Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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below the town, form, perhaps, the most imposing spectacle of the kind in Europe.
The river is here oOO tt. broad, and the en lire descent is about 100 feet. From a pro-
jecting balcony, which overhangs the roaring cataract, the visitor mr.y appreciate the
full grandeur of the iall.

SCHALL. JOIIAXX ADAM TON, a celebrated Jesuit missionary to China, was b. of
noble family at Cologne in 1591, and having made his studies and entered the Jesuit
order in Rome in 1611. he was selected, partly in consequence of his great knowledge of
mathematics and astronomy, to form one of the mission to China in 1630. Having,
with the characteristic skill and ability of his order, turned to good account among the
Chinese his familiarity with mathematical and mechanical science, he not only suc-
ceeded in forming a nourishing mission, but was ultimately invited to the imperial
court at Pekin, where he was entrusted with the compilation of 'the calcrdar. and the
direction of the public mathematical school, being himself created a mandarin. Such
was his favor with the emperor, that, contrary to all tne received etiquette, he had the
privilege of free access to the presence of the emperor Chun-Tche, the founder of the
Tartar dynasty (1(545), p. ml was honored by visits from the emperor at four stated times
in each year. Through this favor with' the emperor. Schall obtained an edict which
authorized the building of Catholic churches, and the liberty of preaching throughout
the empire; and in the space of 14 years the Jesuit missionarfes in the several pr, vinces
are said to have received into the church 100.000 proselytes. On the death of this
emperor, however, a change of policy fatal to the prospects of Christianity took piace.
The favorable edict above referred to was revoked; Schall was thrown into prison and
sentenced to death. lie was afterward liberated; but he 'was again imprisoned, and. at
the end of a long incarceration, died Aug. 15, 16C9. lie had acquired a perfect ir.aMcry
of the Chinese language, in which lie compiled numerous treatises upon scientific and
religious subjects. A large MS. collection of his remains in Chinese, amounting to 14
volumes in 4to, is preserved in the Vatican library. He also translated into Chinese
several works, doctrinal and medical, especially some treatises of father Lesshis. a
Flemish Jesuit, the most important of which was that On the Pr idi n<\ -/ God. See
Mailly's HMnire Generate de la Chine and Hue's Lc Christianixntc e/t Chine.

SCHASBTJRG, or SCHAS-ST/CRG (Magyar, Segesni). a t. of Austria, in Transylvania, on
the <rreat Kokel. It consists of the burg or upper town and the lower town. Pop. '69,

SCHAUFFLER, WILLIAM GOTTLIEB, D.D., PH.D., LL.D. ; b. Stuttgart, Germany, in
1798; went with his parents at the age of six to Odessa, Russia; at the age of 22
became religiously impressed, and desired to be a missionary; began to study English
with a young English merchant in 1825; met at Odessa the eccentric Joseph Wolf, and
accompanied him to Turkey for mission work, but, convinced that he needed more
study, resorted to America by advice of the rev. Jonas King, whom he met at Smyrna;
went to Andover; worked part of the time at his trade as a turner. After a three years'
course in the theological seminary, he remained another year studying C'haldee. Syriac,
Arabic, Persian, Turkish, and Spanish; was ordained in 1832 and sent by the Amerii ;;n
board to Paris to study Arabic and Persian with De Sacy, and Turkish with prof.
Kieffer; went to Constantinople; preached in German, French, Spanish. Turkish, and
English. By appointment of the British and foreign and American Bible socictu
devoted himself to the translation of the Bible into the Osmaulce, or the higher ;md
purer Turkish language. In 1867 he received the degree of D.D. and PH. p, from ihe
universities of Halle and Wittenberg. He published, twice, an ancient Spanish version
of the Old Testament, revised by himself, with the Hebrew original, in parallel columns.
a grammar of the Hebrew language in Spanish, and a Hebrew and C'haldee lexicon of
the Old Testament in the same language; Meditations on the L"*t Days of Chrial, die-
courses delivered in Constantinople, first printed in Boston in 1837, and recently issued
by the American tract society. He contributed articles in Spanish to a missionary
periodical in Salonica,

SrTianmbnrir-I,ippe. OOJ.

