Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

. (page 44 of 203)
Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 44 of 203)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

SSSn *" tlc '~ Summer Savoi 7 is propagated by seed; winter savory by slips and

a cultivated variety of cabbage (q.v.), forming a large close head like the
.;cs, but having wrinkled leaves. A number of sub-varieties are in cultiva-
The mode of cultivation and the uses are the same as those of cabbage. Savoys
ich cultivated for winter use; they require a light rich soil.

~ fm-mcrly a duchy belonging to the kingdom of Sardinia (q.v.), now incor-
1' ranee is bounded on the n. and e. by Switzerland, e. and s. by Piedmont,
" nch departments of Isere and Ain. While an Italian duchy it was
into seven provinces, a division which exhibited the successive steps
house of feavoy ; but since its annexation to France this division
though the change has been little more than nominal. It is now
separated into two departments: first, SAVOIE. or CHAMBERY. the southern mrt of
Savoy, with nn area of 2,282 j .m.. and a pop. of (1873)267.958. whicb is dWded into
four arrondissements Clmmbery (old province of Ctiambfry). Albertville (AUa-Savofa)'
tiers (Jttrantantfi) and Saint Jean de Maurienne (tfaurienne) and has Chamberv
wh;, 1 ,Y :apI ; 8UC() " d 'y- HAUTE -SAVOIE, or CONFLANS, the northern part of Savoy,
i has m, area of with a pop. of 273,027, and is divided into four arron-
-Boimenlle (fbuigni or Faucigny), Thonon (CiabCese or Chablais) Annecy

I QQ Savonettea.


and St. Julien (Genevcse) Annecy being the capital. The two departments resemble
each other so much in all respects that they may be described together.

Savoy is the most elevated tract in Europe, and is mostly covered with mountains,
which break up the country into a number of valleys, each watered by its own snow-
fed torrent or stream The highest elevation of Savoy is the summit of Mont Blanc
(q.v.), and the lowest is the bank of the Rhone at Saint-Genix d'Aosta, 670 ft. above
sea level. The Graiun Alps run along the eastern boundary of Savoy, and form a
nat'iral barrier between it and Piedmont, several breaks or gorges affording means of
communication between the two countries; from this range the mountains gradually
decrease in height toward the valley of the Rhone, which is on the western boundary.

Savoy (especially Haute-Savoie) is extremely picturesque, and within a comparatively
limited space exhibits at once the curious, the beautiful, the grand, and the wild and
forbidding phases of natural scenery. There we have the lakes of Geneva, Annccy (9 in.
by 1|), Aiguebellette, each perfect in its own style of beauty; the subterranean lakes of
Bauge, the cascades of Sallanches and Bout-du-monde, the intermittent springs of Pigros
and llaute-Combe, the grottoes of Balme, Bauge, and Sallanches, the hot springs of
Aix-le-bains (near Chambery), of Saint Gervais, Bride, Echaillon, and others; the smiling
valleys of Chambery, Faverge, Maglan, and Albertville; the glaciers of Chamouuix,
Buet, and upper Tarantasia; the wooded mountain-sides of Ciablese, the bare rugged
peaks which surround Mont Blanc, the frowning gorge of Challes, and the wild and
savage glens and dells of Maurieune. Tourists consequently flock in great 'numbers' to
Savoy, the robust to gratify their love of sight-seeing, and the invalids to benefit by the
thermal springs, whicli are much esteemed.

The whole of the country is drained by streams which flow either into lake Lemnn
(the northern boundary) or the Rhone. Chief of the former is the Drance, which trav-
erses Chablais; among the latter are the Arve, which drains the Chamounix valley, the
Usses, the Fier, the Laisse, the Guier, and the Isere. The geology of Savoy is marked
by the presence of three distinct ranges, exhibiting respectively the primary, transition,
and secondary series of rocks with great completeness; and the depth of the crevasses,
the height of the mountains, inversions of strata, debris on the mountain-sides, ufford
excellent opportunities for a thorough study of the constitution and elements of the
earth's crust.

The whole of Savoy is broken up into a multitude of small .estates, and the country
is as a consequence most carefully cultivated, some of the fertile valleys resembling a
continuous garden abounding in flowers and fruits. The ground suitable for cultivation
being very limited, the enterprising natives have made extraordinary efforts to increase
it by constructing line above line of parapets along the steep mountain-sides, and by
filling in earth behind, forming long and narrow terraces, on which, if they can succeed
in growing two rows of vines, they consider themselves well rewarded for their labor.
These terraces are most common in the hilly districts of Tarantasia and Maurienne.

