Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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resembles a lupine, or a minute shield, rather than the cell of the honeycomb, and hence
the varieties of scald-head which have been described under the name of poi-rigo lupinosa
and porrigo sctttitlatn.

The great point to be aimed at in the treatment of this affection is to destroy the
cryptogamic parasite, and to eradicate its germ. For this purpose the head should be
shaved^ and poultices then applied till the scabs are removed. Tar-ointment should
then be applied, night and morning, the old ointment being washed off with soft soap
and water before the fresh dose is laid on. Dr. Aitken states, that in the <;arly stage of
the disease, in place of the preceding treatment, it is sometimes sufficient to cut the ha:r
close, and to wash the affected parts, night and morning, with oil of turpentine. If the
disease does not yield to these applications, the same treatment as that recommended for
RINGWORM must be tried.


SCALE-ARMOR consisted of small plates of steel riveted together in a manner resem-
bling the scales of a fish. From the small size of the plates,"" it possessed considerable
pliability, and was therefore a favorite protection for the neck, in the form of a curtain
hanging" from fhe helmet. Scale armor is now obsolete, except, perhaps, among some
eastern potentates.

Scale. OAf>



SCALE. MUSICAL, a succession of notes arranged in the order of pitch, and compris-
ing those sounds which may occur in a piece of music written in a given key. The
ultimate criterion of what should constitute a musical scale is doubtless what gives
nrnst pleasure to a cultivated ear; but the sounds that please the ear are also found to be
those that stand in certain simple mathematical relations to each other. Among the
ancient Greeks, various different scales or modes were in use, of which six were gener-
ally enumerated the Dorian, Phrygian, Lydian, Mixo-Lydiau, Ionic, and ^Eolian.
Excepting in the music of the Greek church and of the Ambrosian chant. moder
musical feeling has rejected all of these but two, the Ionic and ^Eolian, the former of
which is now known as the major, and the latter the minor mode. In both modes, the
scale consists of a series of seven steps leading from a given note fixed on as the tonic or
key-note to its octave, which may be extended indefinitely up or down, so long as the
sounds continue to be musical.

For an explanation of the principles on which these scales are founded, and of their
derivation" from the harmonic triad, see Music. The major scale is derived from much
simpler proportions than the minor. The minor scale requires to be modified by occa-
sionally sharpening its sixth and seventh.

SCALES OF FISHES. They are divided by Agassiz, whose classification is generally
adopted, into the p'acoid, ganoid, ctenoid, and cycloid forms. Placoid scajes (from the Gr. plax
a broad piate) lie side by side without overlapping or imbricating. They are often elevated
nttlie center so as to form a strong projecting point. All the cartilaginous fishes, except
the sturgeon, hare placoid scales. Ganoid scales (from the Gr. ganos, splendor) are covered
with a fine enamel, and generally of a rhomboidal form and imbricated. The sturgeon
and the bony pike (lepidosteus)\\&\e scales of this nature, but the finest examples of these
scales are found in fossil fishes. Ctenoid scales (from kteis, a comb) are generally of a
rounded or oval form, with teeth or projections on their posterior margin. They are
devoid of enamel, and present an imbricated arrangement. The perch and many osse-
ous fishes possess these scales. Cycloid scales (from the Gr. kyktos, a circle) consist of
concentric layers of horn or bone, without spinous margins, and not covered by enamel.
They are soft and flexible, present a variety of linear markings on their upper surface,
and usually exhibit an imbricated arrangement. The carp, herring, salmon, etc., possess
these scales. In many cases, two kinds of scales occur in the same fish, while in other
cases the different species of a single genus exhibit different kinds of scales.

For anatomical details regarding the structure and mode of development of scales,
the reader is referred to prof. Huxley's article "Tegumeutary Organs" in the Cyclopedia
of Anatomy and Phy*vjloc/y, and to prof. Williamson's memoirs in the P/tilosopfiical
Transactions, 1849-52. In their chemical composition, the scales of fishes approxi-
mate to the tones, except that they contain more organic matter. The brilliancy of tint
exhibited by many fishes is due the phenomena of optical interference,
rather than to the presence of coloring manner. Figures of ctenoid and ganoid scales
arc given in the articles CTENOID FISHES and GANOID FISHES.