.Si'Iicilin-. Zw *

CCi:."-"JII E"JP.G-LI? PE, a sovereign Gorman principality, includes the western part
cf ilii: former county of Schaumburg, and is bounded on the w. by Westphalia and the
n. by Hanover. A;va 170 ; pop. '75, 33,133. r l"ill 1866 the constitution was on
the ancient patriarchal basis; but since, the Schaumburg-Lippe has a representative diet
of 15 members, 10 of whom arc elected by the towns and the country districts, the rest
by the prince, the nobility, and the clergy and educated classes. It has one vote in the
federal council of the German empire, and sends one deputy to the Reichstag. The
revenue of Schaumburg-Lippe in 1878-79 was 35,225; the expenditure just balanced it.
The debt amounted to 18,000, besides 55, 800 as quota toward the paper money of the

SCHEELE, CHARLES- WILLIAM, an eminent Swedish chemist, was b. at Stralsund, 1742,
and after receiving a brief and incomplete education was apprenticed to an apothecary
at Gothenburg, where he laid the foundation of his knowledge of chemistry. In 1767 he
settled at Stockholm as an apothecary; and in 1770 removed to Upsala, where at that
time the celebrated Bcrgmaun was professor of chemistry. It was during his residence
at Upsala that he carried on those investigations in chemical analysis whicli proved so
fruitful in important and brilliant discoveries, and placed their author by the side of
Linnaeus and Berzelius, his countrymen in the front rank of science. In 1777 he
removed to Koping to take possession of a vacant apothecary business, but died of ague-
fever. May 24, 1786, at a time when he was receiving the most tempting offers from Eng-
land to persuade him to settle in that country. The chief of his discoveries were tartaric
acid (1770), chlorine (1774), baryta (1774), oxygen (1777), and glycerine (1784), the second
last of which had been previously made known through the labors of Priestley, though
Scheene was not aware of this till after his own discovery of it in 1777. In experiment-
ing on arsenic and its acid, he discovered the arsenite of copper, which is known as a
pigment under the name of Sckiele's green or mineral green. In 1782, during ay eminently
delicate and subtle investigation to determine the nature of the 'coloring matter in Prus-
sian blue, he succeeded in obtaining, for the first time, prussic acid in a separate form.
The mode and results of his various investigations were communicated from time to
time, in the form of memoirs, to the academy of Stockholm, of which he was an ;i>so
ciate, and also in Lis chief work, the Chemical Treatise on Air and Fire (1777), and in an
Ennay on the Coloring Matter in Prussian Blue (178.3).


SCHEFFZS, ARY, a French painter, b. at Dorr, in Holland, Feb. 10, 1795; studied
under Gucrin of Paris, and made his debut as an artist in 1812. Some years later
appeared his " Mort de Saint-Louis," "Le Devouement des Bourgeois de Calais," and
several genre pieces, such as "La Veuve du Soldat," " Le Retour d:i Consent," "La.
Soeur deCharite," "La Scene d'Invasion," etc., which have been pooularizcd MI France by
engravings; but compared with his later performances these early pictures have little
merit. It was not till the " Romantic'' movement reached art that Scheffer began to feel
conscious of his peculiar power. The influence of Goatlic and Byron became conspicu-
ous in his choice of subjects, and to the remarkable facility of execution that had always
marked him, he now added_a subtilty and grace of imagination that give an inexpress-

yeur," " Francesca de Rimini," etc. Toward the year 1836 his art underwent its third
and final phase the religious. To this class belong his " Le Christ Consolateur," " Le
Christ Remunerates," " Les Bergers conduits par VAnge," " Les Rois Mages deposant
leurs Tremors." " Le Christ au Jardin des Oliviers," " Lc Christ portant sa Croix " " Le
Christ enscveli," and " Saint Augustiu ct si Mere Sainte Monique," some of which are
wdl known in England by engravings. Scheffer also executed some remarkable por-
traits; among others, those of LaFayette, Beranger, Lamartine. He died at Ar"-cnteuil
near Paris, June 15, 1858.