The climate of Savoy is in general cold, the winters are long and severe, and the
summers frequently follow without an intermediate spring. Yet Savoy can boast of
the vegetation of warm countries, as well as of that of higher latitudes; the vine is found
growing almost to the edges of the glaciers, and cereals and fruits of various sorts are
produced in great perfection. The pasturage is rich and abundant, and mu 1 berry trees
are largely planted. Although it is essentially an agricultural country, the industrial
arts are not unrepresented; fabrics of cotton, printed calico and gauze, stockings, felt
hats, woolen cloth, are manufactured in various localities; and tanneries, breweries, dis-
tilleries, glas-works, potteries, etc., are occasionally met with. The chief occup.-tion,
however, is the breeding of cattle, horses, and mules, all of which are much esteemed
and fetch good prices; and bees and silkworms are tended as a source both of amuse-
ment and profit.

Savoy is rich in minerals silver, iron, copper, antimony, manganese. lead, zinc,
asphalt, marble, granite, gypsum, sulphur, and salt. The principal mines are the
spathic iron mine of Saint Georges d'Hurtieres, and the lead mine of M;icot. Coal is
found in Maurienne.

The exports consist of the surplusage of these products, and also of cheese, hemp,
silk, both raw and spun, and wood of various sorts. Savoy is, with the exception of
Bavaria, the only country of Europe in which advanced education is given gratuitous!}',
there being within the country 14 colleges for this purpose, Ordinary education is jilso
well provided for. as more than 1200 schools exist, nearly the whole of which are sup-
ported on old foundations.

The Savoyards are honest, intelligent, religious, hospitable, and enthusiastically patri-
otic, even to a greater extent than the Swiss. More than 20,000 of them expatriate them-
selves annually for the purpose of pursuing various callings, but the greater portion return
early in summer, while others wait till they have amassed wealth sufficient for the rest
of their lives.

SAVOY, HOUSE OF. The small territory of Savoy formed a pnrt of ancient Gaul,
and after the decline of the Roman power was seized by the Burgundians (407 A.D.),
and along with Burgundy passed .under the Franks (534). Ou the breaking up of tha
Fraukisti empire, Savoy was joined to Tranyurane Burgundy, and along with that king


