Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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Malignant scarlatina is so terrible a disease that its characteristic symptoms require a
brief special notice. The rash comes out late and imperfectly, and sometimes is hardly
perceptible; or, having appeared, it may suddenly recede; and sometimes it is inter-
mixed with livid spots. The pulse is feeble, the skin is cold, and there is extreme
prostration of strength. In such a case as this, death may occur (apparently- from blood-
poisoning) in a few hours. Other cases rapidly assume a typhus-like character. "The
pulse (says Dr. Watson) becomes frequent and feeble; the tongue dry, brown, and trem- %
ulous; the debility extreme; the breath offensive; the throat is livid', swollen, ulcerated,

f) 1 Q SoarhoroiigH.

^ 1 t/ Scarlatina.

and gangrenous; and the respiration is impeded by viscid mucus, which collects about
the fauces. Over this variety of the disease medicine has comparatively little control."

Kven in xcurnitiini ahginosa tliere is very considerable danger. The disease may prove
fatal (1) from inflammation or eJfusion whhiu the head, or (2) from the throat-aifection,
which too often proceeds to disorganization and sloughing of the adjacent parts. .More-
over, in parturient women even the mildest form of the disease is fraught with the
greatest peril. Further, when the disease is apparently cured, the patient is exposed
to great hazard from its consequences or sequeliz. Children who have Buffered
a seven: attack of scarlet fever are liable (in the words of the eminent physician to whom
we have already referred) "to fall into a state of permanent bad health, and to become
a prey to some of the many chronic forms of scrofula hoils, strumous ulc.-rs, disi-ax-s
of the scalp, sores behind the ear, scrofulous swellings of the cervical glands and of the
upper lip, chronic inflammation of the eyes and eyelids. The above-named consequences
not unfrequently follow small-pox and measles, hut, in addition to these, scarlatina is
often followed by the form of dropsy known as anasarca, or serous infiltration of the
subcutaneous cellular tissue, frequently accompanied with dropsy of the larger serous
cavities. Strange as it may at first sight appear, this dropsy is much more common after
a mild than afte-r a severe form of the disease; but this apparent anomaly is probably
due to the fact that less caution is observed in the former than in the latter cases dur-
ing the dangerous period of desquumation. If the patient (for example) is allowed to
go out while new cuticle is still forming, the perspiratory power of the skin is checked
by the cold, and the escape of the fever poison through the great cutaneous outlet is thus
prevented. An excess of the poison is therefore driven to the kidneys, where it gives
rise to the form of renal disease known as " acute desquamative nephritis."

Scarlatina is a disease that like all the exanthemata occurs in the epidemic form;
and each epidemic presents its peculiar type, the disease being sometimes uniformly mild,
and in others almost as uniformly severe. The treatment of this disease varies accord-
ing to the preponderating symptoms. In scarlatina simplex nothing is required except
confinement to the house, a non-stimulating diet, and the due regulation of the bowels,
which are apt to be costive. In scarlatina anginosa, cold or tepid sponging gives much
relief if the skin is hot. If there is much fever, and especially if delirium supervene, a
few leeches should be applied behind the ears, or if the patient were previously in robust
health, blood might be cautiously taken from the arm. If, however, no bad head-
symptoms are present, all that is necessary is to prescribe saline draughts, of which
citrate of ammonia, with a slight excess of carbonate of ammonia, forms the best ingre- ,
dient, and to keep the bowels open once or twice a day by gentle laxatives. In scarlatina '
i/ndii/na there are two main sources of danger, which were first recognized as distinct
by Dr. Watson, who describes them as follows: " The one arises from the primary
impression of the contagions poison upon the body, and particularly upon the nervous
system, which is overwhelmed by its influence. The patients sink often at a very early
period, with but little affection either of the throat or skin. If we can save such patients
at all, it must be by the liberal administration of wine and bark, to sustain the flagging
powers until the deadly agency of the poison has in some measure passed away. But
another source of danger arises from the gangrenous ulceration which is apt to ensue in
the fauces, when the patient is not killed by the first violence of the contagion. The
system is re-inoculated, I believe, with the poisonous matter from the throat. Now,
under these circumstances also, quinia, or wine, and upon the whole, I should give the
preference to wine, is to be diligently though watchfully given." In addition to these
remedies, a weak solution of chloride of soda, of nitrate of silver, or of Condy's disin-
fectant fluid, should be used as a gargle; or if, as is too often the case, the patient is
incapable of gargling, the solution may be injected into the nostrils and against the fauces
by means of a syringe or elastic bottle.

