Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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tary possession to that family in 1127; and the markgraf, Henry the illustrious (1221-88),
whose mother was heiress to the laudgrafdom of Thuringia, with its appendages, com-
bined the whole into a powerful state. Business, commerce, and mining industry now
flourished; great roads for commercial purposes were constructed throughout the coun-
try, and the Leipsic fairs were established; and, in spite of much internal discord, and
frequent partitions of Saxony, its prosperity increased. At last FREDERICK THE WAR-
LIKE (1381-1428) succeeded iu uniting the several portions of Saxony, to which were
added, by purchase and marriage, various districts in Franconia; and "in 1423 the elec-
torate of Saxony (see above). The Saxon elector was now one of the most powerful
princes of Germany; but unfortunately the fatal practice of subdividing the father's ter-
ritories among his sons still continued, and during the reign of the elector FREDERICK
THE MILD (1428-64), whose brother William had obtained Thuringia, a civil war broke
out, and was carried on for years. ERNEST (1464-86) and ALBERT (1464-1500), the sons
of Frederick, in accordance with the will of their father, reigned conjointly over the
hereditary domains of the family (the duchy of Saxony with the electoral digpity,
being reserved always to the eldest) till the death of their uncle (1485), when Ernest
obtained Thuringia, and Albert, Meissen, while Osterland was equally divided between,
them. Ernest, the founder of the Ernestine, which was also the elder or electoral line,
was succeeded by his son, FREDRICK THE WISE (1486-1525), who favored the reforma-
tion, and firmly supported and protected Luther against the overwhelming power of the
Catholic party, which he was enabled to do, from his personal influence with the
emperors Maximilian and Charles V. His brother and successor, JOHN: THE CONSTANT
(1525-32), was still more a partisan of the new doctrines, as was also his son and succes-
sor, JOHN FREDERICK THE MAGNANIMOUS (1532-47); but the latter, by the defeat of
Muhlberg (q.v.) (see SCHMALKALD), was forced to resign both his electoral dignity and'
his states. Albert, the founder of the younger, ducal, or Albertine line, was succeeded
by his sons, George the bearded (q.v.) (1500-39), a rabid Catholic, and HENRY THE Pious
(1539-41), a no less zealous Protestant; after whom came the the celebrated MAURICE
(1541-47) who was a professed Protestant, but joined the Catholic party against the
league of Schmalkald, obliged the Protestant army to retreat from the Danube, and
took possession of the estates of the elector John Frederick, who, however, speedily
drove him out, and took possession of ducal Saxony in his turn. After the rout of the
Protestants at Muhlberg, Maurice received the electoral title (1547-53), and the greater
portion of the estates of his vanquished cousin. But the arbitrary political measures
and religious severities which were either instituted or promoted by the emperor,
induced Maurice to join the Protestants, and, by a sudden march on Innspruck, he forced
tht emperor to agree to the peace of Passau. Kew tyrannical measures of the emperor

sjuxony. OQQ


caused him to look to an alliance with Prance, but the scheme was frustrated by his
death July 11 1553, near Sieversliauseu, where two days before he had totally defeated
the markgraf Albert of Kulmbach, a secret agent of the emperor's. His brother, August
I. (q.v.)' (1553-86), the first economist of the age, has left a ruemory dear to Saxony,
from the numerous excellent institutions which he established; he considerably increased
his territories by purchase and otherwise, and restored Altenburg to the Ernestine line.
CHRISTIAN I. (158t>-91), a weak prince, surrendered the reins of government to his chan-
cellor, Crell, who was sacrificed, in the succeeding reign of CHRISTIAN II. (1591-1611),
to the revenge of the offended nobility. Christian II. weakly neglected to assert his
claims io Juliers, on the death of its last duke, and allowed it, to become a prey to Bran-
denburg and the palatine house of Nuuberg; but his brother, JOHN GEORGE I. (1611-56),
in revenge for this spoliation, allied himself to Austria, and conquered upper and lower
Lusatia and Silesia. Subsequently the good understanding between these powers was
destroyed, and the elector allied himself with Gustavus Adolphus (1631), and took part
in the thirty years' war. But on the death of Gustavus the elector separated from the
Swedes, and made a separate peace (1635) with Austria, by which ^he obtained "pper
and I


