Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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then transferred to a tank, in which it is mingled with a thin milk of lime by which it


is decomposed, the lime combining with the acid to form oxulate of lime, and the soda
being set free. Lastly, the oxalate of lime is put into a leaden cistern, and sulphuric
acid is poured in; this takes up the lime, and sets free the oxalic acid, which readily
crystallizes on the sides of the leaden cistern, or on pieces of wood placed on purpose.
So rapid and cheap is this method, compared with that formerly in use, that several
extensive manufactories for making oxalic acid in the old manner have been shut up,
beiugunable to compete with the patent process.

Another interesting use of the sawdust of hard woods, such as rosewood, ebony, etc.,
is that recently made known in France under the name of Boisdura. 1 he various kinds
of sawdust used are reduced to line powder, and mixed with blood into a paste; other
materials are doubtless added, for when pressed into molds it is jet black and. receives
the most beautiful impressions. Messrs. Latry, Senior fc Co. of Paris produce some very
beautiful medallions and other small articles in this material.

SAW-FISH, Prixtis, a genus of cartilaginous fishes, constituting the family Pristida,
which is ranked with the rays (q.v.), although the elongated form of the body agrees
rather with that of the sharks. In a number of anatomical characters, however, tho
saw-fishes differ from sharks, and agree with rays, and conspicuously in the position of
the gill-openings, which are not on the sides, as in sharks, but on the under surface, as
in rays. The mouth is on the under surface of the head, and is furnished with pave-
ment-like teeth, adapted for crushing. But the saw-fish is particularly remarkable for
the elongation of the snout into a flat bony sword, armed on eac~h edge with about twenty
large bony spines or teeth; a most formidable weapon, of which it seems to make use for
killing prey, rushing among shoals of fishes, and slaying Ihem right and left. Whales
are said to be sometimes killed by saw-fishes, and the saw has been sometimes driven
into the hull of a ship. There are six or seven known species of saw-fish, and they are
distributed over the whole world. The COMMON SAW -FISH (P.antwvorum) was knowr.
to the ancients, being found in the Mediterranean. It is a very widely distributed fish,
being found both in polar- and tropical seas. It sometimes attains the length of eighteen
feet, including the saw. Saw -fishes are seldom seen near the shore, and no species is
reckoned among British fishes.

SAW-FLY, Tenthrcdo, a Linnfcan genus of insects of the order Jiymcnoptera, now
divided into many gfnera; and constituting a family of which the species are very nume-
rous. They derive the name saw-fly from the ovipositor of the females, which is scaly,
serrated, pointed, and inclosed in a sheath of two concave plates. By means of this
instrument, fhc female saw-fly perforates the stalks or other parts of plants, laying an
egg in each hole. The hole soon becomes filled with a frothy liquid, and sometimes a
gall-like swelling is formed, within which the larva resides. The larva? of many f-aw-
flies, however, live in no such nests, but feed on foliage, like caterpillars, which they
very much resemble. One of the most common species of gooseberry "caterpillar" is
the larva of a saw-lly (nematiis ribesii). Saw-flies have the abdomen cylindrical, and so
united to the thorax that the distinction is not easily perceived. They vary much in the
antenna?. Both pairs of wings are divided by nervurcs into numerous cells. Among
the more notable species is the CORN SAW-FLY (cephus pygmavs), which, in its perfect
State, abounds on umbelliferous flowers, a shining black insect, marked with yellow, the
abdomen elongated. The larva consume. s the inside of the straw of corn, and descend-
ing to the base of the straw, cuts it down level with the ground. Another important
species is the TURNIP SAW-FLY (athalia spinarum), reddish, spotted with black; the larva
nearly black, and known by the names of Black Jack and Nigger. The turnip saw-fly is
sometimes very troublesome and destructive for a year or two, and then almost com-
pletely disappears for a number of years. It has sometimes been very destructive to the
turnip crops of Britain. The saw-fly of the pine (lophyrus piiti] is a common British spe-
cies, and sometimes, though not very often, strips pine and fir trees of their leaves.

SAW-MILL. Within the present century, the art of working saws by machinery has
been invented, and large mills for cutting up timber by means of large saws worked by
machinery are to be found in most civilized countries.. They are worked both by steam
and water-power, and in Holland, wind-mills are made to work sawing macl.ini-ry. Tha
arrangements of a saw-m:!l are very simple: they consist of a fixed liori/c ntal frame,
with rollers at short intervals, upon which the tree or log of timber is laid; at the end of
this, another frame is placed in a vertical position; it contains as many saws placed side
by side as it is proposed to cut planks out of the log. and they are set as far npnrt as tho
desired thickness of the planks or boards. A rapid up Him down motion is given to
these saws by the machinery, and -at the same time the log is pulled forward on the roll-
ers by the same power, so as to be kept constantly up to the saws. In this way, a large
tree or log of wood may be cut into twenty planks in much less time than was formerly
required by laborious hand-labor to cut one single thickness.