SCHELDT, THE (pron. SlceU; Lat, Scaldis, Fr. TEscaitf) rises in the French dep. of

AlSIie. HOWS HOTt hf*rl V tn' f \imKroi 'Vn1ntis*is****istci T>^*i !.- ! ,J /^~>, ^1 < .1. x !

Cambrai, Valenciennes, Bouchain, and Conde, when, enterin^

kj- , 111 AJ.VV., IW JUM L 1.HIIII, 1U LUQ

.[Netherlands, where, coming in contact with the island of South Bevehnd, it divides

two arms. The left or southern, called the Honte or Western Scheldt takes a

westerly direction, s. of the islands of Zealand, and meets the North sea at Flushinjr:

! northern or right arm, called the Kreckerak, flows between Zealand and North Bra-

)ant, near Bcrgen-op zoom, dividing again into two branches, the left, called the Easter

t, passing between the islands of Tholen and Schonwen on the right, and the

Jicvelands on the left, reaches tlie sea through the Room pot (Roma nonim pnrtv*)- the

r branch, flowing between North Brabant and Zealand, discharges itself by several

passages. These several mouths of the Scheldt, forming various islands, are called the

Zealand streams.


The Dutch had long monopolized the navigation of the lower Scheldt; and by the
treaty signed in London (April 19, 1839). the Netherlands secured the right of levying
2s. Oil. per ton on nil vessels. By a treaty signed at Brussels, July !(!, 1NG3, this toil has
been 1, ought up, nominally by Belgium, but in reality from a sum of 750,000 paid to
that country by the powers \\hose ships navigate the Scheldt, the proportion falling to
Great Britain being tully 350,000.

SCHEL'LENBERG, a village in the s.e. of upper Bavaria, 6 m. s.w. of the Au c trian
town of >al/ourg, near whim oecured the rirst battle of the " war of the Spanish suc-
cession," in which the English took part. Maximilian- Emmanuel, elector of Bavaria,
had forlilied the hill of Schellenberg to resist the progress of Marl borough; but on July
4, 1704, the work was attacked by the English, led oil by prince Ludwig of Baden, and
carried by storm after a bloody tight.