Three medicines have been so highly commended in scarlet fever generally, by trust-
worthy observers, that it is expedient to notice them. The first, is chlorate of "potash
(KO,OlO 5 ) dissolved in water in the proportion of a dram to a pint. A pint, or a pint
and a half, may be taken daily. It was originally prescribed under the idea that it gave
off its o.xygen to the blood, and was eliminated from the system as chloride of potassium
{KC'l). Although this view is now known to be incorrect, there is no doubt that the
salt is often prescribed with great benefit in this and some other diseases, as for example,
diphtheria and typhus fever. The second medicine is a very weak, walcry solution of
chlorine, of which a pint may be taken in the day; and the third is carbonate of ammonia
in five-grain doses three times a day, given in beef-tea, wine, etc.

In the early stage, before the appearance of the rash, scarlatina may be readily mis-
taken for several other febrile diseases; after the appearance of the rash, the only disease
for which it can be mistaken is measles, and we must refer to the article on that disease
/or a notice of the distinctive characters of the two affections.

There is no complaint in vi,ich the final result is more uncertain than this, and the
physician should give a very guarded opinion as to how any special case may termi-

Whether the disease is contagious throughout its course, or only at one particular
period, is unknown ; and if the physician is asked at what period the danger of imparting
Jhe disease on the one hand, or catching it on the other, is over, he should candidly

Scarlatti. 9OQ


declare that lie does not know. That the contagion remains attached to furniture,
clothing, etc.. for a I>IL-J; period is undoubted. Dr. Watson gives a remarkable instance
of a small piece of infected flannel communicating the disease after the interval of a

The popular delusion that scarlatina is a mild and diminutive form of scarlet fever
should always be corrected, as the error, if imcorrected, may dp much harm by leading
to a disregard of those precautions which are always necessary in this disease.

SCAELATTI, AI.ESSANDKO, a musician of great eminence, b. at Trapani in Sicily
in 1G5S). Jle is said to have studied under Carissimi; if so, it must have been when
very young. In 1680 Scarlatti visited Rome, and composed his first opera, L'mieau in-tl'
aiu'-ii-e, first performed at the court of queen Christina of Sweden. His opera PO///JIVO

was performed at Naples in 1684. In 1693 he composed the oratorio, 1 Dulori di Maria
&. in [ire \~cryine, and the opera Teodora, in which orchestral accompaniments were first
introduced to the recitatives, and a separate design given to the accompaniments to the
airs. In the following eight years, during part of which time he held the office of
maestro di cttpella at Naples, lie produced various operas, the most remarkable being
Laodicea e Berenice, composed in 1701. Between 1703-9 he held the situation of
maestro di capeUa, &t St. Maria Maggiore at Rome; he then returned to Naples; and in.
1715 produced II Tiynine. Alessandro Scarlatti died in 1721. His musical works com-
prise 117 operas, several oratorios, and a great deal of church music, besides various
madrigals and other chamber music. He was the founder of the Neapolitan school, in
which were trained most of the great musicians of last century, and whose influence
can be traced in the works of almost every composer who has flourished since. His
invention was rich and bold, his learning great, and his style pure. His modulations,
often unexpected, are never harsh, and never difficult for ihe voice. His son, DOMKX-
ico (born 1685, died 1757), was the first harpsichord player of his day. Among his com-
positions are a number of sonatas, remarkable for invention, graceful melody, and skill-
ful construction. Domenico Scarlatti had a son, GIUSEPPE (born 1718, died 1796), who
was also known as an eminent musician.

SCAELET COLOES. Cochineal furnishes the only scarlet color generally employed in
dyeing, and for this purpose it is very extensively used; a solution of tin and cream of
tartar is employed as the mordant to fix it. Scheffer, who produced the best formula
for dyeing this color, also addid starch, the proportions being as follow: Starch, 9 Ibs. ;
vrcani of tartar, 9 Ibs. 6 oz. ; solution of tin, 9 Ibs. 6 oz. ; and cochineal, 12 Ibs. 4 oz.
1'Lese are the quantities required for 100 Ibs. of wool or cloth.