The circular saw is also much used in mills for cutting planks and boards into pieces
of almost any form.

SAWYER, CAROLINE M. (FirmEU). wife of Thomas J. Sawyer; b. Mass.. 1812. She
contributed to the Boston Evening Gazette; edited the youth's department of the Chrti-
tian Messenger, and the articles written by her were afterward published in a series of
volumes. She has edited the Rose of Sharon, a Uuivcrsalist annual, and the Ladies' R,

U. K. XIII. 13

Sawyer. 194

pository a Universal*! monthly; published the Poems of Mrs. Julia H. Scott, with a
oir: and made many translations from the French and German.

iu New York; became principal 01 me ^iuera,i uom.u, ^ -'", -'*".- -,2w> S
ng ; also classes in theo lozy; returned to his former charge in New Tt ork m 18o2. He
wfs o?e of the founded of Tufts college at Medford. Mass, where he was appointed
professor of theology in 1869. He refused the presidency of Tufts college, of St. Law-
rence university, .V Y., and Lombard university, 111. He published a Vucuswn, of the
Doctrine of Universal Saltation.

SAXE, HERMANN MAURICE, Count of, one of the greatest warriors of the 18th c
was the natural son of Augustus II. (q.v.) elector of Sax ony and king of 1 Poland and
the countess Aurora von Konigsmark, and was born at Goslar, Oct. 28, 1690. \\ hen
only twelve years of age, he ran off from home, made his way to Flanders joined the
army of Maryborough, and took part in the capture of Lille and the siege of Ipuruay
Wit'h a bovish love ..f change, he joined the Russo-Pohsh army before Stralsund (17m
and after the taking of Riira, returned to Dresden, where his mother induced him, m 1 .14
to espouse a young and amiable German heiress. In the two following years he took part
in the civil war then raging in Poland; but having quarreled with his fathers favorite
minister he returned to Dresden, where the well-grounded jealousy of his wile made
his life sufficiently disagreeable. Obtaining the annulment of his marriage, and a pen-
sion from his father, he came to Paris in 1720, where he devoted himself tor some years
to the study of military tactics, and originated and developed an entirely novel system
of maneuvers, which was highly spoken of by the chevalier Folard, the celebrated mil-
itary en<nnecr. In 1726 he was elected duke of Courlund, and for a time maintained
himself "in his new possession against both Russians and Poles, but was compelled lo
retire to France in the following year. Joining the army on the Rhine, under the duke
of Berwick, he signalized himself at the siege of Philipsburg (1734), and decided the bat-
tle of Ettin^en by a desperate charge at the head of a division of grenadiers. For these
services he'was made a lieut.gen. in 1736; and on the breaking out of the war ot the
Austrian succession, he obtained the command of the left wing of the army which was
appointed to invade Bohemia, and took the strongly fortified town of Prague by storm
with marvelous celerity. The capture of Egra was similarly effected a few days after-
ward, and the rest of the campaign showed that his abilities in the field were not infe-
rior to his skill against fortifications. In 1744 he was made a marshal of France, and
appointed to command the French army in Flanders, and on this occasion he gave deci-
sive proofs of the soundness and superiority of his new system of tactics, by reducing to
inaction an enemy much superior iu number, an 1 taking from him, almost before his
face, various important fortresses. The following year was for him more glorious still;
his army was re-enforced, and though so ill with dropsy that he had to submit to tapping
(April 15), he laid siege to Tournay on the 22d, and on the advance of the duke of Cum-
berland to its relief, took up a position at Fontenoy, and awaited attack. He was :;-
sailed on May 11, and the desperate valor of the English for a time bore down every-
thing before them; but Saxe sped about on his litter, encouraging his troops, and when
the critical moment came, the fire of his artillery disorganized the English, and a charge
of the French completed the victory. Four months afterward every one of the numer-
ous strong fortresses of Belgium was in his hands. In 1746 Saxe, by a scries of able
maneuvers, threw back the allies on the right bank of the Macse, and gained (Oct. 11)
the brilliant victory of Raucoux, for which he was rewarded with the title of marshal-gen.,
an honor which only Turenne had previously obtained For the third time, at I>au-
feldt (July 2, 1747), the victor of Culloden suffered complete defeat at the hands of Saxe.
whose favorite system of tactics was again brought into full play; and the brilliant cap-
ture of Ber<ren-op-zoom brought the allies to think of peace. The Dutch, however, were
still disposed to hold out, till the capture of Maestricht (1748) destroyed their hopes, and
the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle followed. Saxe had previously carried on a correspondence
with the great Frederick of Prussia, and he now took occasion to visit him at Berlin,
experiencing the most brilliant reception. In the following year, Frederick wrote to
Voltaire: "I have seen the hero of France, the Turenne of Louis XV. 's time. I have
received much instruction from his discourse on the art of war. This general could
teach all the generals in Europe." Saxe lived at his estate of Chambord for some time
afterward, and died there of dropsy, Nov. 30, 1750. His work on the art of war, entitled
Met Reveries, was published at Paris in 1757.