dom was united to Ci.yurane Burgundy, or Aries. On the accession of the last king of
Aries to the imperial throne as Conrad II., the great lords of north-western Italy, sucL
as the lords of Siizn. Chablais, Maurienne, a-ad Turin, became vassals direct of the
empire. The counts of Maurienne, the ancestors of the house of Savoy, are generally
believed by most historians who have investigated their genealogy to have descended
directly in" Uie male line from a son of Wittekind the great, the last independent king
of the Saxons; and COUNT HUMBERT, the. white-handed, was the first of the family who,
by the addition of Chablais and Valais (grants from the emperor Conrad the Salic) to his
hereditary lordship of Maurienne, rose to high position among the princes of northern
Italy. One of his descendants, HUMBERT II. (1078-1103). succeeded to the marquisate
of Suza (which included the greater part of Piedmont), and further increased his little
territory by the conquest of Tarantasia. The family now commenced to form alliances
with the royal houses of France, Portugal, England, Naples, Spain, and Germany, which
added greatly to its political importance. AMADEUS III. (1103-49) received from
the emperor Henry V. the title of COUNT OF SAVOY (1111), and his grandson, THOMAS
I. (1188-1233), obtained important accessions in Chamhery, Turin, the country of Vaud,
and many other lordships. Count Thomas was the initiator of the policy so long and
successfully adopted by his successors, " of preserving armed neutrality in all contests
between France and the empire, and of vigorously supporting the empire against the
papacy." From this time the counts of Savoy became the arbiters of all quarrels in
north, and occasionally in south Italy, and their bravery in the field and keen political
sagacity* increased at once their political influence and their territorial jurisdiction.
After the death of count Boniface, in 1263, without heirs, his uncle, PIETRO, the earl
of Richmond and lord of Essex, usurped the crown; but in 1285 the rightful heir,
AMADEUS V. (1285-1323), the grandson of Pietro's elder brother, obtained the succes-
sion ; and his grant to his brother THOMAS of the principality of Piedmont as a hereditary
fief, founded the two lines of Savoy and Piedmont, which continued to rule over their
respective territories till, on the latter becoming extinct in 1418, Piedmont reverted
to the elder line. (See AMADEUS V., VI., and VIII.) Amadens "V III. was the first DUKB
OK SAVOY, being so created by the emperor Sigismond in 1416. CHARLES I. (1482-89)
obtained from Charlotte of Lusignan, queen of Cyprus, the transference of her rights,
and from this date (1485) the dukes of Savoy also claimed to be kings of Cyprus and
Jerusalem. The elder male line becoming extinct in 1496, the next collateral heirs
were PHILIUERT II. (1496-1504) and CHARLES III. (1504-53); but the latter, having
sided with Charles V. against Francis I. of France, was deprived of the duchy of Savoy
in 1533, the countries of Valais and Geneva placed themselves under the protection of
Switzerland, and in 15S6 the country of Vaud was seized by the people of Bern. But
his son, PHILIBERT EMMANUEL, who was the Spanish governor in the Netherlands,
succeeded, at the peace of Cateau-Cambresis (1559), in obtaining repossession cf Savoy.
It was this duke who attempted to convert the Vaudois (q.v.), and who founded the
now important silk-production in Piedmont, besides, to the utmost of his power, en-
couraging the prosecution and development of other branches of industry. He rean-
nexed (1576) the principality of Oneille, and conquered the county of Tende. His suc-
cessor, CHARLES EMMANUEL I. (1580-1680), was celebrated as a scholar, statesman, and
warrior, but he was cursed with an inordinate ambition, which involved him in unfortu-
nate contests with Geneva (a former town of Savoy, of which he wished to regain pos-
session), with the French, who in revenge took possession of his dominions, and with
the Spaniards. His two sons, VICTOR AMADEUS J. (q.v.) (1630-37) and Thomas, were
the respective founders of the two lines of Savoy and Savoy-Carignan. Victor Ama-
deus speedily regained the dominions which his father had lost; and with the consent
of France added to them Montferrat, Alba, and some other places, relinquishing Pig-
nerol. La Perouse, Angrone, nnd Lucerne to the French. As generalissimo cf the
French army in Italy, he gained two victories over the Spaniards, but died toon after
His grandson, VICTOR AMADEUS II. (1675-1730), was one of the claimants for tlie
Spanish throne on the extinction of the Spanish-Hapsburg dynasty (see SUCCESSION,
WAR OF THE SPANISH); and by his adroit policy in the contest between the Hapsburgs
and Bourbons for the possession of this crown, he succeeded in obtaining extensive
additions to his little territory,- the chief of these being Alessandria, Val-d'i-Sesia, and
other portions of the Milanese, the island of Sicily, in 1713, and along with this latter
the title of king. He and his descendants were also recognized as the legitimate heirs
of the Spanish throne, should the Bourbon dynasty ever become extinct. But in 1720
he was compelled to surrender Sicily to Austria, in exchange for the island of Sardinia,
which, along with Savoy, Piedmont, and his other continental possessions, was then
erected into the Kingdom of Sardinia, (q.v.)

SAVOY, Tp:, on the Thames, in London, is the site where once stood the mngnin-
cent palace, built in 1245 by Peter, earl of Savoy and Richmond. A centurv later it
became the property of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster. In this building the French
king Jean wa.s royally imprisoned, fr-m his capture u the battle of Poictiers to his death
in 1364. The palace was twice the object of popular violence. In the outbreak caused

* It IB a remarkable fact, in connection with the history of this family, that thev have numbered
among them more great warriors and politicians than any other royal house of Europe.



by the duke of Lancaster protecting Wycliffe it narrowly escaped destruction ; and in
Wut Tyler's insurrection it was burned and made a heap of ruins. After another hun-
dred years Henry VII., great-grandson of John of Gaunt, erected on these ruins a house
for the temporary support of destitute, diseased, helpless, and homeless persons. This
well-intended chanty soon became a refuge for the dissolute and vicious, rather than
for the worthy poor. It was therefore suppressed by Edward VI., but was restored by
queen Mary, and profusely refurnished by the ladies of her court from their private
resources. In the management of this establishment great abuses prevailed. Its offi-
cials embezzled the- fund, and the inmates continued to come from the degraded and crim-
inal classes. The combined hospital and poor-house maintained a nominal existence
through successive reigns, a portion of the buildings being occupied by Charles II. as a
home for disabled soldiers and sailors, and was finally discontinued by queen Anne. la
building the Waterloo bridge in 1810, the deep foundations on which the ancient buildings
had rested were all removed. Nothing remained but the chapel built alongside these ruins
by Henry Vll. This chapel was made a church by queen Elizabeth, and was one of
the chapels royal, under the name of St. Mary-le- Savoy. It was burned down in 1864,
but was rebuilt, though without aisles or chancel, and elegantly furnished for public
Worship by queen Victoria. The vaults beneath contain the remains of many persons
of distinction.

