Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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long. 66 3' west. Pop. '71, 28,805. The harbor, which is protected by batteries, is
good, and accessible to the largest vessels at all seasons of the year. Ship-building and
the timber-trade are the chief industries. In June, 1877, a fire destroyed the greater
part of the town, and caused a loss of 10 to 15 million dollars.

SAINT JOHN (ante), capital of St. John co., N. B., is built on a rocky peninsula, slop-
ingup from the harbor. The streets are laid out at rightangles; they are wide, and some
of them are cuttings 40 ft. deep through solid rock. There are many fine public build-
ings and private houses. The principal building materials are brick and stone. Among
the public buildings are the court-house and jail, the provincial insane asylum, market
house, post-office, almshouse, city hospital, city hall, opera-house, academy of music,
Roman Catholic cathedral, the Victoria hotel, the barracks, the mechanics' institute, and
the Dominion penitentiary. The city has a fire department, a police force, a system of
water-works, furnishing water from Little river 4 m. distant, and having a capacity of
supplying 5,500,000 gallons daily. The streets are lighted with gas. Horse cars run
through the city, and to Portland and Indiantown. There is a fire-alarm telegraph.
There are between 30 and 40 churches, schools, bauks, academies, orphan asylums, sev-
eral newspapers, good hotels, a natural history society, a historical society, etc. The
city government consists of a mayor, and one alderman and one councilman from each of
the nine wards. The manufacturing industries are extensive, including ships, lumber,
machinery, tools, paper, leather, carriages, boots and shoes, cottons, etc. The city is
connected!, with points in Maine by the European and North American railroad, and
with Nova Scotia by the Intercolonial railroad. Steamers run from it to Boston, Port-
land, and various points along the river and in Nova Scotia. The entrance to the har-
bor, which is one of the best on the continent, is protected by Partridge island, on
which are a lighthouse and a quarantine hospital. The channel is protected on the e.
by a breakwater. The foreign trade is considerable. The chief article of export is
lumber. There is a suspension bridge 640 ft. long over the gorge through which the
river is discharged.


SAINT JOHN, JAMES AUGUSTUS, b. Caermarthenshire in 1801; went to London in
1817; edited a Plymouth radical paper, and published a poem Abdallah; was subse-
quently sub-editor of J. S. Buckingham's Oriental Review; in 1827 with David Lester
Richardson started the Weekly Review; in 1829 removed to Normandy. He has traveled
extensively in Egypt and Nubia. The following are the most important of his numer-
ous works : History of the Manners and Customs of Ancient Greece, 3 vols. ; History of the
Manners and Custom* of the Hindus, 2 vols. ; Description of Egypt and Nubia; Isis, an
Egyptian Pilgrimage; Journal of a Residence in Norway, 2 vols. ; The Nemesis of Power;
Causes and Forms of Revolution; There and Back Again in Search of Beauty, 2 vols.;
Philosophy at the Foot of the Cross; History of the Four Conquests of England; Life of Sir
Walter Raleigh.

SAINT JOHN, OLIVER, 1598-1673; b. England ; educated at Cambridge and called
to the bar. He distinguished himself as one of Hampden's counsel in the ship-money
trial in 1637; married in 1638 Elizabeth, cousin of Oliver Cromwell, and was elected to
parliament in 1640. He was solicitor-gen, in 1641. and lord chief-justice of the com-
mon pleas in 1648. He had no share in the trial of Charles I., but barely escaped pro-
scription after the restoration, when he was forced to take refuge on the continent under
an assumed name. He was ambassador to the Netherlands in 1651, and the same year
commissioner for the affairs of Scotland, and a member of the council of state.

SAINT JOHN, PERCY BOLINGBROKE, b. England. 1821 ; traveled with his father
James Augustus, and aided him in the preparation of his works. The following are
some of his numerous published works: Young Naturalist 's Book of Birds; King's Mus-
keteer; Paul Peabody; Trapper's Bride; The Enchanted Rock; White Stone Canoe; Fire-
tide; T hi ee Day* of the French Revolution; Quadroona, or The Slave Mother; The Creole
Bnde; Good as Gold. He has also contributed tales to Cassell's Illustrated Magazine.

and afterward OF MALTA, the most celebrated of all the military and religious orders of

OO Raiiit John.