cadet lines, all of which became extinct before 1750. The reigns of his successors, JOHN
GEORGE III. (1680-91) and JCJHN GEORGE IV. (1691-94), are unimportant, but that of
Frederick August I. (q.v.) (1694-1733) well-nigh ruined the hitherto prosperous elector-
ate. Frederick August had been chosen king of Poland; and his attempt, in company
with the czar and the king of Denmark, to dismember Sweden brought down upon him
and his two states the vengeance of the northern, "fire-king." Poland was utterly
devastated, and Saxony exhausted of money and troops. Besides, the king's habits were
most extravagant, and to maintain his lavish magnificence, he was forced to sell many
important portions of territory. Frederick August II. (q.v.) (1733-63), also king of
Poland, took part in the war of the Austrian succession (q.v.) against Maria Theresa,
but finding the treaty of Berlin (1742) not so satisfactory for himself as he expected, he
joined the empress m 1745. The country was atrociously ravaged during the seven
years' war (q.v:), and a long time elapsed before it recovered its previous peaceful and
prosperous state. FREDERICK CHRISTIAN (1763-63) and FREDERICK AUGUST I. (1763-
1827), labored zealously for the good of their subjects; and under the reign of the latter,
agriculture, manufacturing, and industrial enterprise progressed with rapid strides. In
spite of his love for peace the elector was led into the quarrel respecting the Bavarian
succession (q.v.); but he refused the crown 01 Poland in 1791, and declined to take part
in the convention of Pilnitz, though he joined the Prussian confederation of German
princes, and had an army of 22,000 Saxons at the battle of Jena. But the pressure of
the French compelled him to join the confederation of the Rhine in 1806, and from this
time his army fought side by side with the French. He obtained the union to Saxony
of the duchy of Warsaw (see POLAND); but fearing that the disasters of the French, in
1812, would be fatal to their supremacy, and to the interest of Saxony, he withdrew to
Bavaria, and thence to Prague, renounced the duchy of Warsi.w, and made every
attempt to come to amicable terms with the allies. But he was again compelled to join
the French, between the battle of Lutzen (May 2, 1813) and that of Leipsic (Oct. 16-19,
1813), after which he became the prisoner of the allies, and his army was joined to theirs. (
For his support of Napoleon he was deprived of the greater portion of Saxony, which
was handed over to Prussia, but he retained the title of king, which had been conferred
upon him in 1806. The rest of his reign was occupied with internal reforms. ANTONY
(1827-36) reformed the entire legislation of the country, and granted a liberal constitu-
tion, being urged thereto by a popular outbreak in the autumn of 1831. The constitution
was proclaimed Sept. 4, 1831, and the state's representatives first assembled, Jan. 27,
1833. FREDERICK AUGUST II. (1836-54), his nephew, who had been regent for several
years, now succeeded, and though favorable to constitutionalism, he was unable to
obtain the smooth and harmonious working of the new system. In 1842 violent contests
commenced, accompanied by occasional riots in the principal towns, on the subject of
the liberty of the press, and the publicity of legal proceedings. Sometimes the consti-
tutionalists, and sometimes their opponents, gained the supremacy, and for a long time
the efforts of the two parties counteracted each other. Toward the close of the king's
leign he was a mere tool in the hands of the reactionary party, headed by his brother
Join?, who succeeded in 1854. John, however, supported constitutionalism, and estab-
lished courts of justice throughout the kingdom. For the hostile attitude assumed by
Saxony toward Prussia before 1866, and its subsequent history, see GERMANY.

SAXONY, PRUSSIAN, the most westerly, undetached province of Prussia, bounded on
the e. and n.e. by the province of Brandenburg. Area, 9,730 sq.m. ; pop. '75, 2,168,988.
The w. districts are occupied by the Ilarz mountains, and the peak of the Brocken
(3,738 ft. high) is the chief elevation. The greater portion of the surface, however, is
level, and slopes toward the n., in which direction flow the principal rivers the Elbe,
with its tributaries, the Saale and Mulde. The climate is mild and healthy, and the soil
is exceedingly fertile and well cultivated. More than the half of the area is under crop,


Suy .

and nearly -| arc uncultivated, and in water and wood. The Goldene Aue, in the s.w., is
especially famous for its abundant fertility. Manufacturing industry >s most actively
carried on, arid there are spinning, weaving, and oil-mills in great numbers. The capital
is Magdeburg (q.v.). Tho larger portion of Prussian Saxony (7,911 sq.m.) was detached
from the kingdom of Saxony, and ceded to Prussia, by decree of the congress of Vienna,
1815. See SAXONY.