SAVOY CONFERENCE, the name given to an ecclesiastical conference held in 1661 at
the Savoy palace (so called because built in 1245 by Peter, earl of Savoy and Richmond
[see AMADEUS]; burned by Wat Tyler in 1381, it was rebuilt and endowed in 1505 as
an hospital for poor persons) between the Episcopalian and Presbyterian divines, wi: li-
the view of ascertaining what concessions would satisfy the latter, and thereby lead to
"a perfect and entire unity and uniformity throughout the nation." During the rule of
the protector Cromwell the church of England had been in a very anomalous condition.
Most of the clergy who held office during the early period of the civil wars were strong
royalists, and either were ejected or fled when the cause of the parliament triumphed.
Their places had been supplied in many cases by zealous Presbyterians a rather numer-
ous body in England at that time, and thus it happened at the restoration of Charles II.
that a considerably section of the ministers within the church were hostile to the reintro-
ductiou of Episcopalian order and practice. Aware of this feeling, yet desirous of not
adopting severe me:'suivs. if such could possibly be avoided, the king issued letters-
patent dated Mar. 25, appointing twelve/bishops, with nine clergy men as assistants on the
side of the Episcopal church, with an equal number of Presbyterian divines, " to ad vise
upon and review the Bo-ik f Common Prayer." Among the Episcopalian commission-
ers were Frcwen, archbishop of York, Sheldon, bishop of London, Gaudcn of Exeter,
Reynolds of Norwich, etc. : among their assistants, Dr. Peter Ileylin, Dr. John Pearson,
and Dr. Thomas Pierce. The most notable representatives of the Presbyterian party were
Richard Baxter,- Dr. John Wallis (then Savilian professor of geometry at Oxford),
Edmund Calamy, William Spurstow, and Matthew Newcomen. The conference (whirh
lasted four mouths) was opi-irjd on April 13. The Presbyterians (according to Burnett)
demanded that archbishop Us'.ier's scheme of a " reduced Episcopacy," in which the
elements of the Scotch system of presbyteries, synoda, and general assemblies were com-
bined with distinctions of ecclesiastical ranks, should be made the basis to begin with;
that responses should be given up; that the prayers in the litany should be combined
into one; that no lessons should be tnk^n out of the Apocrypha; that the psalms read
in the daily service .-inull be according to the new translation; that the term regenera-
tion (among others) should be struck out of the baptismal service; and that the use of
the suvplicc, of the cross in baptism, of godfathers as sponsors, and of the holy days,
should be abolished. They were told in reply that the commission had no authority to
discuss questions affecting the government of the church, such as were contained in
archbishop Usher's scheme; whereupon they proceeded to consider the minor points,
such as the alterations of the liturgy. Baxter, with the consent of his partv, drew up a
" reformed liturgy" which the Episcopalian commissioners would not look'at, consider-
ing the wholesale rejection of the older one Hltrurircs on their part. Finally, the parties
separated without arriving at any conclusion; and this fruitless attempt at " comprehen-
sion" was followed in 1GG3 by the famous " act of uniformity," the result of which was
that 2,000 clergymen were forced to abandon their livings in' the church of England.

SAVOY CONFESSION, named from the hospital building in the Strand, London,
in which it was drawn up a document adopted by an assembly of Congregational min-
isters, who, by Cromwell's permission, unwillingly given Juet before his death, met in
the Savoy palace, Sept., 1658, to declare the principles of their faith and polity. The
doctrinal part agrees in substance and almost verbally with the Westminster confession.
Its outline of church polity, however, is in its principles Congregational, though not entirely
accordant with modern Congregational usage. It contains the following propositions'
1. A particular church consists of officers and members, the Lord Christ having given
his followers united in church order liberty and power to choose persons fitted by tin?
Holy Ghost to be over them in the Lord. 2. The officers appointed by Christ are pas-
tors, teachers, elders, and deacons. 3. The way appointed by Christ for calling persons
tc these offices is that they be chosen thereunto by the common suffrage of the church

