmly, but gently. After a time, fermen-
tation begins; and when n sour smell arises from the cask, it must be removed into a
cool place, and kept for use. It is generally eaten boiled, in the same way as fresh cab-

SATTGERTIES. a village in s.e. New York, on the w. bank of the Hudson river, 100
m. above New York, in Saugerties township; pop. '75 (township). 10,951. It is pleas-
antly situated at, the mouth of Esopus creek, connected wilh Tivoli on the Hudson River
railroad by a steam ferry. It has 7 churches, a newspaper, 2 national banks, pxiblic
schools, and is the seat of the Saugerties institute. It contains extensive strata of lime-
stone, which is quarried and used" for building purposes. Large quantities of fruit are
shipped from this place. The leading industries are the manufacture of iron, paper,
quick lime, cement, brick, etc.

SAUGOR,a t. of India, the chief town of a district in the central provinces, is situated in
a hiily tract on the Bees, or Bes, a feeder of the Jumna, in hit. 23 50' n., and long. 78
49' east. Sagor is t <e seat of a military cantonment and of a collegiate school. The ele-
vation is so considerable that, the climate is moderately cool; but the cantonment is
unhappily in a swampy and unhealthy situation. Pop. '72 of town, 45,655; of dist.,

SAUK, a co. in s.w. central Wisconsin, bounded on the n.e., P., and s.e. by the Wis-
consin river, drained by the Bamboo river, traversed by the Milwaukee and St. Paul,
and the Madison division of the Chicago and Northwestern railroads; about 820 sq.m. ;
pop. '80, 28,72921,474 of American birth. The surface is moderately hiily and heavily
wooded. The soil is fertile. The principal productions are corn, hops, ha}', oats,wheat,
and live stock. Co. seat, Baraboo.

SAUL, the first king of Israel, was the son of Ki>h, a wealthy chief of the tribe of Ben-
jamin. The circumstances that marked his election to the royal dignity are familiar
to all the readers of Scripture, and need not be repeated here (see JEWS, SAMT;EI.).
Gigantic in stature, noble in mien, and imperious in character, he appeared admira
blv fitted to accomplish the task of consolidating the dislocated tribes of Israel. His
earlier achievements augmented hopefully for his future. The deliverance of the n:cn
of Jabe^h Gilead; above all, his victories over the Philistines, the Moabit'-s, Ammonites,
Edomitcs, and, were unmistakable proofs of his vigorous military capacity,
but gradually there showed itself in the nature of the man a wild perversity " nn evil
spirit of God." as it is called culminating in paroxysms of insane rage, which led him
to commit such frightful deeds as the massacre of the priests of Nob. Samuel, who had

Saulcy. 1 7(3


retired from the "court" of Saul, and had secretly anointed David as kin", did not
cease to " raouru" for ihe wavward monarch; but nothing availed to s4ay his downward
career, not even the noble virtues of his son Jonathan; and at lust he fell in a disastrous
and bloody battle with the Philistines ou Mount GiiUxi.

SAULCY, Louis FEUCIKN JOSEPH CAIGNAKT DE, b. Lille, France, 1807; educated
at the Paris polytechnic scuool, and i-uiertd the artillery service. In 1886 he was
awarded the numismatic prize of the French institute, having before that obtained a
hi"-h reputation as an antiquary, lie was made conservator of the museum ot arilllery
atJParis. lie devoted himself especially to oriei-lal uumi.smaiics and antiquities; made
extensive explorations in Palestine, a:.d claimed to have discovered the rums of Sodom.
lie has written many works ou special antiquarian topics, is a member ot u h:rye num-
ber of societies, and" a commander of thu legion of honor.

SAULT SAINTE MARIE, or SAULT DH SAIKTE MAIUK, the co. seat of Chippewa
CO., Mich., 0:1 St. Mary's strait a:i-J the s.;ip canal between lakes Superior and liurou;
pop. '80,4,227. It has churches, hotels, etc. Its inhabitants, who are mainly French
Canadians and Indians, live by hunting and fishing. See SAINT MAKV'S STHAIT.