SCALES OF NOTATION are the various "radicles" which determine, as explained
under notation (q.v.), the form and digits of the number expressing any numerical
quantity. Thus the number 289, in the decimal or common system whose radix is 10,
signifies 9 units, 8 tens, and 2 hundreds, or 2 X 10 s -j- 8 X 10 + 9. To express the
same number in the quinary scale, for instance, we must group the 289 units into multi-
ples and powers of 5; an operation which may be performed in either of two ways, as



103 (taking in 8, and carrying
10 by 5)


2124 (quinary)

11 (carrying by 10)


or 2124 (i.e., 2 X 5 s + 1 X 5 5 4-2 X 5 + 4) in the quinary scale represents the same
numerical quantity as 289 in the decimal scale. The following list shows the same

Oft 7 Scale.

*-U< Sealiger.

numerical quantity according to the scalea having for their radices the first 11 numbers
after unity, and will partly indicate the advantages and disadvantages of each scale:

In the binary (radix 2) scale 100,100,001

ternary ( ' 3)

quaternary ( ' 4)

quinary ( ' 5)

senary ( ' 6)

septenary ( 7)

ociary ( " 8)

nonary ( " 9)

decimal ( " 10)

undenary ( " 11)

duodecimal ( " 12)


It will be observed that the binary scale possesses only two symbols, and 1, the ternary'
has 8, while the undenary would require a symbol in addition to the 9 digits and zero to
express 10, which is a digit in that scale, and the duodecimal scale two additional -sym-
bols for 10 and 11. A glance at the above table shows at once that if the binary scale
had been in ordinary use, great facility in the "performance" of arithmetical operations
would have been obtained at the cost of largely increasing their " extent," and that both
the advantage and disadvantage diminish as we raise the scale. The selection of
" ten" as the ordinary scale is very prevalent, and was evidently suggested by the
number of fingers; but tlie scales of two, three, four, live, six, and t\\enty have at
various times been made use of by a few nations or tribes. The scale of twelve has long
been generally employed in business among northern European nations, as is instanced
by such terms as " gross," signifying 12 times 12, and " double gross," denoting 12 times
12 times 12; and it has also been largely introduced into the standard measurements of
quantity, as inches, pence, ounces, troy, etc., causing a considerable amount of com-
plexity in calculation, as all abstract numerical calculation follows the decimal system.
To remedy this acknowledged evil, it has been proposed to introduce the decimal system
in Mo, as has been done iii France, Italy, Russia, etc., or else to do the same with the
duodecimal system. Those who hold to the first proposal have the argument of con-
formity in their favor; those who support the latter do so on the ground that 12 has in
proportion far more aliquot parts than 10 has, and that on this account the number
of fractions, and the size of each numerator and denominator, would be diminished;
while both parties can bring overpowering arguments against the continuance of the
present method, or rather want of method. See DECIMAL SYSTEM.

SCALIGER, JULIUS C^SAR, one of the most famous men of letters that have appeared
since their revival, was born in 1484. In after-life he created for himself a noble pedi-
gree, and made out that he was descended from the princely family of the Scalas of
Verona, and that his birthplace was the castle of Riva, on the banks of the Lago di
Guarda. According to his own account, he was educated first under the famous Fra Gio-
condo; was afterward attached as a page to the emperor Maximilian, whom he attended
for 17 years in peace and war; was next made a pensioner of the duke of Ferrara; there-
after studied at Bologna; commanded a troop of cavalry at Turin under the French
viceroy; prosecuted his studies there in philology, philosophy, and medicine; and in
1525 went to Agon, -in France, with the bishop of that diocese, a member of the Revere
family, to whose household he became physician. Tiraboschi's account, however, which
is the more probable, represents him as having been born at Padua, the son of Benedict
Bordoni, who was a geographer and miniature-painter of that city, and who, either from
the sign of his shop or the name of the street he lived in, assumed the surname Delia
Scala. Up to his 42d year, young Giulio Bordoni resided chiefly in Venice or Padua,
engaging in the study and practice of medicine, and appearing under his true name as
an author. In 1525 he withdrew to Agen, either from some advantageous offer, or with
a view to promote his fortune, and there fixed his abode. He became physician to the
bishop of the diocese, and in that capacity sought in marriage Andietta de Roques-
Lobejac, a young lady only 16 years of age, and of noble and rich parentage. An obsta-
cle was thrown in the way of this alliance; and probably with the purpose of improving
his position, and lessening the disparity in station between himself and the object of his
affections, he procured, in 1528, letters of naturalization as a French subject, under the
name of Jules-Cesar de Lescalle de Bordonis. This was probably the occasion when he
added Caesar to his baptismal name of Julius. The marriage took place in 1529, and was
both happy and fruitful. He died in 1558 leaving behind him a mass of publications on
various subjects, and a reputation for extent and depth of learning, which, considering
the ripe age at which he made the majority of his acquirements, redounds to the credit
of his vigorous understanding and extraordinary memory. As a thinker, he was more
independent than sound; and as a man. was of violently' irritable temper and excessive
vanity. His best known publications are- Commfnlarii in Hippocratix Librum de Insom-
ruis (Commentaries on the Hippocratic Treatise on Dreams); De Causis Lingua Laiince,
IM>ri XVHI., celebrated- as the first considerable work written in the Latin language in
modern times, and not without value even yet; his Latin translation of Aristotle's His-
tory of Animals; his Eeercitationum Exvtencnrum liber quintus decimvs de Subtilitate, <id
Hieronym, Cardanum; his seven books of Poetic* (also in Latin, and on the whole his