Saxe was probably the greatest captain of his time, and a gallant and enterprising
leader, but he was a mere soldier, and the offer of membership made to him by the
Academic Francaise is sufficiently ridiculous. Saxe had, however, the good to
decline the proffered honor, and he did so in a sentence, the extraordinary orthography
of which accidentally rebuked, more than the most cutting sarcasm could have done.
the mean sycophancy of the Academic. He wrote: " Us veule me fere de laca&emie;
eki m'irct come une bafje a un cJuis."

Many biographies of Saxe have been written, but few of them are to be much de-
pended upon. See Morite von Sachsen (Dresden, 1863), by Karl von Weber; and the

1 Q ^ Sawyer.


Nouvette Biograpllie Generate (art. "Saxe"). His character and genius are also well,
though not flatteringly, portrayed in Carlyle's Life of Frederick the Great.

SAXE, JoftN GODFREY. LL.D., b. Highgate, Vt., 1816; graduate of Middlebury col-
lege 18o'J; practiced law in Vermont, 1848-50. In 1850-55 he was editor of the Burling-
ton Sentinel; state attorney, 1851. He was a contributor to the Knickerbocker magazine,
and in 1849 published Progres, a satire, with other poems. His productions are marked
with a ready and forcible wit. He read a poem on The Times before the Boston Mer-
cantile library association, and on Literature and the Times on the second anniversary
of the New York free academy. In 1859 he published other poems; and new editions of
his works have appeared every alternate year till 1873. He resides at present in Brook-
lyn, N. Y.

SAXE-AL'TENBUKG, the smallest of the minor Saxon states, is a duchy bounded by
Saxe- Weimar, Prussian Saxony, the kingdom of Saxony, Saxe-Meiningen, and Schwarz-
burg-Rudolstadt, and separated into two nearly equal parts by the interposed principality
of Iteuss-Gera. The eastern portion, or circle of Altenburg, from its being watered by
the Pleisse, was formerly called Pieissengau. It contains 254 English sq.rn., with a pop.
'71, of 94,502. The western part, or circle of Saal-Eisenberg, is watered by the Saale,
with the Orla and Rode, and contains 256 English sq.m. ; pop. '71. 47,620. Total area,
510 sq.m. ; pop. '71, 142,122; '75, 145,844, nearly half of whom are inhabitants of towns.
The vast bulk of the population (999 in 1000) are Protestants, there being in 1872 only
193 Catholics, 16 Christian sectaries, and 10 Jews. The eastern portion is open, undu-
lating, and very fertile, and agriculture has here attained considerable perfection, and is
diligently pursued by a large proportion of the population, SQ that much more ct>rn is
produced than is necessary for home consumption. The peasants in this circle, though
speaking the Thuringian dialect exhibit in their dress, manners, and customs a family
resemblance to the Wendish-speaking Serbs of Lusatia; and numerous names of places,
especially those ending in itz, indicate their Slavic origin. They are celebrated through-
out Germany for their skill as agriculturists, and their superior intelligence, knowledge,
and comparative wealth. The budget estimate of revenue for 1875-77 was 111,178;
and the expenditure, including the duke's civil list of 22,900, to the same sum. The
troops are, of course, under the command of the emperor of Germany. Saxe- Altenburg
is a limited monarchy, iii accordance with the constitution of April 29, 1831, modified
somewhat by the events of 1848-49. By the law of 1870 the single chamber consists of.
30 members, 9 representing the towns, 12 the country, and 9 the persons who pay most
taxes. The government is in the hands of a ministry of three. As a member of the
empire, Saxe-AHeuburg has one vote in the council, and one representative in the diet.
Altenburg (q.v.) is the seat of government. See GERMANY.