SCHELLING, FUIKDU. WJLII. Jos. VON, an illustrious German philosopher, was b. at
Leouberg, in U'urtemlnirg, Jan 27, 1775, studied at Tubingen and Leipsic, and in 1798
proceeded to Jena, then tue headquarters of speculative activity in Germany, through
the influence of Keinhold and Fichte. Schilling's philosophical tendencies were origin-
ally determined by l''ichte; in fact, he \vas at lirst only an expounder, though an eloquent
and independent one. of the Fichtian idealism, as one may see from his earliest specula-
tive writings, i'e'nT die J/</;//<i7<A:, ittincr Form, dcr PiiHosoi.hie (On the Possibility of a Form
of Philosophy, Tub. 1795), Voui Ich als Princip der PMwuopIue (Of the Ego as the Prin-
ciple of Philosophy, liib. 1795), and others. Gradually, however, Schcliing diverged
from his teacher, and commenced what is regarded as the second phase of his philosophy.
Fichte's idealism now seemed to him one-sided and imperfect through its rigorous and
exclusive subjectivity, and he sought to harmonize and complete it. The result of his
speculations, in this direction, was the once famous IdentHttixphilotopkie (Philosophy of
Identity), winch claimed to show that the only true knowledge, and, therefore, the only
philosophy, was that of the infinite-absolute, in which the " real " and ideal," " nature"
and "spirit," " subject" and " object," are recognized as absolutely the same; and which
affirmed the possibility of our attaining to such knowledge by a mysterious process,
known ar, "intellectual inluiiion." The " Philosophy of Identity," though only tho
second stage in Sciielling's speculative career, i^, the most important, and is the one by
torhicu he is best known in England sir William Hamilton having elaborately discussed
it, an 1 endeavored to demonstrate its untenableness in his e.ssay on the "philosophy of
the conditioned'' (see Discussions in, Philosophy and Literature. Education and Unirersity
Reform, 1852). The principal works iu which it is more or less completely developed,
are Ideen zu einer P'tilosophie der Nadir (Ideas toward a Philosophy of Nature, Leips.
1797, 2d e,l. 18"3); Von dcr Wdtxcdj < im Hypvthese dcr Holier n Physik zur Erlauterung de
AUyeineineii Orr/unismun (Of tho World-soul, an Hypothesis of the higher Physics in eluci-
dation of the Universal Organism, llumb. 1798. 3d cd 11:09); Erste Entwurf eines tyxtemt
der Nuturphilosophie (First^Attempt fit a Systematic Philosophy of Nature, Jena, 1799);
and Syxkm dcx Trance ndcnlalcn Idcalixmvs (System cf Transcendental Idealism, Tub.
1800). In 1803, after the departure of Fichte from Jem. Schelling wns appointed to
succeed him, but in the following year went to Wiirzburg, whence, in 1808, he was
called to Munich as secretary to the academy of arts, and was ennobled by king Maxi-
milian-Joseph. Hero he lived for 33 yenrs, during the last 14 of which he occupied tho
chair of philosophy in the newly-established university of Munich, but in 1841 he fol-
lowed a call from Friedench-Wiliielm IV. to Berlin, where he mainly resided for the rest
of his life. He died at the baths of Ragaz. in Switzerland, Aug. '20, 1854. W r e now
revert to SchcHing's philosophical career. What may be regarded as its third period, if
not its third pha-e. is chieflv marked by incessant controversy. With the exception of
Bruno, oder i'l'irr dan Gd'tUrJie und NatitrUclif Prinrip der D/iifrf (fJruno. a Dialogue con-
cerning the Divine and Natural Principle of Things, Berl. 1802), and the Vorlrxmifjat
uber die Mi-tlmde de-< Akaflfinixehrn Studiums (Lectures on the Method of Academical
Study, Stuttg. and Tub. 1803), most of Sehelling's writings are polemical often holly
so. The most notable are, his PhilnnnriMe und. Rdiyion (Tiib. 1804). in reply to Ei-cl.en-
mayer; Denkmnl der Schrift run den Go'tlicfien Dinrjen (Tiib. 1812), in reply to Jacobi: and
Diirltrpuifi <fi-x Wtt/D'i'u. ^'l rhftttnisn&der NaturpJiihxoplne zur rerbcwrtt n Hdife" cln-n Lehro
(Statement of the true relation of the Nature-pit ilosopby to the improved FiHitian Doc-
trine. Tiib. 1800). Meanwhile, a most formidable adversary had risen up in his < Id col-
lege friend Hegel (q. v.), who was at first an ardent disciple "of Schelling's, just as Schell-
ing had been of Fichte, but who had, in a similar manner, broken away, and was now
pursuing an independent, and professedly antagonistic, course of speculation. Di:r?,n;
the r^eiirn of llegelianism. Schilling preserved an almost unbroken silence. For more
than 20 years lie published almost nothing, but we know that he w^is far from being idle.
He was observing narrowly the practical" as well as' the speculative results of the rival
system, and maturing his own philosophy for the final phase which it assumed, and
which he called variously, the "positive," the "historical." and the "system of free-
dom" the design of which was to interpret, at once philosophically and iweivntially.
the history, and. especially, the religious history of mankind. Schelling admitted
his earlier speculations, though sound in themselves, atiained only to "negative" truth,
and to show that the most transcendental metaphysician need not be a Pantheist, but
U. K. XIIL 16