SAXTOX, JOSEPH, 1799-1873; b. Penn. ; received a common-school education; in
his youth maJe improvements in machinery for nail factories; went to Philadelphia
1817; invented there a machine for cutting the teeth of chronometer wheels, and an
escapement with compensating pendulum, and constructed a clock for the steeple of
Independence hall, which remained a long time in use; resided 9 years in London,
where he became intimate with Faraday; was chosen principal assistant in the Adelaide
gallery of science, and made several valuable mechanical contrivances. Having
returned to Philadelphia, he superintended the making of machinery for the U. S. mint,
and afterward had charge of the construction of standard weights and measures, accu-
rate sets of which he furnished for the state capitals and the custom-houses. He received
several gold medals for his skillful inventions. Among his ingenious contrivances may
be mentioned the mirror comparator for comparing standard measures, and the tracing
machine for dividing them; the deep-sea thermometer, used by the U. S. coast survey
in exploring the Gulf stream; the self-registering tide gauge; and the immersed hydrom-

SAXTOX, Rurrs, b. Deerfield.Mass., 1824; graduate of Point 1849. In 1833-54
he was placed at the head of a surveying expedition which crossed the Rocky moun-
tains. In 1855-59 he proceeded to the coast, and invented a self-registering thermometer
for deep-sea sounding, which bears his name. In 1859 he was instructor at West Point.
During the war of the rebellion he was quartermaster, with rank of capt. ; was with
capt. Lyon at St. Louis, with^VIcClellan in West Virginia, and Sherman at Port Royal;
made brig.gen. of volunteers 1863. In 1862-65 he was military governor of the depart-
ment of the south; brevet brig.gen. -U. S. army 1865.

SAY. JEAN BAPTISTE, an eminent French economist, was b. at Lyon, Jan. 5, 1767.
Being destined by his father for a commercial career, he passed a part of his youth in
England; and on his return to France, obtained a situation in a life insurance company,
about which time he made his first acquaintance with the works of Adam Smith. During
the revolution, he was forsometime secretary to Claviere, the minister of finance; and from
1704 to 1800 edited u journal called La Decade, in which he expounded with great effect
the views of Smith. Already Say had acquired a distinguished reputation as a thinker
by his Truite d'Economie Politique, ou Simple Expose de In Maniere, dont aefornitint, se dia-
tribuent et se coiuomment les Richesses (Paris, 1803), and other works. Called to the tribu-
nate in Xov., 1799, was not slow to express his disapprobation of the arbitrary tenden-
cies of the new consular government, and in 1804 lie ceased to be a member of a body
that had become a mere tool in the hands of Bonaparte. Under the despotism of the
empire, Say was forced into private life, and betook himself to industrial pursuits, estab-
lishing (along with his sou) at Auchy a large spinning-mill, which soon employed not
less than 500 workmen; and when Bonaparte fell, Say found himself at the head of the
economical and commercial movement that marked the epoch. In 1814 the second
edition of his now celebrated Traitf appeared, dedicated to the emperor Alexander, who
had long called himself his "pupil;" and in the same year the French government sent
him to England to study the economical condition of that country. In 1819 a new chair,
that of Econoinie Inditxtrielle, was created for him at the Conservatoire dex Arts et Metiers;
and Say added both to his influence and his popularity by the lucidity, grace, and intensity
of conviction displayed in his lectures. In 1831 he was appointed' professor of political
economy at the College de France, but died Nov. 15, 1832.' Although strictly a follower
of Adam Smith, Say is an independent, sagacious, and penetrative thinker. Ricardo
speaks of his works as containing " several accurate, original, and profound discussions."
He was the first to teach Frenchmen to consider rationaTly such questions as customs-
duties, the currency, public credit, the colonies, and taxation; and though the brilliant
socialistic th^orizers say that he is not an economiste spiritualistr, many will consider
that defect a merit. Besides his chef d'ceuvre already mentioned, Say wrote (among
other works) DC VAngleterre et des Anglaise (Par. 1812), CalecJtisme <r Kfoiwnie Politique

(Par. 1815), Lett re* d Malthus (Par. 18.20), Count Complet d' Economic P/>tiq>/e (Par. 1828-
1830), and Melanges et Correspondence (Par. 1833). His principal writings form vols. 9
to 12 in Guillautain's Collection des Economistes.

SAY, THOMAS, 1787-1834; b.Philadelphia; in his youth engaged in trade, but meeting
witJi no success, began the study of natural history and was a contributor 1o the journal
of the Philadelphia academy of natural science, o'f which he was one of the founders.
From 18!8 to 1825 he was engaged in several scientific exploring expeditions, one being
that of Long (q.v.), to the Rocky mountains. In 1825 he settled atXcw Harmony. 1ml., ana
there spent the rest of his life. He made many discoveries in zoology and conchology,
and especially in entomology. His principal works were American Entomology, and
American Concfiology.