SAUMAREZ, JAMES, Baron de, a celebrated naval hero, was descended from an old
French family, which had long been settled i;i Guernsey, and was born there Mar. 11,
1737. He entered the navy as midshipman at the age of 13, and served in the American
war (1774-83). receiving for his gallaiury at the attack of Charleston (1775) the grade of
lieut. ; but lie was recalled before the end of this war, and placed under sir Hyde Parker.
He did good service in the action off the Dogger Bank (Aug., 1781). and was rewarded
with promotion to the rank of commander, being soon afterward placed under the

gallant capture of the French frigate L-i Reunion,, with o:ie Inferior m size and equip-
ment, he received the honor of knighthood; and la command of the Ori:>n, a seventy-
four, he served under lord Briclport at the battle ot' 1'Oricnt. June 23, 1795. HJ ako
took a prominent part in ,he battle off cape St. Vincent (Feb. 14, 1797), and was secon 1
in command at the battle of the Nile, in whi:-h he severely wounded. In 1801 he
became a baronet, and vice admiral of the blue; and in the same year fought his great-
est action off Cadiz (July 12), defeating a French-Spanish fleet of 10 line-of-battle ships
and 4 frigates, with a squadron less than half their strength, and causing to the enemy
a loss of 3.0JO men and three ships. This contest, than which, according to admiral
Nelson, "a greater was never fought," gained for Suumarez the order of ihe bath, the
freedom of the city of London, and the thanks of parliament. In the Russian w:;r ho
commanded thj Baltic fleet, and took or destroyed two largo Russian flotillas (July.
1809). In 1814 he became admiral, vice-admiral of Great Britain i:i 1821, was created a
peer in 1831, an>l died at Guernsey, Oct. 9, 1833. His life has been written by sir John
Ross (Memoirs of Admiral Lord de Saumarez, 2 vols., 1838).

BATJMUB, a t. of France, on the left bank of the Loire, in the department of Maine-
et-Loire, 28 m. s.e. of Angers by railway. Bridges connect the town with a suburb on
the right bank of the river. The river-side is lined with handsome quays, and there ara
good bridges and agreeable promenades. There is a great cavalry school, in which
riding-masters for the army are trained. The hotel do ville and the castle are prominent
buildings. Rosaries of cocoa-nut shells and articles ia enamel are manufactured. Tha
trade of Saumur is in spirits, wine?, hemp, an 1 linen. Pop. '72, 11,028.

Baumur, formerly the capital of the province of Saumurois, was a stronghold of the
Protestants during the reign of Henry IV., at which time it contained 2.5.000 inhabit-
ants. Its prosperity was annihilated by the revocation of the edict of Nantes, and its
population was reduced to a fourth. Perhaps the most striking event in the history of
the town was its brilliant capture by Larpche- jaquelein and the Vendeans. June 10. 179:).
In this action the victors, with but. a slight loss, captured 60 cannon, 10,000 muskets,
and 11, 000 republicans.

SAUNDERS, a co. in e. Nebraska, bounded on the n. and e. by the Platte river;
drained by Saline, Cottonwood, and other creeks: traversed by the Omaha and Repub-
lican Valley railroad; about 77.) sq.m. ; pop. '80, 15,80910,726 of American birth. The
surface is level, with little timber. The soil is fertile. The principal productions arc
corn, wheat, oats, and hay. Co. seat, Wnhoo.

8AUNDERS, EPIIUAIM Don. DO.. 1809-72; b. N. .T. : graduate of Yale college, 1831 ;
studied theology at Princeton, and was settled over a Presbyterian church in Virginia
for many years. After residing for a short time in Pottstown, Penn., and making the
tourof Europe, he returned to Pennsylvania and founded the Saunders institute at' West
Philadelphia in 1857. In 1870 he founded the Presbyterian hospital of Philadelphia, by
the presentation of the buildings and grounds of the institute, and raising $100. 000 addi-
tional by subscription; the new institution to be fora memorial to his son Courtland,
author of A New System of Latin Paradigm*, with a Synopsis of Declension*, 18GO who fell
at Antietam lighting in the union army, 1862, aged 21.


SAUNDER8, FIIEDEHICK, b. London, 1807; commenced the publishing business ia
New York, 1831J; WHS for ;i time assistant editor of the Evening 7W; assistant librarian
of the Aslor library 1859-70, when he \vas appointed librarian, and still holds the posi-
tion. Among his published writings, Salad for tlie Solitary and Salad for the Social h:;ve
been especially popular, and have been printed in London as well us iu New York.

SAUNDERS, PKIXCK, 1775-1 8539; a negro, b. Thetford.Vt. Having obtained a com-
petent education he taught school in (Jolciicster, Conn, and afterward in iioston. l.i
1807 lie went to llayti. and soon afterward was sent to England by Henri Chrisiop;, ,
president of the republic, to obtain books, teachers, and school apparatus. After liu.-
Saunders returned to the United States, studied divinity, ;md ministered acceptably to a
church in Philadelphia. He was also a lawyer, and revisiting Hayti he w^,s appointed
attorney-general, ia which capacity he framed the criminal code of the republic, a.s use-
ful for the Hayticns as the code Napoleon was for the French. He published the
Haytien Papers and several smaller works; and died in Hayti in 1839.