Schem. 9 O (\


might be a believer in a personal God, or even in a Trinity, with a whole Augsburg
Confession to boot, he began to apply or develop in a practical way what he conceived
to be the principles of his system. It cannot be said that the result Las proved satisfac-
tory, though many of his contemporaries thought it would Kcander, for example,
dedicating to him, in the most eulogistic terms, the first volume of his Kirthengcsluthte,
on the ground that it was in harmony with Bchelling'fl new philosophy. T he writings
that contain the fruits of Schilling's latest thinking were for tiie most part posthumously
published, although a general idea of them had become known to the public through
such lectures as those on the Philosophy of Mythology, and the PhUonophy of Rerelation.
Schelling's Sdmmtliche Werkt (14 vols. Stuttg. 1856-01) were edited by his sons, Karl
Friedr. Aug., and Hermann Schelling. His correspondence was at Munich
in 1863. Various French writers, such as MM. Matter, Remusat, Cousin, Michelct, have
tried (with indifferent success) to explain the great mystic to their countrymen; and
English philosophical literature is dubiout-ly associated with his name, through what may
be called the somnambular plagiarisms of a kindred genius, Samuel Taylor Coleridge.
These were first pointed out by prof. Ferrier in Backwood's Magazine, Man 1840.

SCHEM, ALEXANDER J. B., b. Westphalia; studied at Paderborn, Bonn, and
Tubingen; co-editor, 1849-51, of Wetstphulisches RirchenUatt. and editor of VvlfaAlattfur
Stadt und Land; editorially connected with the AIe.thodixt Quarterly 'Review and The
Metliodixt; has contributed to the Independent, Christian Adroaite, The World, and Arple-
ton's and McClintock and Strong's Cyclopaedia. He published, with rev. George R. C' rocks,
a Latin- English School Lexicon, and was one of the editors of Steiger's Cyclopaedia of

SCHEM N1TZ, the largest and most famous mining town of Hungary, stands in a
narrow mountain gorge, at the height of ll>54 ft., on a river of the fame name, 70 m. n.
of Pesth. Together with its six s-ubuibs, some of which, however, are at a distance of
several miles, it has a pop. of 22, (.00; but the town proper h::s only (1869) 14,029
inhabitants. The academy for mining and woodcraft, embracing collections of minerals
and a chemical laboratory, is the principal building, and forms the chief architectural
feature of the town. It is attended by al.out 200 students, who receive lesions from six
professors. A highly-esteemed kind of tobacco-pipe heads are manufactured here. The
mines, which extend under the town, have been worked for centuries, though recently
they have yielded but an inconsiderable profit. They produce gold and silver, as well
as copper, iron, and sulphur. One of the passages is more than 9 m. long. Twelve of
the mines belong to the crown, the others are private property.

SCIIENCK, NOAJI HTTNT, D.D. , b. New Jersey, 1825; graduated at Princeton college
in 1844, and at Gambier theological seminary in 185U; ordained a minister of the Protestant
Episcopal churcli, rector, for several years, of Emmanuel church. Baltimore; became
pastor of St. Ann's churcli, Brooklyn, N. Y., in 1867. He established and edited, Ib58-
60, the Western Churchman, Chicago; was co-editor of the Protestant Ch'/irrl )i,uh in
1867; contributed to the Western Episcopalian, and publL-hcd numerous sermons, essays,
treatises, and orations.

SCHENCK, ROBERT GUMMING, b. Ohio, 1809; graduated at Mir.mi university 1827;
taught there; admitted to the bar; served in the state legislature; in 1843 elected to
congress, where he served four terms; minister to Brazil lfcol-53. When the war broke
out he was made brig.eren. of volunteers, and served at Bull Run, in West Virginia. Mid
in the Shenandoah valley. In the second battle of Pull Run he commanded a division
under Sigel, and had his arm shattereel by a ball. He continued in the arn.y, but in
1863 was again elected to congress, where be remained mail 1871, when he was. appointed
minister to England by president Grant, which position he held until the spring of