Saint Johns.

the middle ages. It originated in 1048 in an hospital dedicated to St John the Baptist,
which some merchants of Amain' were permitted by the calif of Egypt to build for the
reception of the pilgrims from Europe who visited the holy sepulcher. The nurses
were at first known as the hospitaler brothers of St. John the Baptist of Jerusalem.
The Seljuk Turks, who succeeded the Egyptian and Arabian Saracens in Palestine,
plundered the hospice, and on the conquest of Jerusalem by the crusaders under Geoffroy
de Bouillon in 1099, the first superior, Gerard, was found in prison. Released from dur-
ance, he resumed his duties in the hospice, gave material aid to the sick and wounded,
and was joined by several of the crusaders, who devoted themselves to the service of the
poor pilgrims. By advice of Gerard, the brethren took vows of poverty, chastity, and
obedience before the patriarch of Jerusalem. Pope Pascal II. gave his sanction to the
institution in 1113. Raymond du Puy, the successor of Gerard in the office of superior,
drew up a body of statutes for the order, which was confirmed by pope Calixtus II.
To the former obligations was afterward added those of fighting against the infidels
and defending the holy sepulcher. Various hospices, called commanderies, were estab-
lished in different maritime towns of Europe as resting-places for pilgdms, who were
there provided with the means of setting out for Palestine. The order having become
military as well as religious, was recruited by persons of high rank and influence, ami
wealth flowed in on it from all quarters. On the conquest of Jerusalem by Saladiu in
1187, the hospitalers retired to Margat in Phenicia, whence the progress of infidel arms
drove them first in 1285, to Acre, and afterward, in 1291, to Limisso, where Henry II.,
king of Cyprus, assigned them a residence. By the statutes of Raymond, the brethren
consisted of three classes, knights, chaplains, and serving brothers; these last being
fighting squires, who followed the knights in their expeditions. The order was subse-
quently divided into eight languages Provence, Auvergne, France, Italy, Aragon, Eng-
land, Germany, and Castile. Each nation possessed several grand priories, under which
were a number of commanderies. The chief establishment in England was the priory
at Clerkeuwell. whose head had a seat in the upper house of parliament, and was styled
first baron of England.

In 1310, the knights, under their grand-master, Foulkes de Villaret, in conjunction
with a party of crusaders from Italy, captured Rhodes and seven adjacent islands from
the Greek and Saracen pirates, by whom it was then occupied, and carried on from
thence a successful war against the Saracens. In 1523, they were compelled to surren-
der Rhodes to sultan Solyman, and retired first to Candia and afterward to Viterbo. In
1530, Charles V. assigned them the island of Malta, with Tripoli and Gozo. The knights
continued for some time to be a powerful bulwark against the Turks; but after the
Reformation a moral degeneracy overspread the order, and it rapidly declined in politi-
cal importance; and in 1798, through the treachery of some French knights and the
cowardice of the grand-master, D'Hompesch, Malta was surrendered to the French.
The lands still remaining to the order were also about this time confiscated in almost all
the European states; but though extinct as a sovereign body, the order has continued
during the present century to drag on a lingering existence in some parts of Italy, as
well as in Russia and Spain. Since 1801 the office of grand-master has not been filled
up: a deputy grand-master has instead been appointed, who has his residence in Spain.
The order at first wore a long black habit, with a pointed hood, adorned with a cross of
white silk of the form called Maltese on the left breast, as also a golden cross in the mid-
dle .of the breast. In their military capacity, they wore red surcoats with the silver
cross' before and behind. The badge worn by all the knights is a Maltese cross, enam-
eled white, and edged with gold; it is suspended by a'black ribbon, and the embellish-
ments attached to it differ in the different countries where the order still exists.

SAINT JOHN'S, a co. in n.e. Florida, drained by the St. John's river and its
affluents; about 900 sq.m. ; pop. '80, 4,5351365 colored. The surface is level and
low, with much marsh, and forests of live oak. The soil is fairly fertile. The princi-
pal productions are corn, rice, sugar, and molasses. Co. seat, St. Augustine.

SAINT JOHN'S, a co. in s.w. Quebec, Canada, adjoining New York; drained by
the Richelieu river, its e. boundary; intersected by the Rouse's Point division of the
Grand Trunk railway; 175 sq.m.; pop. '71, 12,122 9.415 of French descent. The sur-
face is diversified and the soil fertile; wheat, oats, hay, potatoes, and dairy products,
are the staples. Co. seat, St. John's.

SAINT JOHN'S, the chief t. of Newfoundland, stands on the e. coast of the island, in
lat. 47 33' u., and long. 52 43' west. It has an excellent harbor, which is well forti-
fied. Pop. 74, 23,890. Being the nearest port in America to Europe (distance 1665
m.), and connected with continental America by telegraph, St. John's has recently
acquired importance in the commercial and political world in connection with steam-
navigation between the two continents. It has suffered severely from repeated confla-
grations; in 1846 it was more than half destroyed.