ScaHper. . OAQ


best work): his Commentaries on Aristotle and Thcophrastus; his two orations against
Erasmus; his Latiu poems, etc.

SCALIGER, JOSEPH JUSTUS, the tenth son of J. C. Scaliger and Andietta de Roques-
Lobejac, and much his father's superior in learning, was born in 1540 at Agon, whence,
at the age of 11, he was eeut, along with two of his brothers, to the college of Bordeaux,
where for three years he studied Latin. A pestilence breaking out in the town, he was
recalled by his father, who supplemented the scanty knowledge which his son brought
home with him by making him write a Latin declamation every day upon any subject lie
chose. Under this training he soon attained great proficiency as a Latinist; and in his
19th year, on the death of his father, he went to Paris, where he studied Greek under the
famous Turnebus. He was less indebted, however, to any master than to himself; and
finding that his progress was slow under his great preceptor, he closeted himself alone
'with Homer, and in 21 days read him through, with the aid of a Latin translation, and
committed him to memory. In less than four months he had mastered all the Greek
poets. Next. Hebrew, Syriac, Persian, and the most of the modern European languages
succumbed in rapid succession to his industry, while at the same time he was assiduous
in his composition of verses both in Latin and Greek. About this time he boasted that
lie could speak 13 languages, ancient and modern ; and such was his ardor in study, that
he allowed himself only a few hours' sleep at night, and would frequently pass whole
days without rising from his books even for meals. His proficiency in literature,*
especially in the history, chronology, and antiquities of Greece and Rome, secured him,
in 1583, an honorable engagement from Louis de la Roche Pozay, at that time French,
ambassador at the pontifical court. The year before, however, he had become a Protes-
tant, which rendered it difficult for him to retain an appointment in France. Except
that he traveled a good deal, at the generous instance of his patron, and visited the chief
universities of France and Germany, and even found his way to Scotland, we know
little of his life between 1565 and 1593. He is conjectured to have traveled in Italy, and
to have gone as far as Naples. Certain it is, however, that in the year last named he
complied with an invitation of the Dutch government, and went to fill the chair of litera-
ture, vacated by Lipsius in Leyden university, where he spent the residue of his days.
His labor now consisted chiefly in interpreting and illustrating the classical authors.
He died of dropsy on Jan. 21, 1609, and was never married. We have said that he i'ai
excelled his father in learning; but it should be added that he was not a whit less irrita-
ble, arrogant, cr vain; that he fully shared the paternal pride of .pedigree, spurious as
he probably knew his own to be; and that he endeavored to support his father's genea-
logical fictions in his well-known letter to Dousa on the splendor of the Scaliger family.
His writings abound with expressions of hatred and contempt toward his opponents, and
lie lias enriched the vocabulary of learned abuse to an extent well-nigh proverbial. Ho
was, however, a man of immense vigor of understanding, and must be credited with
having been the first to lay down in his treatise De Ernendatione Temporum (Paris, 1583)
a complete system of chronology formed upon fixed principles. It was this most learned
achievement, and his invention of the Julian period, that secured for him the title of the
father of chronological science. It was subjected to much emendatory criticism by
censors like Petavius, and also by himself, its errors having been partly corrected by
him in his later work, the Thesaurus Temporum, complectens Eusebii Pampldli Clironicon
cum Ixarjoqitis Chronologies Canonibus (Amst. 1658, 2 vols. fol.). Among the classical
luthors whom he criticised and annotated are Theocritus, Seneca (the tragedies), Varro,
Ausonius, Catullus, Tibullus, Propertius, Manilius, and Festus. His other works are
De Tribus Secli* Judceorum; Dissertations on Subjects of Antiquity ; Poemata; Epixtola; a
translation into Latin of two centuries of Arabian proverbs, etc. He numbered among
his friends the most illustrious scholars of the time, such as Lipsius, Casaubon, Grotius,
Heinsius, the Dupuys, Saumaise, Vossius, Velser, P. Pithou; and interesting notices of
him are preserved in such works as the Huetiana, and above all, in the two vols. of
Sf.alif/erann, which embody his conversations, and which were collected and published
after his death.

