Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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the queen, that along with " a permission to write annually on the same subject," she
conferred on him a pension of 50 a year. This sum, which might have been to him
the basis of a modest subsistence, it was his regular habit to dissipate in a week's
debauchery, passing the rest of the year in what disreputable fashion lie could. On the
failure of his pension by the death of the queen, a subscription was set on foot, mainly
through the influence of Pope, with the view of sending him to live quietly at Swan-
sea in Wales. Thith,;r, accordingly, he retired; but happening to visit Bristol, where
he lived in the rccklrss manner habitual to him, he was arrested for a debt of 8, and
died in prison there, on July 31, 1743.

The poetry of Savage, though a few vigorous lines of it continue to be remembered,
is scarcely such as of itself would have sufficed for a permanent reputation. His most
powerful and finished piece is The Baxtard, in which, when he had finally broken with
the relations of his mother, he held her up to public execration. Such celebrity as still
attends his name he owes, however, almost entirely to the masterly life of him by Dr.
Johnson, who, in the time of his own early struggles, was thrown much into hia
society.



Sarases. 180

Seville.

SAVAGES or WILD MEN*, in heraldry, are of frequent occuronce as supporters. They
are represented naked, and also, particularly in the later heraldry, are usually wreathed
about the head and the middle with laurel, and often furnished with a club HI the exter-
ior hand Savages are especially prevalent in the heraldry of Scotland. In more titan
one of the Douglas seals of the first half of the 15th c., the shield is borne m oue hand
by a single savage, who acts as sole supporter.

SAVANNAH, a river which forms the boundary between Georgia and South Carolina,
rises in the Alleghanies, on the south-western border of North Carolina, and flows s.e.
to the Atlantic. Its length is 300 m., navigable to Augusta.

SAVANNAH, a city and port of Georgia, on the right bank of the Savannah river, 18
m from its mouth, 90 in. s.w. of Charleston, lat. 32 5' n., long. 81 5' w.
a sandy plain, 40 ft. above the river, with broad streets shaded by beau' if ul trees. Its
chief edifices are the custom-house, city exchange, court-house, state arsenal, theater,
St. Andrew's hall, Oglethorpe hall, market, hospitals, and asylums. In 1874 the exports
valued $50.500,000, consisting of cotton, rice, lumber, etc. The cotton exported iu 1875
was 610,903 bales. Vessels of upward of 14 ft. draught discharge and load 8 m. In-low
the harbor. Savannah is surrounded by marshes and islands, and on the river side is
defended by forts Pulaski and Jackson. It was founded in 1733 by the Englis.i gen-
eral, Oglethorpe. In 1776, a British fleet, attempting to take tlie town, was repulsed
after a severe action; but it was taken in 1778, and held in 1789 against the combined
French and American forces. In the war of secession, after many unsuccessful attacks
by sea it was taken by gen. Sherman in Feb., 1865. The population in lbi'0 was
28,235.

SAVANNAH (ante), co. seat of Chatham co., Georgia, terminal station of the Cen-
tral, the Atlantic and Gulf, and the Savannah and Charleston railroads; pop. '80, 30,761,
about 4,000 less than Atlanta. The city is noted for its beautiful streets and the large
number of small parks (about 25). Forsyth place, in the center of the town, is a very
pleasant resort, filled with tropical and semi-tropical trees and flowers. The climate is
delightful in winter but generally considered unhealthful in summer. The harbor is
excellent, and the Savannah river is navigable as far as Augusta. As a cotton port it
is inferior to New Orleans only, having maintained the position held before the war
much better than Charleston; about 850,000 bales are shipped annually. Oiher impor-
tant exports are rice and lumber. There are a large cotton mill, foundries, planing and
flouring mills; but, on the whole, the manufactures are not very important. The great
warehouses are on a street below the bluff, known as the Bay. Among the public
buildings are the custom house, court house, city exchange, St. Andrew's ball, Chatham
academy, and the Masonic hall where, in 1861, the ordinance of secession was passed.
In Forsyth park is a confederate monument; and in Johnson square an obelisk to the
memory of gen. Greene and count Pulaski, the corner-stone of which was laid by Lafay-
ette in 1825. The Pulaski monument in Monterey square is 55 ft. high, of marble, sur-
mounted by a statue of Liberty, and is considered one of the finest works of the kind
in this country. Bonaventure cemetery, near the city, is unique in its long ;i venues of
live-oaks, draped with the gray southern moss. The city has good police and fire depart-
ments, 3 hospitals, medical school, 32 churches, a public library, historical society, 5
banks, 2 daily and 4 weekly papers, gas and water works, and an excellent school svs-
tem. It has had two great fires, one in 1796 (damage $1,000,000), the other in 1820 (loss
$4,000.000). Savannah was invested by Sherman in Dec. 10, 1864; on the 13th fort
McAllister was taken: and a few days later Hardee, the confederate general, evacuated
the city, which was occupied by the union forces Dec. 21, 1864.