SAUNDERSON, NICHOLAS, LL.D., a distinguished English scholar, was b. at Thurle;<-
ton in Yorkshire, in 1682. He became blind from small-pox at the age of tweho
months, but received a good education, including instruction in the classics, which was
orally communicated. His strong predilection for mathematics becoming known to hi.s
friends, attempts were made with success to instruct him in arithmetic, geometry, nud
algebra, by means of ingenious mechanical contrivances which it is not necessary to
describe. In 1707 he came to Christ's college, Oxford, as a teacher, and there delivend
a series of lectures on the Newtonian philosophy, including (strange to say) a discussion
of Newton's theory of optics. Four years afterward he succeeded Whiston as Lueiis-
ian professor, and died April 19, 1739. A valuable and elaborate treatise on algebra,
from his pen, was published in 1740 (2 vols , 8vo), and another on fluxions, includii,.;-
a commentary on some parts of Newton's Principia, in 1756. The mental process b/
which he was enabled to understand the rules of perspective, the projections of the
sphere, and some of the more recondite propositions of solid geometry, seems to have
been peculiar to himself, and was almost wholly unintelligible to others.

His sense of feeling was extremely acute; and he is said even to have been able to
distinguish, by this sense alone, true Roman medals from counterfeits. He could jucive
fairly of the size of a room and of his position in it by the sound of his own footstep",,
and could tell, in some inexplicable manner, when light clouds were passing across the
sun's disk.

SATTEIA, in the systems of Cuvier and other recent naturalists, an order of reptiles
(q.v.), having an elongated body, covered with scales or with bony plates; a more or less
elongated tail; four limbs, or sometimes only two apparent, the rudimentary hind-limbs
being concealed beneath the skin; the mouth always furnished with teeth; the ribs
movable, rising and falling in respiration; the young issuing from the egg in a form
similar to that of the mature animal. To this order belong crocodiles, alligators, 'etc. ;
chameleons, geckos, iguanas, agamas, varans, teguixins, lizards, skinks, etc., numerous
families, some of which contain many genera and species. Crocodiles and their jillies,
being covered with bony plates instead of overlapping scales, are by some naturalise
removed from among the saurians, and a place nearer to the chelonians is assigned to
them. In their general form and structure, however, they correspond with aurians,
and have no resemblance to chelonians. The recent sauria are far excelled in size and
in variety of strange forms by the fossil sauria as the plewosaurus, ichthyosaurus, etc.

SAURIN, JACQUES, a celebrated French Protestant preacher, was b. at ITimcs,
Jan. 6, 1677, studied at Geneva, and was chosen minister of a Walloon church in
London in 1701. But the climate of England did not agree with his delicate health; ami
in 1705 he settled at the Hague, where his extraordinary gift of pulpit oratory was pro-
digiously admired, but not by his clerical brethren, who enviously assailed him with the
accusation of heresy. The ground of their charge was that Saurin had attributed false-
hood to God. Commenting in a thesis on the conduct of Samuel (1 Sam. chap. xvi.)
when about to proceed to Bethlehem to anoint David, Saurin had pointed out that God
certainly induced the prophet to adopt such measures and such language as could not
but lead king Saul to believe what was not true. He argued, however, that the " will
of God" can never command what is criminal or wrong, and that this deception this
falsehood, as men would call it was quite innocent and permissible. Snnrin's logic is
not perhaps quite faultless, but he at least deserves credit for not denying the existence
of a moral difficulty. The dispute was carried' to the synod of Hague, and Saurin wns
subjected to a series of petty persecutions that shortened his days. He died at the Hague
in 1730. As a preacher, Saurin has often been compared with Bossuet, whom he rivals
in force, if not in grace and subtlety of religious sentiment. His chief productions arc:
Sermons sur dirers Textes de I'Ecriture Sainte (La Haye, 1708-25); Nouveaitx Sermon*
sur la Passion (Rotterdam, 1732); Discours sur les Evenements Ics plus memo-rabies dn V. et
du N. T. (Amst. 1720-28); Abrege de. la Theologw et de la Morale Chretienim en Forme
d Catechixine (Amst. 1722); and Etat du Christianisme en France (La Haye, 172"').

8ATJ ROID FISHES, a name sometimes employed to designate fishes which approach
in their structure to saurian reptiles. Of recent sauroid fishes examples are found iu
U. K. XIII. 13


bony pikes (q.v.) and sturgeons (q.v.). Fossil sauroid fishes are numerous, some of
them of very large size. The teeth of megalichthys are nearly 4 in. in length, far exceed-
ing those of any existing fish, and bony plates of the same fish have been found 5 in.
in diameter.