Saybrook. 204


SAYBROOK a t in s. Connecticut, at the s. terminus of the Connecticut Valley
railroad, and ou the Shore line, a division of the New York and New Haven and Hart-
ford railroad; in Old Saybrook township; pop. '80 (of the township), 1302. It is 32 m
e of Xi-w Haven on the n. shore of Long Island sound, at the mouth of the Connecticut
river It is the seat of Seabury institute, and was the first location of \ ale college It
vn the scene of the meeting of the representatives of Congregational churches which
framed the Saybrook platform. It is much visited in summer, being a charming retreat
for city residents. It has a manufactory of edged tools.

8AYRE LEWIS AUSTEN, b. New Jersey 1820; graduated at Transylvania university
in 1837- studied medicine with Dr. David Green in N.Y. city; graduated at the college
of Physicians and Surgeons in 1842; became prosector to Dr. Willard Parker, the pro-
fessor of surgery in that college, and in 1859-60 professor of orthopedic surgery m Belle-
vue hospital medical college. He is the author of several papers on orthopedic, or
repnrative surgery.

SVYRE, STEPHEN, 1734-1818; b. Long Island; educated at the college of New Jer-
sey He was a prosperous banker in London, of which he was elected sheriff. He enjoyed
'the confidence of the earl of Chatham ; and his known zeal for the cause of the American
colonies caused his imprisonment in the Tower on a charge of high treason, advantage
being taken of an unguarded expression. He was released, but was financially ruined.
He was for some time private secretary to Franklin, who employed him on several mis-
sions, as did Arthur Lee.

SCAB, in sheep, like itch in man, or mange in horses or dogs, depends upon the irri-
tation of a minute acarus, which burrows in the skin, especially if dirty and scurfy, caus-
iuf much itching roughness, and baldness. The parasite readily adheres to hurdles,
trees, or other objects against which the affected sheep happen to rub themselves, and
hence is apt to bj transferred to the skins of sound sheep. Chief among the approved
remedies are diluted mercurial ointments, tobacco- water, turpentine and oil, and arseni-
cal solutions, such as are used for sheep-dipping. One of the best and simplest applica-
tions consists of a pound each of common salt and coarse tobacco, boiled for half an
hour, in about a gallon of water; to this are added 2 drams of corrosive sublimate; and
the mixture diluted until it measures three gallons. For each sheep, a pint of this mix-
ture should be carefully applied, from a narrow-necked bottle, along the back, and to
any other scurfy itchy parts. A second dressing, after an interval of a week, will gen-
erally effect a perfect cure.

SCABBARD is the sheath for a sword or bayonet, at once to render the weapon harm-
less and to protect it from damp. It is usually made of black leather, tipped, mouthed,
and ringed with metal; but the British cavalry wear scabbards of steel. These better
sustain the friction against the horse's accouterments, but are objectionable from their
noisiness, and the consequent impossibility of surprising an enemy. The sword-scabbard
is suspended to the belt by two rings; the bayonet-scabbard hooks into a frog in connec-
tion with the waist-belt.

SCABBARD-FISH, Lepidopus argyreus, an acanthopterous fish, belonging to the
family trichiiirulfe, and nearly allied to the mackerels. The members of the genus
lepidopus are tseuioid fishes with elongated snouts, projecting under jaws, and strong,
sharp, cutting teeth. The ventral fins are reduced to small scaly plates, but there is a
well formed forked tail. The L. argyreus, or scabbard fish, is of a bright silver color,
attaining a length of 6 ft., and is one of the rarest of 'British fishes. See TRICHICKID^E.
SCABEL LUM, a kind of pedestal to support busts.

SCA BIOUS (Scabiosa), an extensive genus of herbaceous plants, exclusively natives of
the eastern hemisphere, of the natural order dipfutcacea. See TEASEL. The flowers are
collected in terminal heads, surrounded by a many-leaved involucre, so as to resemble
those of the order competitor. The DEVIL'SBIT SCABIOUS (S. succisa) is a very common
autumnal flower in British pastures. The plant possesses great astringency, but no
important medicinal virtues, although it was formerly supposed to be of great efficacy in
all scaly eruptions, and hence the name scabious, from Latin scabies, leprosy. The end
of the root appears as if abruptly bitten off, and the superstition of the middle ages
regarded it as bitten off by the devil, out of envy, because of its usefulness to mankind!
The SWEET SCABIOUS (S. atropurpuna) is a well known fragrant garden flower. It it
supposed to be a native of India.