SAXE-CO BTIEG GO THA (in German, SACHSEN KOBURG-GOTHA), the third in point of
size and'population of the minor Saxon states, is a duchy comprising the duchy of GotJia,
lying between Prussia, Schwarzburg, Memingen, and Weimar, and containing 542 Eng-
lish sq.m.; pop. '71, 122,630; and the duchy of Coburg, 18 m. south of Gotha, lying
between Meiningen and Bavaria, and containing 215 English sq.m.; pop. '71, 51,709.
Total ar-a, 757 English sq.m.; pop. '71, 174,339; '75, 182,599. In 1871 there were
172,786 Protestants; 1263 Roman Catholics, and 210 Jews. Gotha lies on the north side
of the Thuringcr-wald, which extends along and within its southern frontier; but the
rest of this duchy consists of low, undulating, and very fertile land, and is watered by
the Werra, an affluent of the Weser, the Unstrut, a tributary of the Saale, and several
smaller streams. Coburg lies on the southern slope of the same range, is watered by the
Itz and Rodach, affluents of the Main, and has extensive forests, and many beautiful val-
leys between the spurs of the Thuringer-wald. Of the surface of the whole duchy, %
is arable, f is wood, -fa waste land, and the rest pasture and gardens. In the plains
and valleys, the climate is mild and salubrious, but in the mountainous parts of Gotha it
assumes a more inclement character. Agriculture is the principal occupation of the peo-
ple, and is pursued with energy and skill; corn and flax being produced in abundance,
as also potatoes, and various leguminous plants. The breeding of horses, cattle, and
sheep is also successfully conducted. The mineral wealth includes coal (chiefly in
Gotha), iron, cobalt, manganese; also marble, porcelain-earth, mill-stones, and salt.
The manufactures are not of much importance, and are chiefly confined to Gotha.
There is a large beet-sugar factory at Gotha. The extensive forests of the duchy employ
a large proportion of the population in the production of pitch, tar, and potash. The
duchy is ^limited monarchy, in accordance with the fundamental law of May 3, 1852.
Coburg and Gotha have each a landtag, or diet; that of the former consisting of 11. and
ef the latter of 19 deputies; besides which there is a common landtag for the whole state,
composed of 7 of the Coburg and 14 of the Gotha representatives, who are elected by
their several diets. The particular diets for the two duchies are elected by the people at
largo. There are two ministers for carrying on the government one for Coburg and
another for Gotha. As a member of the empire, Saxe-Coburg-Gotha has one vote in the
federal council, and has the right to choose two deputies to the imperial diet. As in
other German states, the troops are under the command of the emperor of Germany.
Education is well diffused; and the higher education is cultivated by the several gym-
nasia and academics.

SSS: 196

The finances of the two portions of the duchy are separately administered. For the
period 1877-81, the estimated annual revenue of Coburg (both revenue from the crown
domains and' state revenue) was close on 66,000, the expenditure being 08, 500. Of
Gotha, the total annual revenue is given at 227,000, and the expenditure at 185,000.
The joint debt of both in 1878 was 545,000, of which, however, a large portion is
"active capital." The present ducal family is distinguished for the spirited and
liberal character of its members, as well as for physical and mental gifts. It is allied
with several of the royal families of Europe, the present duke's younger brother


descended from the counts of Wettin, a place near Magdeburg. See GERMANY.

size and population of the minor Saxon states, is a duchy, consisting of one large cres-
cent-shaped territory, which lies immediately u. of Bavaria and Coburg, with the
horns of the crescent pointing northward and contains 862 English sq.m., and two .'mall
isolated territories, Kranichfeld and Karuburg. The area of the whole is 955 sq.m., with
a pop. in '71, of 187,884; '75, 194.494. In 1866, when other administrative changes and
reforms were introduced, the territory, which till then had been divided into 11 admin-
istrative districts, was distributed into 4. Of the total population, 181,964 were, in 1871,
Protestants; 1534 were Roman Catholics; 1625 were Jews; and 165 Christian sectaries
of various kinds. The crescent is composed of the old duchy of Meiningen, the old
duchy* of Hildburghausen, and the principality of Saalfeld (both of which, along with
Hamburg, w<?re annexed to Meiningen in 1826). Saxe-Meiningen forms the s w. of
Thuringia (q.v.), and is traversed in the e. and n. by the Thuringer-wald, offshoots from
which also cover the w., while the RhSn-gebirge enters the country at the s.w. Its sur-
face is thus necessarily hilly, in some places even mountainous, Kieferle in the Thurin-
ger-wald being 2,700ft., and Gcha-berg in the Rhon-gebirge, 2,308 ft. above sea level ;
but between the mountain ridges are numerous fruitful valleys, and that of the Werra in
particular is one of the most fertile and picturesque in Germany. The Werra, Saale,
Alilz, Steiuach, Itz, etc., water the country. Two fifths of the country is arable land ; a
nearly equal extent is underwood; and the rest is meadow, garden and vineyard, and
waste. In the lower lands agriculture is in an advanced condition, and is prosecuted
with such vigor that corn enough is produced for home consumption; potatoes, hemp,
flax, and tobacco are the other chief crops.