SAUROP'SIDA, a division of vertebrata established by prof. Huxley to include the
birds and reptiles, which he with others considers to have so mauy affinities as only to
be separated by class distinctions. The common anatomical characteristics in this
division are the absence of gills, the possession of an amniou and allantois, the articu-
lation of the skull with the vertebral column by a single occipital condyle. the com-
position of each branch of the lower jaw of several pieces, the articulation of the lower
jaw with the skull by the intervention of a bone called the os quadratum or four-sided
bone, and the possession of nucleated red blood corpuscles. See VEKTEBRATA.

SAU'BY PIKE, Scomberesox, a genus of fishes of the order yharyngognathi and family
scombercsocid, having the body greatly elongated, and covered with minute scales; the
head also much elongated, and the jaws produced into a long sharp beak, as in the gar-
fish (q.v.); from which, however, the present genus differs in the division of the dorsal
and anal fins into finlets, as in mackerels. One species (S. saurus) is common on the
British coasts. It is about 15 in. long, the back dark-blue, the under parts white;
the fins dusky-brown. It approaches the coast, and enters firths in shoals, which
are pursued by larger fishes, porpoises, etc. ; and in order to escape from these, the
saury pike often leaps out of the water, or rushes along the surface, lor a distance of
100 ft. scarcely dipping or seeming to touch the water. Hence the name SKIPPEU,
which it very commonly receives on the British coasts. Vast shoals sometimes enter
bays, so that they may be taken by pailfuls, and great numbers are sometimes found
among the sludge at the ebbing of the tide, in the upper parts of the firth of Forth and
elsewhere. The flesh of the saury pike is palatable.

SATTSAGE, a well-known preparation of the flesh of various animals for culinary pur
poses. It is made by chopping the raw meat very fine, adding salt and other flavoring
materials, and often bread-crumbs also, the whole forming a pasty mass. This is pressed
into portions of the intestines of the animal, previously thoroughly cleaned and properly
prepared. Usually, a considerable length of the intestine is filled and divided into
separate sausages, by constricting it with pieces of string, at short intervals. The
sausages of Lucania were very celebrated among the Romans. They were made of
fresh pork, and bacon chopped fine, with nuts of the stone-pine, and flavored with
cumin-seed, pepper, bay -leaves, various pot-herbs, and the sauce called garum. Italy is
still celebrated for its Bologna sausages, and with many people the smoked sausages of
Germany are highly prized; but except when quite fresh, sausages cannot be recom-
mended as wholesome food.

SAUSAGE POISON. It is well known that sausages made or kept under certain
unknown conditions are occasionally highly poisonous; and in Germany, where sausages
form a staple article of diet, fatal cases of sausage-poisoning are by no means rare. The
symptoms are slow in appearing, three or four days sometimes elapsing before they
manifest themselves. The poison may be described as of the narcotico-irritant charac-
ter, and is very dangerous. Dr. Taylor, in his Medical Jurisprudence, records the cases
of three persons who died from the effects of liver-sausages which had been made from
an apparently healthy pig, slaughtered only the week before. The inspection threw no
light on the cause of death. This case differs from those commonly occurring in Ger-
many in this respect, that here the sausages were fresh, while the sausages which have
proved poisonous in Germany had always been made a long time. Dr. Kerner, a Ger-
man physician, who has specially studied this subject, believes that the poison is an
acid formed in consequence of a modified process of putrefaction ; others regard it as an
empyreumatic oil.

8AUSSURE, HORACE BENEDICT DE, a celebrated Swiss physicist and geologist, was
b. at Conches, near Geneva, Feb. 17, 1740. His education was attended to with
such success that, in 1762, young Saussure obtained the chair of physics and philosophy
in the university of Geneva. In 1768 Le commenced the famous series of journeys
which were fraught with such important consequences to science and to his own reputa-
tion; and during the course of which he visited the Jura and Vosges mountains, those
of Germany, England, Italy, Switzerland, Sicily, and the adjacent isles; the extinct
craters of Auvergne, etc.; and traversed the Alps no less than 14 times, crossing them
by 8 different routes. He was the first "traveler* who ever ascended to the summit of
Mont Blanc; he camped for 17 days on the Col du Geant, and finished his Alpine
achievements by the ascent of Monte Rosa in 1789. During this extensive course of
travel, he made numerous observations on the minerals, physical features, botany, and
meteorology of the mountain ranges he visited; and these observations were found,
after having undergone a Marching examination, to be as correct and valuable as they
were numerous. In short, they put the science of geology for the first time on a basis
of fact. The work in which they are found is entitled Voyages dans les Alpes, etc.
(Neufchatel, Geneva, Paris, 1779-96, 4 vols.). and is much admired for its accurate and
splendid descriptions of Alpine scenery. His observations were not made without con-