SAINT JOHN'S (ante), a city in s.e, Newfoundland, 2,000 m. from Liverpool. 1,640
m. from Valentia, Ireland, 900 m. from Quebec, 540 m. from Halifax. Nova Scotia, 65
m. n. of cape Race, 18 m. s. of cape St. Francis. 1,665 m. w. of Gal way (the shortest
distance between any American and European sea-port); pop. '71, 22.553. At the
entrance to the harbor are the narrows, 360 fathoms across outside, 220 yards at the


Saint Johns.

narrowest, measuring from Chain rock to Pancake rock. On the n. side of the narrows
is a cliff of sandstone and slate rock, 300 ft. high, and above that towers Signal hill,
510 ft. above the level of the sea. On thes. side of the narrows there is a hill 650 ft.
high, on which is a light-house called fort Amherst. There were formerly batteries posted
on these hills, while it was a garrisoned town. At the narrows there are 12 fathoms of
water in the channel, which, however, will admit of the passage of only one vessel at a
time. Inside the narrows the harbor widens and expands toward the s.w. It has 90 ft.
of water In the center, accessible to vessels of the deepest draught, there being no per-
ceptible tide to interfere. The city is built principally on the n. side of the harbor, on
sloping ground admirably situated. The n. and s. sides are connected by a causeway
and bridges. The principal street is more than a mile in length, on which the buildings
are all of brick or stone, wooden buildings not having been allowed there since the fire
of 1846; on other streets the law does not apply. It has substantially built stores, ware-
houses, and wharves. Cape Spear and fort Amherst lights give guidance to vessels
entering the harbor, and in addition 2 red lights are shown from sunset to sunrise on
points further back. It has a dry-dock capable of raising vessels of 600 tons, and a
marine railway. The average number of vessels entering annually is 1200, having a
burden of 250,000 tons, clearances 724, tonnage 195,392. At the foot of the ridge of
steep hills on the s. side of the harbor which extend at the same altitude for miles into
the interior, are the steam seal-oil factories and store-houses. The Roman Catholic
cathedral stands on the top of the hill above the city 225 if. above the sea, erected at a
cost of $800,000. There is also an Episcopal cathedral costing $120,000. The water sup-
ply is brought 6 m. from Twenty -mile pond. It is lighted by gas, has 3 banks, and an
efficient police force. It is the seat of St. Bonaventure college, and a theological institu-
tion for training missionaries, under the direction of the church of England; and has 10
churches and several convents. It has academies under the supervision of different
denominations; 19 life, tire, and marine insurance companies, agricultural, horticultural,
and fishermen's societies, and many benevolent and charitable organizations. It has a
medical society incorporated 1867, the St. John's atheneum, having a library of 5,000
vols., and the library of the St. Joseph's Catholic institute. It has 12 newspapers.
Among the conspicuous public buildings are the government-house, the residence of ihe
governor, costing $240,000, the house of assembly, the lunatic asylum 4 m. from the city,
the public hospital, market-house, and court-house. It is the seat of government of the
island. The city is governed by the legislature. It is a station of the Allan line of
European steamers, fortnightly in all mouths but February, March, and April, when they
run monthly. Regular fortnightly lines of steamers ply between this place s,nd the
principal ports on the coast. It receives the bulk of the imports of the colony, and has
an important trade in clothing, fishermen's, and hunter's outfits, and provisions. It?
capitalists are mostly non-resident. The manufactures are principally ship-bread bflked
by machinery, nets, iron, boots and shoes, furniture, etc. It has distilleries, block-
factories, oil refineries, breweries, and tanneries. ^Business connected with the fisheries
absorbs general attention; employing steamboats m the place of sailing vessels, export-
ing seal, cod, and oil. Most of the oil is manufactured in the city.

SAINT JOHN'S, a t. of Canada, in the province of Quebec, is situated on the 'eft bank
of the river Richelieu, opposite the town of St. Athanase, with which it is connected by
a bridge, and 21 m. s.e. from Montreal. It contains glass-works, potteries, foundries,
saw-mills, etc., and carries on a considerable trade in lumber, firewood, horses, and
grain. Pop. '71, 3,022.