SCAEPA, ANTOKIO, a celebrated anatomist, was born on June 13. 1747, at Castello-
Motta. a village in the Friuli. He was educated at Padua, where his ardor attracted
the attention of the octogenarian Morgagni, who, having lost his sight shortly
nfter the arrival of Scarpa at the university, engaged the young enthusiast as
his sectetary, and dictated to him in Latin the answers which he made to let-
ters soliciting his advice. The intervals between their medical studies were
employed by Morgagni and Scarpa in the perusal of the Latin authors, and it is
to this practice that we must ascribe the elegance that distinguished the scien-
tific style of Scarpa in his subsequent publications. In 1772 he was appointed
professor of an'atomy in Modena. He afterward visited France, Holland, and England;
and while in London, was so enamored of John Hunter's museum, that he did not rest
until he had constructed a similar one at home. In 1783 he filled the anatomical chair
t Pavia. He made, in the following year, a journey throughout the greater part of
Germany, and in the course of it acquired the experience that made him one of the
greatest clinical surgeons in Europe. On his return to Pavia, he published in rapid suc-
cession treatises on the anatomy of the organs of smell and hearing; on the nerves of
Die heart, and on the minute anatomy of bone. These, especially that on the innerva-
tion of the heart, which settled the question whether that viscus was supplied with nerves,
gave Scarpa a European reputation. His work on the diseases of the eye, published
in 1801, was followed in 1804 by his observations on the cure of aneurism But his
greatest achievement was his work on hernia, published in 1809 His reputation was
now at its highest, but three years afterward, he had to give up the work of public teach-
ing, and entered, in 1814. on the office of director of the medical faculty of Pavia.
Ili.s next publication was some valuable observations on the operation for stone. For
the last years of his life he suffered from almost total blindness, until, on Oct. 30, 1832,
he died at Pavia. of inflammation of the bladder. Scarpa's merits as an observer, a
teacher, and a writer were very great. Industrious, scholarly, artistic, he appeared to
great advantage in nearly every subject he undertook.

SCAEPAN TO (anc. finrpatJio*). an island in the Mediterranean, belonging to Turkey,
midway between the islands of Rhodes and Crete. It is 32 m. lonsr. and about 8 m. in
extreme breadth, and its surface is covered with bare mountains, which reach the height
of 4.000 feet. The ruins of town*, which are four"l in several places, seem to indicate.
that formerly the island was well peopled. At present the inhabitants are only about

OO1 Scarlatti.


5,000 in number, and are mostly employed as carpenters and workers in wood, a trade
of which they seem peculiarly fond, and in commerce.

SCAEPE, in heraldry, a diminutive of the bend sinister, being half the breadth of
that ordinary.

SCAP.KON. PAUL, the creator of French burlesque, was b. at Paris in 1610. His
father. ;i < nun-'-lor of parliament, was a man of fortune and good family; but he having
married again after the death of Paul's mother, discord broke out between the si-con..!
wife and her step-children, the result of which was that Paul had to leave the house.
About 1034; he visited Italy, where he made the acquaintance of Poussin the painter. O J
his return to Paris, he delivered himself over to a life of very gross pleasure, the con.-,
quence of which was that, in less than four years, he was seized with permanent
paralysis of the limbs. What makes this incident in his career still interesting is the

escape through the gates of mockery from the tourment vehemens of his incurai le
ailment. His scramble for the means of living is excusable when we consider his hapless
iniirmity. lie wrote verses, flattering dedications, begging-letters for pensions, etc.;
and in 1043 he even managed to get a benelice at Mans, which he held for three yi-ars.
when he returned to Paris, and lived in a sort of elegant Bohemian style. He had
a pension from Mazarin of 500 crowns; but when the cardinal declined (probably
from avarice) to allow the Ti/phon to be dedicated to him, Sea mm got absurdly indig-
nant, and joining the Frondeurs, lampooned Ma/.arin with spleenful virulence. How-
ever, when the war of the Fronde was at an end, and Mazarin had triumphed, Scarroii
was ready with an ode to

Jule, autrefois Tobjet deFinjuste satire.