The mining industry of the e. and n. is considerable, employing recently about 550
men ; and the important mineral products are iron, copper, cobalt, coal, porcelain-clay,
sulphur, and salt from the works of Salzungen, Neusulza, and Friedrichs-hall. Saxe-
Meiningen is also an active manufacturing district, chiefly in woolen, cotton, and linen
fabrics, and paper; and brewing, distilling, the making of glass and porcelain, and
various other branches of industry, are prosecuted. The fabrication of wooden toys in
the district around Sonneburg employs 2, 092 men, and the produce is bought up by the
Sonneburg dealers for export. A grape-sugar factory is maintained. Saxe-Meiuingen is
a limited monarchy in accordance with the fundamental law of 1829, and the taws of
1871 and 1873. The diet consists of 24 representatives 4 representing the more exten-
sive land-owners, 4 the persons who pay most taxes, and 16 being the deputies of the rest
of the inhabitants. As a member of the empire, Saxe-Meiningen has one vote in the
federal council, and sends 2 deputies to the diet of the empire. The troops of Saxe-
Meiniugen form part of the imperial army. The government is carried on by four
ministers, each of whom heads a separate department. The budget for 1875-77 irives a
receipts 211,182 (of which 92,764 come from the domains); as expenditure, 189,688.
On Jan. 1, 1876 the public debt amounted to 1,100,000. The late duke, Bernard-
Erich-Freund, who reigned for 63 years, spontaneously gave his subjects a liberal repre-
sentative constitution in 1824. Saxe-Meiningen had for some time the distinction of
being the best-governed state in Germany. See GERMANY.

SAXE-WEI MAB-EI SENACH, the largest of the minor Saxon states, is a grand-duchy,
consisting of Weimar, which lies between Prussia, Altenburg, and Schwarzburg-Rudol-
Btadt, and contains (inclusive of Allstadt, on the Unstrut, within Prussia, 45 English


western boundary of the kingdom of Saxony, and contains 239 English sq.m., pop. '71,
50.506; total area, 1403 English sqin.; pop. 286.183, of whom 275,492 are Protestants,
9,404 Roman Catholics, 53 Greek Catholics, 1120 Jews; the Jews and Catholics being

, being

chiefly in Eisenach. Pop. 75, 292.933. The Eisenach portion is traversed in the n. by
the Tliuringer-wald. and in the s. by the Rhon-gebirge, the intermediate districts being
also hilly and undulating, and watered by the Werrn and its feeders, the Fulda. Ulster,
Suhl. and Orsel. The Neustadt division" is traversed from s.e. to n.w. bv several <>1T-
Bhoota of the Erz-eebirge, but most of the surface belongs to the plain of the Saale, and
is watered by the Elster and Orla, affluents of that river. The Weimar porticto is also


partly hilly and uneven, and partly belongs to the plain of the Saale, which, -with its
tributary, "the Ilm, traverses it. The highest peak in the graml-duchy is Hinkelhahn
('3,(i ( J 4 ft.), in the detached territory of Ihnenau. The climate is somewhat inclement iu
the -high lauds, more temperate in the plains, and particularly pleasant along the valley
of the Saale. Of the whole surface, about f is arable, T 3 T is forest, and the rest is
meadow-land, gardens, and vineyards. Agriculture is in an advanced condition, and
is diligently prosecuted, there being frequently a surplus of grain over and above that
required for home consumption, in spite of the occasional infertility of the soil ; and
potatoes, pulse, hemp, flax, hops, and (on the banks of the Saale) vines are also culti-
vated. Horse and cattle breeding is a common pursuit in Neustadt and Eisenach, and
sheep- breeding in Weimar, the sheep having the usual good reputation of the baxoii
breed. The mineral wealth comprises coal, iron, copper, cobalt, and marble. Eisenach
is thy chief seat of the manufacturing industry, with the exception of the woolen manu-
factures, which are principally carried on in Neustadt. The form of government is,
according to the revised fundamental law of Oct. 15, 1850, a limited monarchy; the diet,
or landtag, is composed of 31 deputies, 1 representing the landed nobility, 4 chosen by
landed proprietors Avith incomes under 1000 thalers, 5 by those who possess the same

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 45 of 203)