siderable preliminary labor, for he found it necessary to improve his thermometer,
hygrometer, eudiometer, electrometer, anemometer, aud to invent other two instruments
viz., the cyauometer and diaphanometer, before his investigations, which were con-
ducted with much care aud candor, produced satisfactory results. In 1786 Saussure
resigned his chair; and in 1798 was appointed-professor of natural history in the central
school of the department of Leman (formed on the annexation of Geneva to France); but
four years afterward, he was struck with paralysis, and after a long period of suffering,
died at Geneva, Jan. 22, 175)9. Besides the great work above mentioned, he wrote
numerous" others, the chief of which are: Observations sur Vecorce des Feuittes et den
Pelcdes (1762); De Practpuis Errorum nostrorum Causis, ex Mentis Facidtatibus Orivndu
(1762); De E'ectricitate (1766); De Aqua (111 I); Sur I'hygrometrie (1783), which, accord-
ing to Cuvier, is one of the most important contributions to science in the 18th c. ; and
in which Saussure set forth his discovery of the dilatation in bulk, and diminution in
specific gravity, of air charged with moisture. His "Description of the Alps," a portion
of his great work, was published separately in 1834, at Geneva and Paris.

SAUTRANTIKA is the name of the second of the four great schools or systems of
Buddhism, the three others being called VaibJifahika, Madhyamika, and Yvy&chdra.
They recognize the authority of the Sutras (q.v.), but reject that of the Abhidharma.
See C. F. Koeppen, Die Religion des Buddha (Berlin, 1857); and W. Wassiljew, Der
Buddhismus, seine Dogmen, Geschiehte und Literatur (St. Petersburg, 1860).

SAVAGE, JAMES, LL.D., 1784-1873; b. Boston: graduated at Harvard, and was
admitted to the bar. He was a member of the state executive council, of the constitu-
tional convention of 1820, and of both branches of the legislature. He was a learned
antiquarian, and president of the Massachusetts historical society. Among his publica-
tions are an edition of John Winthrop's Histoi-y of New England, and a valuable Ge/iea-
loyical Dictionary of the First Settlers of New England.

SAVAGE, RICHARD, an English poet, was b. in London, Jan. 16, 1696-97. He was
the fruit of an illicit intercourse between lord Rivers and the countess of Maccleslield,
which resulted in the divorce of the lady, and the declared illegitimacy of her offspring.
Lord Rivers, though permitting his name to be given to the child, seems not to have
concerned himself further with him at all; and at the hands of his mother he met with
only the grossest neglect. To the interference of her mother, lady Mason, he was
indebted for his education, received at the grammar school of St. Albans. Afterward,
he was apprenticed to a shoemaker in Ilolborn, but an accident revealing to him the secret
of his birth, he quitted this obscure handicraft. Repeatedly and in vain he appealed
to the tender sympathies of his mother, who declined even to see him, and withheld
all acknowledgement and assistance. Failing other means of subsistence, he turned his
attention to literature, and at an early age produced several comedies, which met with
but little success. Somewhat more fortunate was his tragedy of Sir Thomas Overbury,
which though indifferently received on the stage, with the author himself as actor of
the leading part, obtained in print some approval, and put a little money in his purse.
In 1727 he killed a man in a drunken tavern brawl an offense for which he was tried,
and sentenced to death. A pardon was, however, obtained for him on the intercession
of the countess of Hertford with the queen, and the details of his story becoming widely
known, a strong feeling arose in his favor. Though his mother continued inexorable,
and would, it was thought, have been well pleased to be rid of him by the hands of the
hangman, certain of her relations interested themselves in him, and he was received into
the household of lord Tyrconnel, who allowed him 200 a year, and otherwise treated
him with considerate generosity. His poem, The Wanderer, was now published; its
success was great, and for a time the career of Savage was prosperous, and even brill-
iant. But it did not very long remain so. The inveterate irregularity of his habits
involved him in difficulties with lord Tyrconnel, and they parted with mutual recrimi-
nations. After this, he sunk irretrievably. Though he failed in an attempt to obtain
the post of poet-laureate, a poem which lie wrote to commemorate her birthday so pleaded

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 41 of 203)