SCALLOP, more commonly cscalop (q.v.), in heraldy, a species of shell. It has been
considered the badge of a pilgrim, and a symbol of the apostle St. James the greater,
\vho is usually represented in the garb of a pilgrim.


SCALP, THE, is the term employed to designate the outer covering of the skull or
jrain-case. Except in the fact, that hair in both sexes grows more luxuriantly on the

cellular tissue and blood-vessels. Injuries of the scalp, however slight, must be

watched with great caution, " for they may be followed by erysipelas, or by inflamma-
tion and suppuration under the occipito-frontal muscle, or within the cranium, or by
suppuration of the veins of the cranial bones, and general pvtemia that may easily prove
fatal." Druitt's Surgeon'*Vade Mtmm, 8th edition7p. 332. In the treatment of a'wound
of this region, no part of the scalp, however injured it may be, should be cut or torn
away ; and, if possible, the use of stitches should be avoided, as plasters and bandages



will :rc-r,r>r.)]]y suffice to keep the separated parts in apposition. The chance of suppura-
tion n vented by coagulating the blood externally, by dressing the wound witu

lint. s.uur.itcd with friars' baltuim (tincfara <'nz<nn, ">//</>.), so as to seal up the
injured pail from the access of air. The patient should be confined to the house (and hi
severe cases to ln-d), should be moderately purged, aud fed upon non-stimulating, but
not too low dk-t.

Burns of the scalp arc very liable to be followed by erysipelas and diffuse inflam-
mation. bui the brain is comparatively seldom affected in these cases.

Tumors of the scalp arc Dot uncommon, the most frequent being the cutaneous cys'.s
popularly knowns as wens (q.v.), and vascular tumors.

SCAMANDEB, the ancient name of a river in the Troad (see TROY), which, according
to Homer, wa~ also called Xanthus (Gr. yellow) by the gods, and as a divinity took an
important part in the Trojan war, its destructive floods doing serious injury to one
party, and thus materially assisting the other. The Scamander rose in mount Ida (q.v.),
and, flawing w. and n.w., discharged itself into the Hellespont, after being joined by the
Simois, about 2 m. from its mouth: the two rivers, however, since the 1st c. A.D. ,
have had separate courses. There has been much controversy as to what modern river
corresponds to I he ancient Scamauder; Mr. C. Maclaren, however, in his Plains of 'Iroy,
has clearly identified it with the Mendere.

SCAMIL LUS, a small plinth below the bases of Ionic, Corinthian, and other columns.

SCAMMONY is a gum-resitt of an ashy-gray color, and rough externally, and having
a resinous, splintering fracture. Few drugs are so uniformly adulterated as scammony,
which, when pure, contains from 81 to 83^>er cent of resin (which is the active purgative
ingredient). or 8 of gum, with a little starch, sand, fiber, and water. The ordinary
adulterations arc chalk, flour, guaiacmn, resin, and gum tragacanth.

Scammony, when pure, is an excellent and trustworthy cathartic of the drastic kind,
well adapted for cases of habitual constipation, aud as an active purgative for children.
The resin of scammony, which is extracted from the crude drug by rectified spirit,
-ses the advantage of being always of a nearly uniform strength, and of being
almost tasteless. The, scammony mixture, composed of four grains of resin of scammony,
triturated with two ounces of milk, until a uniform emulsion is obtained, forms an
admirable purgative for young children in doses of half an ounce or more. According
to Christison, " between"? and 14 grains of resin, in the form of this emulsion, constitute
a safe and effectual purgative" for adults. Another popular form for the administration oi:
scammony is the compound poirdcr of scaiiunoni/, composed of scammouy, jalap, and
gin_vr, the dose for a child being from 3 to 5 grains, and for an adult from 6 to 12 grains.
Scammony is frequently given surreptitiously in the form of biscuit to children troubled
with thread worms.