SAVANNAS (Span, sacana or sabana), the name given by the early Spanish settlers
to the great plains or prairies (q.v.) of the North American continent.

SAVARY. ANNE JEAN MARIE RENE, Due de Rovigo, a French gen. and diploma-
tist, was b. at Marcq, in Ardennes, April 26, 1774, entered the army" as n volunteer in
1790, and served with distinction in the army of the Rhine. In 1797 he accompanied
Desaix to Egypt as chef d'escadron, and remained under his command as long as that
general lived. After the battle of Marengp (1800), Napoleon made him his aid-de-camp
and for several years employed him only in political affairs, for which lie showed an
admirable capacity. In 1803, he was made gen. of brigade; in 1804, as commandant of
the troops stationed at Vincennes, he presided at the execution of the due d'Enghien,
an event which he is believed to have unduly hastened; and in the Prusso-Uqssian Aus,
trian wars of 1806-08, he acquired high military reputation, his victory at Ostrolenkn.
(Feb. 16*, 1807) being really a brilliant achievement. Created duke of* Rovigo in the
beginning of the following year, he was sent to Spain by the emperor, nnd negotiated
the perfidious arrangement by which the Spanish king and his son were kidnapped. In
1810, he replaced Fouche as minister of police. After the fall of Napoleon, to whom
he had always been passionately, and, we may add, unscrupulously devoted, he wished
to accompany him to St. Helena; but he was confined by the British government at
Malta for seven months, when he succeeded in making his escape, and getting on board
a ship, was landed at Smyrna. After experiencing several vicissitudes, he returned to
Paris in 1818, and was reinstated ki his titles and honors. In 1823 be removed to Rome-



m Savages.

Saville.

but at the close of 1831, he was appointed commander-in-chief of the army of Africa,
and during his brief administration of affairs in Algeria, exhibited a splendid energy
and generalship. But ill-health forced him to withdraw to France in Mar. 1833, and on
June 2d following, he died at Paris. ISavary's Mttiioire* (Par. 8 vols, 1828) are among
the most curious and instructive documents relating to the period of the empire.

SAVE, a river of the s. of Austria, and an important affluent of the Danube, is formed
by two upper waters, which rise in the extreme n.w. of Camiola, and unite at liadmauns-
dort' 1500 ft. above sea-level. The river then flows s.e. through Carniola, passing Lai-
bach (at which point it becomes navigable), and forming in part the boundary between
C'arniolu aud Styria, after which it enters and traverses Croatia; and at its confluence
with the Uiina, lirst touches the Turkish dominions, the northern boundary of which it
continues to form throughout the remainder of its course to its junction with the Danube
at Belgrade. Estimated length, 400 miles. Its principal affluents are the Laibach (200
m. long), Kulpa, Uuua, Bosua, and Driua.

SAVELOY, a kind of sausage common in the London shops; it only differs from pork
sausages in being made of young salted pork, highly seasoned, and having a little salt-
peter added to give the contents a red color.

SAVIGLIA'NO. a fortified t. of n. Italy, province of Cunco, 9 m. e. of Saluzzo. It is
situated on the Maira and the Grana, and is a handsome and clean town. Cloth and
silk are extensively manufactured, and the country in the vicinity is productive in wines
and grain. Cattle are reared in great numbers, and silk-worms are bred largely. Pop.
of town '71, 9,544: of commune, 16,150.