Savn. 192


itself, and set apart by fasting and prayer, with the imposition of hands of the elder-

fiued to p;istors and teachers Out tlmtotners aiso, guieu;uu ULU.-U uj w* mj ^..
a .proved by the people, may perform it. 5. Ordination alone, without election or con-
sent of the church, doth not constitute a person u church officer. 6. A church tiir-
ui<liud officers, according to the mind of Christ, halli power to administer all his
ordinances, even where for a time some of the offices are not tilled ; but where there are no
teaching officers the church cannot authorize any persons to administer the seals. 6
Every churcli hath power to execute all the censures appointed by Christ as a means of
edification, on those who do not walk according to his laws. These censures are admo-
nition and excommunication; and as some offenses may be known only to some uiem-
bei-s, those members must first admonish the offender in private; in public offousbs, and
ill cases of non-amendment on private admonition, the offense being related to the cnureh,
the offender is to be admonished in the name of Christ by the whole church, through the
elders; and if he do not repent, then he is to be excommunicated with the cunseut of the
members. See SAVOY CONFERENCE, ante.

SAVU' ISLANDS, THE, lie in the Indian Ocean. Pop, 35,000. They are small
except Savu, in 12145' to 122?' e, long, and 1025' to 1036' s. lat. ; area 23? sq.
miles. It is healthy and moderately fertile, the thermometer ranging from 76 to b8
Fahr. by day and 08 to 70 by night. The products are those of the Archipelago,
including tobacco and horses, but ships from Timor no longer call for horses. The live
rajahs have relations with the Dutch Indian government, whose post-holder resides at

which the offering ot sacrifices of dogs is frequently practiced.

SAW, one of the most important tools used in working timber. It usually consists of
a long strip of thin steel, with one edge cut into a continuous series of sh;;rp teeth. Not-
withstanding the great simplicity of the principle upon which the saw is made, it admits
of great variation, and modern carpentry has brought into use a great many kinds of
saws adapted to different purposes. The most common is the hand-saw in general use.
For this tlie blade is broader at one end than the other, and a wooden handle is fixed to
the broader end, without which it could not be used. This kind of saw is varied by the
manner in which the teeth are cut and set, and in the shape aud width of the blade, as
in cumwisH or key saws for cutting small holes. Other kinds of hand-saws, such as the
back-saw and the tenon-saio have straight blades, and the back is guarded and strength-
ened by a piece of brass or iron bent over it The bow-saw is used for a variety of pur-
poses; the blade, which is always thin, is stretched like a bowstring to an iron frame.
Tt frame-taw, chiefly used in sawpits and mills for cutting timber longitudinally, is
similar in shape to the ordinary hand-saw, but much larger, with holes at each end, for
fixing it in the frame by which it is moved up and down. For cutting timber trans-
verely, the cron*-cut-fuiie is used; this differs not only in shape, but in the set of tho
teeth from other saws. Within the present century, the cirw/lar-iirtw has come into
universal use wherever machinery can be had for working it. It is generally so
fitted as to be worked under a flat bench; a part only of the blade projecting through a
narrow slit cut in the top of the bench. It is made to revolve with great rapidity, and
the wood resting on the bench is pushed against the saw in the direction it is intended
to be cut The rapididity with which wood is cut by the circular-saw is truly marvel-
ous. The ribbnn-saw is comparatively a new invention. It consists of a very long band
or web, as it is called of steel, usually very narrow, and with finely cut teeth. The
two ends are joined together so as to form an endless band, which is passed over two
revolving drums, one above, and the other below the working bench, through holes in
which the saw passes. With this work, the finest patterns n open work may be cut out
with crreat ease and rapidity. Numerous other kinds of saws are in use, but these are
the chief.

SAWDUST. The waste made by sawing timber, formerly of little or no use, has now
become ft material of some value in localities where it car be applied. Its most interest-
in!? application is one very recently patented by Messrs. Dale & Co. of Manchester,
whereby it is converted into oxalic acid, and with so much success as to have nearly or
altogether displ ircd every other method of making that chemical. The process is very
simple. The sawdust is first saturated with a concentrated solution of soda and potash
in the proportion of two of the former to one of the latter; it is then placed in shalloT
iron pnns, under which flues run from a furnace, whereby the iron p'ins are made hot,
and the saturated sawdust runs into a semi-fluid pasty state. It is stirred about actively
with rakes, so as to bring it all in contact with the heated surface of the iron, and to granu-
late it for the succeeding operations. It is next placed i:i similar pans, only slightly
heated, by which it is dried. In this state it is oxalate of soda mixed with potash, "it is
then placed on the bed of a filter, and a solution of soda is allowed to percolate through
it. which carries with it all the potash, leaving it tolerably pure oxalate of soda It is

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 44 of 203)