This baseness, however, did not win him back his pension, which the "object of

his unjust satire" had withdrawn; and it might have fared hard with the poet had
other friends not started up for example, Fouquet, who granted him a pension of 1600
crowns and had he himself not been the most consummate beggar that ever lived. If he
could not get a benelice or a purse of gold, or a lodge at court, he would take a load of
firewood, or a carriage, pasties, capon, cheese, poodles, etc. nothing came amiss; and
his ample acknowledgements showed how thoroughly he had mastered the art of express-
ing griuitud''. Doubtless his physical lu.'lpl'ssn.'.'s.s induced this bad habit, but his
importunities were so pleasantly worded that they never estranged the friends on whom
he fastened. In 1653, Scarron married Franyuis d'Aubigne a girl of 17, who subse-
quently became the mistress of Louis XIV., and is known as Madame Maintenon (q.v.).
He died early in October 1660 the exact date is not known, but he was buried on the
7th. It is a proof of the charm of his company that his rooms were frequented by most
of the men and women of his day who were distinguished either in literature or society.
Among his works may be mentioned Lv Tiiphoi), Virgile T/;i >/<( i (Par. 1648-52), Ln
M'i-,,1 rii,< nl,: (1649), L/( 1)ii)-'>mi<lt\ Leandre et Hero, Ode B>irl<*q>ie, Lu Iblithn <lu C'r t -
bii! '!,:< Purques et dea Poetus BUT la .\[<>i-tdc V<>Hnre, Poesies Diverse* (Par. 164:}- 31), com-
prising sonuets, madrigals, epistles, satires, songs, etc.; Le R'>:nn ('/.<///'/</<' (Par. 1651), '
a most amusing account of the life led by a company of strolling players it is the best
known, and perhaps the best of all Scarron's productions; JV<wYY'Y.v Tnt'iif .//./'/"<*. from
one of which (Les Hypocrite*) Moliere has taken the idea of Tartu t'e; besides a number of
clever but coarse comedies. The editions of his works are very numerous, but the best
is that of I!ru/.en de la Martiniere (Amster., 10 vols., 1787: Par.. 7 vols.. 1786). Victor
Founiel. to whom we are indebted for most of the information in this article, republished
Lc R:nnan Contique, in 1857, and Le Virgile Tratesti in 1858.

of the town
churches, and
an ancient round tower 120 ft. high.

SCAUP DUCK, Fuliynlft. or Nyroca, mania, an oceanic species of duck, of the s?.mc
genus wi'h the pochard (q.v.) an inhabitant of the northern pr.rts of the world,
spending the summer in arctic or subarctic regions, and visiting the coasts of Britain
and of continental Europe as far s. as the Mediterranean in winter, when it is also to be
seen in great flocks in the United States, not only on the sea-coast, but on the Ohio,
Mississippi, and other rivers. It breeds in fresh-water swamps. It is nearly equal in
size to the pochard. The male has the head, neck, and upper part of the breast and
back black, the cheeks and sides of the neck glossed with rich green; the back white,
spotted and stripped with black lines; the wing-coverts darker than the back, the
speculum white; the rump and tail-coverts black" The female has brown instead of
black, and old females have a broad white band around the base of the bill. The flesh
of the scaup duck is tough, and has a strong fishy flavor.

SCAURUS. M.vurrs /F^m.n's, B.C. 163-89; b. Rome; served with distinction in the
army, and became curule u-dile in 123. He was elected pr<it<>r urban'/.* in 120, and con-
sul in 115. During his term in the latter office, he was made ^rinceps scnatm, and

SCATTESY ISLAND, a small islet in the estuary of the Shannon, 3 m. s.w.
of Kilrus!). Besides a fort, the islet contains fragments of several small ch


awarded a Iriumpli for his defeat of tbe Ligurians. In 112 he headed a legation to
Jugurtha in Africa for tiie purpose of persuading the latter to redress the injuries which
he "had done to Adherbal. The mission failed, and in tbe subsequent war frcaurus was
legate of ijie consul Bestia. Scaurus, with others, was bribed by Jugurtha to negotiate
peace, but escaped punishment. He was again consul in 107. His son, MARCUS
^EMiLirs, was Sulla's stepson, and acquired an immense estate by his stepfather's pro-
scription, and bv receiving bribes in Asia, when he was quaestor to Poinpey. lie spent
his riches in celebrating the games while curule aedile, was praetor in 56, and gained
another fortune by his extortions in Sardinia, which he governed in 55. He was tried,
defended by Cicero and Hortensius, and acquitted.


SCEPTER (Gr. skeptron, staff; from skepto, to send or thrust) originally a staff or
walking-stick, hence in course of time, also a weapon of assault and of defense. At a
very early period the privilege of carrying it came to be connected with the idea of
authority'and station. Both in the Old Testament and in Homer, the most solemn oaths
are sworn by the scepter, and Homer speaks of the scepter as an attribute of kings,
priuces, and leaders of tribes. According to Homer, the scepter descended from father
to son, and might be committed to any one to denote the transfer of authority. Among
the Persians, whole classes of persons vested with authority, including eunuchs, were
distinguished as the " scepter- bearing classes." The scepter was in very early times a
truncheon pierced with gold or silver studs. Ovid speaks of it as enriched with gems,
and made of precious metals or ivory. The scepter of the kings of Rome, which was
afterward borne by the consuls, was of ivory and surmounted by an eagle. While
no other ensign of sovereignty is of the same antiquity as the scepter, it has kept its
place as a symbol of royal authority through the middle ages and dow r n to the present
time. There has been considerable variety in its form; the scepter of the kings of France
of the first race was a gold rod as tall as the king himsalf.