SAVIGNY, FRIEDRICH KARL, VON, an illustrious writer on Roman jurisprudence,
descended from a French Calvinistic family, that had emigrated to Germany in 1622, to
avoid religious persecution, was born at "Frankfort on Feb. 21, 1779. He studied at
Marburg, and took his degree in 1800, after which he commenced a series of lectures on
juridical subjects, which were attended by a numerous auditory. Struck, in his expo-
sition of the digest, with the divergence existing between the text and the commentaries
on the theory of possession, he composed in 1803 his masterly treatise, Das Recht des
Besitzes, in which the Roman law is disengaged from the extraneous elements introduced
into it by Germanic law, common usage, and the misapprehensions of commentators.
Its merit was quickly recognized, and Savigny received the most advantageous offers
from different universities, which, however, he declined, in order to prosecute researches
in the libraries of France and Germany, with a view to a historical development of the
glosses of commentators. He was assisted in this laborious undertaking by his pupil,
Jakob Grimm, and his young wife, a daughter of the poet Clem. Brentano, and Bettina
von Arnim. Appointed professor of law at Landshut in 1808, he was called, two years
afterward, to Berlin, on the reorganization of the university, and there he continued to
lecture with unbroken success for a period of 32 years, in the course of which he filled
various important offices in the university and the state, and died Oct. 25, 1861, at the
age of 82. Savigny is the virtual founder of the new historical school of writers upon
jurisprudence, although it is but fair to admit that Hugo and Schlosser had preceded
him in the same direction. The essential idea of this school is, that "law" or "right"
is not an abstract and absolute rule, manifesting itself under the same forms in all. coun-
tries, but that it is one of the forces of society, with which it changes, according to fixed
laws of development that are beyond the caprices of the day. This idea, when worked
out historically, has produced the most important and original results, and may even be
said without exaggeration to have regenerated the science of jurisprudence Savigny's
principal writings are: Vom Berufe unserer Zeit fur Gesetzgebung und Rechtsicmenxchojt
(Heidelb. 1815); Gexdtichte des Romischen Rechts im MitteMter (6 vds. Heidelb. 1826-31);
System des Jieutigen Romischen Rechts (8 vols., Berl. 1840-48); Das Obligation enrccht (1851
-53), and Vermischte Schriften (5 vols. Berl. 1850), a collection of essays which had origi
nally appeared in the Zeitschrift fiir Historiscfie Rechtswissenschaft, and elsewhere.

8AVILE, Sir HENRY, 1549-1621; b. Yorkshire; entered Bras.'Aose college, Oxford,
and Merton college 1561; fellow of the university and voluntary lecturer on mathemat-
ics; proctor 1575-76. Subsequently he visited many places on the continent colk*'tin
MSS.. and on his return was appointed Greek and mathematical tutor to queen Eliza-
l>eth 1578; provost of Eton 1596; knighted by James I. 1604; warden of Merton col-
lege 1585-1621. He founded at Oxford the Savilian professorships of geometry and
astronomy 1619, and gave liberally to the institution besides the gift of his valuable
library. He was the author of a translation of The end of Nero and Beginning of G alba,
foicer Bootes of the Histories of Cornelius Tacitus; and The Life of Agricola, with, Note*,
Oxford, 1581.

SAVILLE or SAVILE, GEORGE, 1630-95; b. England: created marquis of Halifax
in 1682. He was a confidential adviser of Charles II., who made him lord privy seai.
James II. dismissed him for his opposition to the repeal of the habeas-corpus and test
acts. James appointed him a commissioner to treat with William of Orange, whom he
supported on the meeting of parliament. He was at once made speaker of tin- house
of lords, and William, soon after his accession, made him lord privy-seal. He soon



Savine. 182

joined the opposition, and for a time affiliated with the Jacobites. He was the head
of the so-called party of " trimmers."

SA VINE Juniperus sabina, (see JUNIPER), a low. much-branched and very wiclely-
snreadin * shrub with very small, imbricated, evergreen leaves, which grows on moiin-
J,H n The s of Europe And the east. It bears small black berries, covered with a
me blue bloom Its foliage has a strong, fetid, aromatic, penetrating odor, part cu-
Fify when rubbed. Its exhalations cause headache. The part of the plan, ujed m
medicine is the tops of the branches, collected in spring, and dried. Their
"t on- peculiar and unpleasant, and their taste acrid, bitter, resinous and disagreea-
ble th therapeutic proprieties of savine are due to the volatile oil which* coiit,.in*
Two pounds of the tops yield about five ounces of this oil. winch is limpid and nearly
colorless, having the odor of the plant, and a hot acrid taste. Its composition is C,. H 8 ,

>61 S^vhuTexerts a stimulating effect on the uterine organs, and is employed with much
benefit in cases of amenorrhoea and chlorosis, depending upon want of tone m tl
parts It is best given in the form of the oil. one or two minims ot which may be pre-
L-ibed in a pill, to be taken twice a day. This drug is otten employed by the lower
chases for tile purpose of procuring abortion; but it ought to be generally known that
if it is given in a sufficiently large dose to produce the desired effect the life of the
mother Is placed in the greatest possible peril. If a poisonous dose has been gi ven tor
this or any other object, emetics should first be employed to remove any of tue drug
that may remain in the stomich. after which opiates and demulcents should be pre-
scribed/and a general cooling and lowering treatment adopted. Savine in the form c
oiutm -nt. is miuh used as an external application, with the view ot keeping up the c
charg?' from a blistered surface. The ointment cannot, however, be kept long without
losing its properties.