SAINT JOHN'S, a city of the West Indies, capital of the island of Antigua (q.v.), and
the residence of the governor-in-chief of the Leeward islands, is situated at the western
side of that island, close to the shore. Pop. 8,515. The town is well laid out, having
spacious streets, of which the principal run e. and w., being so arranged in order to
obtain full advantage of the refreshing easterly or trade winds, which prevail here from
April to August. The harbor is comparatively shallow, and there is a bar across the
mouth of if, so that vessels heavily laden are obliged to drop anchor outside. The
cathedral, the court-house, and the new market-house arc the chief edifices. Water is
warce here, and in long dry seasons the inhabitants suffer greatly from the want of it.
Wells have been sunk in the town, but the water obtained is brackish, so that rain-water
collected in iron and other cisterns forms the only supply of this invaluable element
The maximum heat is 96; the minimum, 62. The average fall of rain is said to be 45

SAINT JOHN'S. EVE OF, on<j of the most joyous festivals of Christendom during the
middle ages, was celebrated on midsummer eve. From the account given of it by Jakob
Grimm in his Dcntxche Mytholorjie (Bd. i. pp. 583-593), it would appear to have been
observed with similar rites in every country of Europe. Fires were kindled chiefly in the
streets and market places of the towns, as at Paris, Metz, etc.; sometimes, as at Gerns-
heim, in the district of Mainz, they were blessed by the parish-priest, and prayer and
praise offered until they had burned out; but, as a rule, they were secular in their char-
acter, and conducted by the laity themselves. The young people leaped over the
fl.un -s, or threw flowers and garlands into them, with merry shoutings; songs and
dances were also a frequent accompaniment. At a comparatively late period, the very

Saint Johns.

highest personages took part in these festivities. In England, we are told (see R. Cham-
bers's Book of Days, June 24), the people on the eve of St. John's " were accustomed to
go into the woods and break down branches of trees, which the}' brought to their homes,
nnd planted over Uieir doors, amid great demonstrations of joy, to make good the
prophecy respecting the Baptist, that many should rejoice in his birth. This custom was
universal in England till the recent change in manners. Some of the superstitious
totions connected with St. John's eve are of a highly fanciful nature. The Irish believe
lhat the souls of all people on this night leave their bodies, and wander to the place, by
lind or sea, where death shall finally separate them from the tenement of clay. It is not
improbable that this notion was originally universal, and was the cause of the widespread
custom of watching or sitting up awake on St. John's night, for we may well believe
that there would be a general wish to prevent the soul from going upon that somewhat
dismal ramble. In England, and perhaps in other countries also, it was believed that, if
fcny one sat up fasting all night in the church porch, he would see the spirits of those
Vho were to die in the parish during the ensuing twelve months come and knock at the
church door, in the order and succession in which they were to die. We can easily per-
ceive a possible connection between this dreary fancy and that of the soul's midnight
ramble." The kindling of the fire, the leaping over or through the flames, and the flower-
garlands, clearly shown that these rites are essentially of heathen origin, and of a sacri-
ficial character. They are obviously connected with the worship of the sun, and were
doubtless practiced long before the Baptist was born. In old heathen times, midsummer
and yule (q.v.), the summer and winter solstices, were the two greatest and most wide-
spread festivals in Europe. The church could not abolish these; it could only change
their name, and try to find something in the history of Christianity that would justify the


SAINT JOIINSBURY, a t., co. seat of Caledonia co.,Vt. ; 38 m. n.e. of Montpelier,
on the Portland and Ogdeusburg, and the Connecticut and Passumpsic Rivers railroads;
pop. '80, 5,800. It contains 3 villages, St. Johnsbury, St. Johnsbury Center, and St.
Johnsbury East. The town contains the works of the "Fairbanks scales company, which
employs nearly 600 men. There are other factories and foundries, a fine court-house,
large public library and art gallery, 3 banks, 2 papers, an academy, and many churches
and schools. The place is exceedingly pleasant as a residence and thriving in busi-

SAINT JOHN'S COLLEGE, at Fordham in the city of New York, a Roman Catho-
lic institution, but open to students of all religious denominations, was organized in
1841. It enjoys the powers and privileges of a university, and is conducted by the
Jesuit fathers. The grounds are extensive, well laid out for college purposes, and
afford uncommon facilities for athletic sports, for bathing, and for skating. Ample oppor-
tunities are alscrprovided for indoor amusements. The buildings are spacious, thoroughly
ventilated, well heated by steam, lighted by gas, and provided with bath-rooms. The
college has no endowment, and no revenue but the fees of the students and the products
of the farm. The laboratories and their apparatus, and the cabinet of natural history,
occupy a separate building. The library contains 20.000 volumes, besides a circulating
library of 5,000 volumes. The correspondence of students is under the supervision of the
college authorities. No books, papers, periodicals, etc., are allowed among the students
until they have been examined and approved. Students are not permitted to go beyond
the college bounds without leave, and without the company of an officer. Number of
professors (1880) 11- other instructors, 17; students, 161; alumni, 390. President, rev.
F. W. Gockeln, s.j.