The plant which produces this valuable drug is convolvulus scammonia, (see CONVOL-
vvu-s), a native, of the Levant. It is a perennial, with a thick fleshy tapering root, 3 to 4
ft. long, and 3 to 4 in. in diameter, which sends up several smooth slender twining stems.
with arrow-head shaped leaves on long stalks. The root is full of an acrid milky juice,
which indeed pervades the whole plant. The scammony plant is not. cultivated, but the
drug is collected from it where it grows wild. The ordinary mode of collecting scam-
inon\ is by laying bare the upper part of the root, making incisions, and placing shells
or sin:i!l vessels to receive the juice as it flows, which soon dries and hardens in the air.

The name French or Monpettef x<'<nni)i<>iiy is given to a substance which is prepared
in the s. of France, chiefly from the juice of cynanchum monspdiacum, a plant of the
natural order asrV/i/V'.', r. It is a violent purgat'ive.

SCANDALUM MAGNA'TUM. This offense was committed in speaking words in
derogation of a peer, judge, or great officer of the realm, and a special action was
brought for such word's, the punishment being damages and imprisonment. But now
this proceeding, though not expressly abolished, is superseded by the ample remedies of
criminal information (q.v.), indictment, or action. A somewhat similar offense in Scot-
laud is called leasing-makrng (q.v.).

SCANDERSEG (properly, Islander-beg, "the prince Alexander," the r.ame given him
by the Turks), the famous patriot chief of Epirus, was b. in that country in 1414. His
real name was George Castriofa, and his father. John Castriota, was one of the great
lords of Epirus. his mother, Voisava, being a Servian princess. In 1423, he was given as
one of the hostages for the obedience of the Albanian chiefs, and his physical beauty
and intelligence so pleased Amurath II., that he was lodged in the royal palace, and
subsequently circumcised and brought up in Islamism, being also put under the tuition
of skillful masters in the Turkish, Arabic, Slave, and Italian, languages. In 1433, he
greatly distinguished himself iu Asia as a Turkish pasha (of one tail): hut being offended
at the confiscation of his paternal domains, and being solicited by some Epirote friends
to return to his native country to aid in the restoration of its independence, he watched
an opportunity of withdrawing from the Turkish army. He had not long to wait, for
the generous and unsuspicious sultan, who bad caused him to be brought up :!s if he had
been his own son, gave him the command of a large division of the army which was
destined to act against the Hungarian invaders. Scanderbeg, having concerted his plan*
U. K. XIIL 14 ...<

Scandinavia. 910

Scandinavian. -Lv

with 300 of his fellow-countrymen in the Turkish army, deserted during the confusion
of the tirst battle (1443), ami having previously compelled Amurath's secretary (whom he
afterward murdered to avoid detection) to prepare an order investing him wuh the gov-
ernment of Croia (now Ak-hissar), the capital of Epirus, he and his companions tied
thither with all possible speed. The unsuspecting governor at once resigned the town
into his hands, and was massacred along with the garrison. At the news of Scanderbeg's
success, the whole country rose in insurrection, and in 80 days he had driven every Turk,
except the garrison of Sfetigrad, out of the country. In order to strengthen himself in
his new position, he invited a number of the neighboring princes and Albanian chiefs to
a conference, at which it was unanimously agreed to make no terms with the Turks,
and to obey Scanderbeg implicitly as their leader. Scanderbeg then raised an army of
15,000 meii, with which he completely scattered (1444) the 40,000 Turks whom the
indignant sultan had sent against him, killing an immense number of them, and taking
a few prisoners. Three other Turkish armies shared the same fate, and the "animus"
with which the contest was carried on may be imagined, when we consider that the
number of prisoners taken in the last (1448) of these'three battles amounted to &Mnti/-
two. Amurath himself in 1449 took the field, and stormed many of the principal
fortresses, but being then ill of his fatal malady, he retired from before Croia, to die at
Adrianople (1450). Scanderbeg's splendid successes brought in congratulations from the
pope and the sovereigns of Italy and Aragon, but many of the Epirote chiefs were
becoming wearied of the continual strife, and fell off from him, some of them even join-
ing the Turks. Scanderbeg's career was now, in consequence, of a more checkered
character, but in spite of occasional defeats, he stoutly refused all the liberal and fair

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 48 of 203)