..... . __-

BusTaVa"m7a"nrofTudiidng habits of prudence and frugality among his parishioners
offered, with two oth^r inhabitants, to receive weekly any sum not less than twopen ;
and if the amount were not touched before the next following Christm is, to add on -
third to it as a bonus or encouragement. In 1810 the rav. II. Duncan established




by the year
United Kingdom.

The first savings-banks acts ware passed in 1817, one f;>r Englaa I and Wales, anil
one for Ireland. A fund, called tha fund for the banks for savings, was opened with
the national debt commissioners; and into this fund were to be place I all savings-banks
deposits as soon as thsy reached 50. On these sums the national debt commissioners
gave 4 11s. 3d. p-jr cent interest (3d. percent p3r diem). Tho managers of the sav-
ings-banks in most cases allowed the depositors 4 par cent, the difference being applied
to the working exp3nses.

This, the fundamental statute on the subject, has been modified and extended in
many ways since. In 1824, as it was found that the benefits of the savings-banks sys-
tem were reaped by parsons for whom it was not intended, an act was passed declaring
that the deposits in the first year should not exceed 50; that those in subsequent years
should not exceed 30; that no interest would be allowed on any excess beyond 200;
and that no person would be allowed to make deposits at more than one savings-bank.
In 1828 an act was passed to give greater security to the depositors. The rules drawn
up by the trustees an:l m uiagcrs of all savings-banks were to be submitted to *i barris-
ter appointed by the national debt commissioners, and without his approval no savings-
bank could commence or continue operations. The justices of the peace had also a
Teto in the matter; and the clerk of the peace was to keep a certified ropy of Ihe
approved rules and regulations. The trustees were to receive 3, 16s. 0*d. per cent
interest (2d. per cent per diem), and were to pay the depositors not exceeding 3 8s.
5d. interest (2^d. per cent per diem). No depositor was to deposit more than 150;
but compound interest might accumulate until the total reached 200. Friendly socie-
ties and charitable institutions were, however, permitted to invest to the amount of
300.

In 1833 an act was passed to enable savings-banks to manage the granting of small
deferred annuities, to be paid for by weekly, monthly, quarterly, or yearly install-
ments. In 1835 another act extended the operation of the statutes of 1828 and 1833 to
Scotland, and enabled existing savings-banks to conform to the stipulations without a
necessity for reorganization.

In 1844 a new act made extensive changes in the savings-banks system, the chief
items of which may thus be summarized: Interest allowed by the commissioners to
trustees to be reduced to 3 5s. Od. per cent, and to depositors to 3, Os. lOd. per cent
(3d. per diem); every depositor's book to be sent once a year to his savings-bank for
examination; the extent uf the liability of trustees, managers, actuaries, and cashiers



1 Q Savin*.

Savings.

exactly defined; arrangements for making deposits intrust for other persons; annui-
ties under the act of 1833 not to exceed 30 for any one person, but separate annuities
to that amount may be granted to a husband and wife; deposits made by a married
woman may be returned to her, unless the husband give notice to the contrary; rules
Idid down concerning the inheritance of the deposits of intestate a'nd illegitimate per-
sons; payments ! to the relations of intestate depositors to be made to the riext of kin
according to the law of Scotland, if in that country. An act passed in 1848 placed a
limit on the liability of trustees of savings-banks in Ireland. In 1853 an act placed the
maximum and minimum of savings-banks annuities at 30 and 4 respectively; and
allowed a husband and wife to purchase a joint annuity, although one of them may
have already had an annuity of the full amount. Another act in 1860 authorized the
national debt commissioners to invest the moneys received by them from savings-banks
in any 4dnd of stock, debenture, or other security that has received parliamentary
t-am-tion; and required them to make an annual return to parliament of all such trans-
actions. The act of 1861, establishing post-office savings-banks, contained provisions
for the transfer of deposits from the one kind of savings-banks to the oth^r. By
another statute passed in 1863 the arrangements for deposits in the name of a minor
are denned; the order of proceedings is settled whereby any savings bank may be
wound up and closed, and the claims of the depositors transferred to the post-office sav-
ings-banks. Two more recent statutes will be noticed in the concluding paragraphs of
this article.