SAINT JOHN'S COLLEGE, Cambridge, was founded in 1511 by lady Margaret, countesa
of Richmond, and mother of Henry VII. ; but her death happening before the design
was completed, her executors, one of whom was Fisher, bishop of Rochester, carried her
intentions into effect. The site of the college had been long before devoted to pious uses,
but three times was the disposition of the propertj' altered 1st, when Neal, bishop of
Ely, founded here a hospital for canons regular in 1134; 2dly, when Hugh de Balsham
made it into a priory, dedicated to St. John the evangelist; 3dly, when lady Margaret's
executors converted it into a college. The foundation is for a master, who is elected by
the society; 56 fellows, 60 scholars, and 9 proper sizars. There are also numerous ex-
hibitions of considerable value, and 8 minor scholarships open every year to competition
for students who have not yet commenced residence in the university. Among names
of interest may be mentioned William Grindal, tutor to queen Elizabeth; Roger Ascham;
Cecil lord Burleigh; Richard Bentley (who became master of Trinity college); Kirke
White, the poet; Henry Jiartyn, etc. See Cooper's Memorials of Cambridge.

SAINT JOHN'S RIVER, in s.e. Florida, rising in Cypress swamp, Brevard co.,
Fla., flows through Orange co., forming the dividing line between Marion, Putnam,
and Clay on the w. . and St. John's co. on the e.t emptying into the Atlantic ocean in
Duval co., 15 m. e. of Jacksonville. It runs in a channel due n. and s. 20 m. from the
coast and parallel with it, until it reaches Jacksonville, whence it takes an e. course to
the sea. It is nearly 400 in. long, and is navigable by large steamers 330 m. to Enter-

Saint John's. 9

Saint Lawrence.

prise (a fashionable winter resort with sulphur springs), and for lighters 60 m. above.
For the first 100 ra. from its source it forms a sheet of water 5 m. in width, then deepen-
ing and forming a channel it measures 1 m. in width for two-thirds of its course, ex-
panding into a few small lakes in the s. and lake Monroe and lake George, considerable
bodies of water, farther north. It is a smoothly flowing stream, bordered by orange
groves, with little perceptible current. It will admit vessels of from 14 to 15 ft. draught
at Jacksonville (above the bar, which has a minimum depth of 7 ft.), of 10 ft. to Pilatka,
and of 8 ft. to lake George.


SAINT JOHN THE BAPTIST, a parish in s.e. Louisiana; bounded e. by lake
Pontchartrain, n. by lake Maurepas, and intersected by the Mississippi river; 260 sq.m. ;
pop. '80, 9,686 9.415 of American birth, 5,831 colored. The surface is level and very
low; corn, sugar, molasses, and rice are the staples. Chief town, Bonnet Carre.

SAINT JOSEPH, a co. in n. Indiana adjoining Michigan; drained by the Kankakee
and Saint Joseph rivers; on the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern and the Chicago and
Lake Huron railroads; about 450 sq.m.; pop. '80, 33,176 27,669 of American birth.
The surface is level prairie or woodland. The soil is extremely fertile. The principal
productions are corn, wheat, oats, dairy products, and live stock. Co. seat, South Bend.

SAINT JOSEPH, a co. in s. Michigan, adjoining Indiana, drained by the St. Joseph,
the Portage, the Prairie, and the Fawn rivers; on the Lake Shore and Michigan South-
ern, the Michigan Central, and the Grand Rapids and Indiana railroads; about 500 sq.m.;
pop. '70, 26,27523,591 of American birth. The surface is rolling. The soil is fertile.
The principal productions are corn, wheat, wool, hay, and dairy products. Co. seat,

SAINT JOSEPH, a city of Missouri, on the left bank of the Missouri river, on the
eastern border of Kansas, 495 m. by water from St. Louis. Five lines of railway ceriter
here, and it has a large wholesale trade in agricultural products, etc., amounting io
$18,000,000 in 1874. It has a court-house, 17 churches, a convent, several large hotels,
7 newspapers, 3 of which are dailies, steam-mills, and factories, and a large trade witli
the interior of the continent. Pop. '70, 19,565.

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 5 of 203)