SCHADOW, GODEXHAUS FRIEDR. WILH. VON, a distinguished German painter, of the
Dusseldorf school, was b. at Berlin, Sept. 6, 1789. His father, Joh. Gottf. Schadow, an
eminent sculptor, died director of the Berlin academy of arts, in 1850. At first young
Schadow did not give much promise of excellence, but during his first visit to Rome,
the influence of Overbeck, Cornelius, Fuhrich, Veit, etc., awoke his dormant genius,
and both singly and in company with some of these artists, he executed several pictures
remarkable for their depth of religious sentiment; as "An Explanation of the Dream of
Joseph," and " The Grief of Jacob when told of the Death of his Sou." While residing
in the city of the pope, he passed over to Roman Catholicism. Scarcely had Schadow
returned to Berlin when he was appointed professor of the academy, and* soon gathered
round him a hoM; of brilliant pupils; but in 1826 he went to Dusseldorf as successor of
Cornelius, iti the direction of the notable academy there. His pupils followed him, and
ever since the "Dusseldorf school" has been associated specially with their names.
Schadow's principal works are "Mignou" (1828); "The Four Evangelists," "The Wise
and Foolish Virgins," "The Source of Life," "The Assumption," and "Heaven,"
"Purgatory," and "Hell." Schadow was ennobled in 1843. Der Mode me Vaaari
(18-34) is a book from his hand. He died Mar. 19, 1862.

SCHAFF, PHILIP, S.T.D., LL.D. ; b. Coire, Switzerland, 1819; studied at Stuttgart,
Tubingen, Halle, and Berlin; traveled in 1841 as private tutor in France, Switzerland,
and Italy; returned to Berlin and lectured on theology 1842-44; emigrated to America
in 1844; professor of theology in the German Reformed theological seminary at Mercers-
burg, Penu., 1844-62; lectured at Andover on church historv, 1862-67; secretary of the
New York Sabbath committee, 1864-69; elected professor of church history in Hartford
theological seminary in 1868; became professor of church history in the Union the-
ological seminary. New York in 1871, which position he still holds. Of his numerous
works the following are the most important: The Sin ayaintt the Holy Ghost; James the
Brother of the Lord; The Principle of Protestantism as related to Romanism and the
Present State of the Church; History -of the Apostolic Church, with a General Introduction
to Church History; The L\fe and Labors of St. Augustine; America: A Sketch of the Pvliti-

The Creeds of Christendom. He was editor of several German reviews, and a copious
contributor to many American and European periodicals. He is the editor of Lange'a
Commentary, and the secretary of the American committee for the revision of the author-
ized version of the Scriptures.

SCHAFFHAU SEN, the most northern canton of Swhzerland, is bounded on all sides
but the s. by the duchy of Baden. Area. 116 sq.m. ; pop. '70, 37,721, of whom about
34,500 are Protestants, and 3,050 are Catholics. The chief river is the Rhine, which


forms part of the southern boundary, find -within the basin of which (he canton is wholly
included. The surt'act: is hilly, especially in the n. and e., and of the many rich valleys
that Mope southward to theRnine. that of the Klellgau is famous for its unusual fertility,
and for ils wines. ti:e bouquet of which is peculiarly tine. The climate is mild: the
soil, which is mostly calcareous, is generally fruitful, and agriculture is the principal
branch of industry. Grain, fruits, flax, hemp, and wiue are the chief crops. Iron is
obtained. The >ov< tvi^nty is usually exercised by the great council of 600 members,
wholly renewed by ballot every lour years; but the people have the right of veto.
Schaft'hauseu sends two members to the national council.

SCHAFFHAUSEN, a t. of Switzerland, capital of the canton of the same name, beauti-
fully .situated on the right bank of the Rhine, immediately above the celebrated falls of
that river. Higher up tlie slope oil which the town stands is the curious castle of
Munoth, and this edifice- and the minster, founded in 1033, are the chief buildings. The
town is remarkable for the antique architecture of its houses. The old wall and gate-
ways of Schaffhauaen are also very picturesque. Pop. 'TO, 10,300, purtly engaged in ihe
manufacture of iron, cotton, and* silk goods. The fulls of ScJiaffliauten, a Iron t 3 in.

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 51 of 203)