From time to time, as the above-named statutes came into operation, the national
debt commissioners have laid down rules for giving them practical effect, and the reg-
istrar of savings-banks has exercised the necessary supervision. The rules on the
important subject of savings-banks annuities may be thus briefly noticed: The nomi-
nee's age must not be under 15; no annuity below 4, and the aggregate of annuities
to any one person not to exceed 30; by purchasing two half annuities instead of a
whole one, the annuitant may receive his money in four quarterly sums; on the death
of the annuitant, a sum equal to one-fourth part of the annuity will be paid to his or
her next representative, if claimed within two years; if the purchaser of an annuity is
unable to continue his installment of payments, he may either receive back the whole
of his money without interest, or may have an immediate or deferred annuity equiv-
alent in amount to the moneys which he has paid; if the purchaser of a deferred
life-annuity die before the annuity becomes due, the whole amount of his payments,
but without interest, is paid to hh family; an annuity is not transferable, except by a
bankrupt to his creditors, from whom it will be purchased by the national debt com-
missioners at its proper value.

These institutions have wrought vast benefit, by inducing habits of economy among
the working classes. Let us compare two years thirty years apart, 1833 and 1863. On
Nov. 20, 1833, there were 484 savings-banks, holding balances belonging to 475,-
155 depositors; the sum in hand was 15,715,111, giving an average of more than 33
due and belonging to each depositor; tliese totals applied to England, Wales, and Ire-
land, but did not include Scotland. On Nov. 20, 1863, there were savings-banks in
the United Kingdom holding balances belonging to 1.555,089 individual depositors,
charitable institutions, and friendly societies; the sum in hand (including interest) was
43,278,656, giving an average of about 28 due and belonging to each depositor.
The charitable institutions and friendly societies which had accounts open with savings
banks were so large a number as 28,334, having deposits of about 100 each on an
average. About 300,000 depositors had accounts open of less than 5 each. There
were 6,627 savings-banks annuities then in force, for an aggregate sum of 135,748 per
annum; in other words, the annuities were more than 20 each on an average.

Just before the new post-office savings-banks came into operation, there were 1,609,-
103 depositors in the old savings-banks; this number increased to 1,887,510 by Mar. 81,
1864 showing that the, new system has been a positive benefit to the old. In subse-
quent years, many of the old, or trustee, banks arranged for a transfer to the postmas-
ter-general. The report issued in 1872 tells us of 1.404,078 accounts open with the old
banks, on which was due to depositors the aggregate sum of 8^.820.458; the rate of
interest averaging 2 19s. 5d. percent. The different sections of the United Kingdom
had contributed to the aggregate amount in the following proportions in 1878:

England and Wales 35,324,689

Scotland 6,178.534 b

Ireland 2.2l9\596

Channel islands 533,069



44,255,890

It would appear that the post-office savings-banks are suitable for smaller deposits thnn
the others judging from the sums deposited since, the two systems have been in opera-
tion together. That the changes have been in the increase of the post-office banks,
rather than in the decline of Ihe trustee banks, is satisfactorily shown by a compara-
son of the deposits in each in 1864 with those in 1874:



Savings.

Post-office banks.., . 4,993,124 23,157,469 18,184,345
Trustee banks 35,145,567 41,505,949 6,860,382

40,138,691 64,663,418 24,524,727

a total increase of 24,524,727 in ten years.

POST-OFFICE SAVINGS-BANKS. Mr. Sikes, of the Huddersfield banking company, in
u paper reail before the congress on social science, held at Bradford in 1859, advocated
tue establishment of savings-banks in connection with the money-order department of
lae general post-office. The subject had more or less occupied the attention of public
i icn since Ifc06, when Mr. Whitbread made a proposition relating to it; but Mr. Sikes's
pl.;u was so clear and detailed that the postmaster-general took the matter up. An act
in parliament was obtained in 1861. The postmaster-general is to act in concurrence
will) the treasury and the national debt commissioners. Deposits not less than one
shilling in amount may be made at any of the money-order offices, or at such offices as
the postmaster-general may appoint. Each depositor is provided with a deposit-book;
each deposit is entered in this book, and is attested by the receiving-officer, and by the
dated stamp of his office. The amount received is reported on the same day to the post-
master-general- An acknowledgment of each deposit is transmitted to the depositor,
jind this is to be conclusive evidence of his claim to repayment with interest. The



Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 42 of 203)