SCAD, Caranx trachurm, or tracJturus vulgaris, a- fish of the family sconiberidw, some-
times called the Jiorse mackerel, because of its resemblance to the mackerel, and its com-
parative coarseness. It is from 12 to 16 in. long, of a dusky olive color, changing to a
resplendent green, waved with a bluish gloss, the head and lower parts silvery, the throat
black. There are two small free spines in front of the anal fin. The species of cnranx
are very numerous, and it is sometimes divided into several genera; but the scad is the
only one found on the British coasts. It is common on. the south-western coasts of England,
but comparatively rare to the north. It sometimes appears in immense shoals, pursuing the
fry of herring or similar prey, and the multitudes have sometimes been so great and so
crowded together, that they could be lifted out of the sea by buckets, and overloaded


nets have been torn to pieces. The scad has something of the mackerel flavor. Although,
not mud i cared for when fresh, it is often, salted, and in that state is esteemed as an
article of food.

SCA FELL, a double-peaked mountain in Cumberland, on the Westmoreland border,
13 in. s.s.w. of Keswick, is a chief feature in the scenery of the lake country, in the
heart and center of which it stands. Of its two peaks, the higher is 3,229 ft., the other
8,092 ft. in height.

SCAGLIOLA, a composition made to imitate the most costly kinds of marble, and other
ornamental stones; and so successfully is it done, that it is often difficult to distinguish
Between the artificial and the real sfone. It consists of finely ground plaster of Paris
mixed with a thin solution of fine glue, and colored with any of the earthy colors, such
as ochers, umber. Sienna earth, Armenian bole, and sometimes chemical colors, such as
the chrome yellows, etc. This is spread over the surface intended to represent marble;
and while still soft, pieces of fibrous gypsum, marble, alabaster, and other soft but orna-
mental stones, are pressed into it, and made level with the surface. When the compo-
sition is set hard, it is rubbed down, and polished with the ordinary stone polishing
materials, which give it a very fine gloss. This kind of work is only adapted for inte-
riors, because scagliola will not bear exposure to damp for any length of time; but its
lightness, and the extreme ease with which it may be applied to walls, pillars, pilastere,
and even cornices, render it very useful for the decoration of the better class of dwellings
and public buildings.

SCALA, the name of an Italian family whose seat was Verona, of which place the
Ghibelline MASTINO BELLA SCALA was elected podesta in 1260. After being in office five
years he was made perpetual cap*, of the city. Assassinated in 1273, he was succeeded
by his son, Albert, who was soon made lord of Feltre, Vicenza, and Bdiuno. The
greatest of the family was CAN FKANCESCO, or Can Grande, as he was called (1290-1329)
the friend of Dante, and who filled his court with sculptors, poets, and painters. He
was capt. of the alliance between Mantua, Verona, Este, and other cities; an ally of
Henry of Luxembourg: and the head of the Ghibellines in Lombardy. His power
extended over almost all the later Venetia, including Este, Cremona, Mouselice, Padua,
Feltre, Vicenza, and Trevise. His descendants ruled till 1387, when Verona came
under the dominion of the Viscouti.

SCA LA NO VA, a sea-port of Asiatic Turkey, stands on an eminence at the head of a
gulf of the same i.sime, 40 m. s. of Smyrna. The ruins of the ancient city of Ephesus
(q.v.) are in the vicinity. An important export trade is carried on. Pop. stated at
fcO.GOO. The gulf of Scala Nova, confined ou the s. by the island of Samos, is 40 m.
long and about 20 m. broad.

I SCALD-HEAD (a corruption probably of scaled head) is the popular name of a fungous
parasitic disease of the scalp (and occasionally of the face and otlur parts) known in
medical phraseology a's fams, tinea favofa, and pwriyo ncutuUita. The pi iinary feat of
the parasite is in the lowest portion of the hair-follicles, outside the layer of epithelium
which covers the root of the hair. The plant is, however, often found in cup-shaped
depressions on the surface of the scalp, forming the yellow honey comb-like masses which
suggested the specific name /cm/* (honeycomb) for the disease. The honeycomb crust
continues to increase, preserving its circular form and depressed center, till it occasion-
ally reaches a diameter of nearly half an inch. These crusts commonly appear in crops,
and may be either distinct or confluent. " At a more advanced stage," says Dr. Aitken,
"the epidermis disappears, and a viscid fluid is secreted in such abundance as to form
one entire incrustation over the entire head; hence the porrigo larralin mask or vizor-
like scald-head. The smell of the scab is peculiar, and has been con, pared to that of the
urine of a cat, or of a cage in which mice ha,ve been kept. It is probably due to a species
of alcoholic fermentation in connection with the vegetable growth." The scab sometimes

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 47 of 203)