SCHENECTADY, a co. in e New York, intersected in the e. by the Erie r anal, the
New York Central, the Sebenectady and Saratoga, the Schenectady and Troy, the
Bchenectndy and Duanesbunr, and the Albany anel Susquehanna railroads; 00 sq.m.;
pop. '80, 23.55819.808 of American birth, 1G2 colored. It is drained by Noninm'sKiil,
the Mohawk, and Scboharie rivers. Its surface is uneven, and the soil in the e. a!< ng
the Mohawk valley is very fertile, producing grain, tobacco, broom corn, and dairy prod-
ucts. The pasturage is excellent, and large numbers of live stock arc rai>ed. Among
the industries are the manufacture of brooms and brushes. Co. seat, Shenecu;t!y.

SCHENEC TADY, a city of New York, on Ihe Erie canal and the south bank of the
Mohawk river, 16 m n.w. of Albany. It is the seat of Union college, ar.d cc. mains 17
churches, 4 banks, 6 newspapers, large machinery and locomotive woiks. 4 f( rrdries,
cotton-mills, and manufactories of shawls, asrricultural implements, etc. Scl.cncct::dy
was settled by the Dutch in 1661. In 1690 a large number of the inhabitants were
massacred by the French and Indians. Pop. in 1870, 10,890.

SCHENECTADY (ante), the chief town in Schenectady co., N. Y. ; 17 m. n.w. of
Albany; on the New York Central, the Albany and Susquehanna, the Pchcncct: dy ar.d
Duanesburg, and the liensselaer anel Saratoga railroads. Pop. 80, 13.673. The' city
charter was obtained in 1798. Union college, situated here, was founded in 1795.
Schenectady is noted as the scat of this university and for its many and varied manu-

OO*7 Schem. t

* 2 < ScliiUer,

Tacturcs; there arc several brush factories, locomotive works, and flour mills; other
irticlcs manufactured arc agricultural implements, woolen goods, stoves, etc.; there are
< banks, 4 hotels, 13 churches, 2 daily and 4 weekly papers.

SCIIEXKEL, DANIEL, b. Switzerland 1810; studied theology at Basle and G6t-
\irr~cn; professor of theology at Basle in 1849, and at Heidelberg in 1851. lie published
V. i risiuche Dofjrnatik, 2 vols. ; Das Cluirakterbild Jcsu; Das Viesen dcs Prot&ttaitti&mu*, 3
fob.; besides many essays and pamphlets, and edited Allyemeine KirddicJie Zeitschrift;
Al'.fjcmcine Kirchenzeitung; Libel-lexicon.

SCZEB'ZO (Ital. jest, sport), in music. A term applied to a passage or movement of?
ft lively and sportive character, forming part of a musical composition of some length,
as a symphony , quartet, or sonata.

GCHE'VENINGEN (pron. SkUteningeri), a populous and thriving village in s. Hol-
land, is situated on the coast of the North sea, about two miles from the Hague. Pop.
about 8,500. Fishing is the chief industry; ship-building, rope-spinning, and making
sail-cloth being also carried on. It is the most fashionable sea-bathing resort in the
Netherlands, and is visited by many distinguished strangers, there being an excellent
" b i'h house," and other hotels. In the neighborhood are summer residences of the
royal family and nobility. A range of sand hills defends the village from the sea, which
has. nevertheless, made SO great encroachments that the Protestant church, originally
built iu the center, is now close by the strand. Tiie road from the Hague to Scheven-
ingen is a long avenue of fine trees and wooded banks, with a tramway for passengers
and goods.

SCHIE3AM', a t. in s. Holland, situated on the Seine, which is connected with the
JIaas by a canal. Pop. ('75) 21,103, of whom nearly two-thirds are Protpstants,
The streets arc narrow, irregularly built, and, compared with other Dutch towns, have
a dirty appearance, from the distilleries, mailing-works, and grain-mills. Gin is so
largely manufactured that the air and water smell and taste of it. In 1875, 418,572 hec-
toliters of spirits were produced, the grain-mills ami malt-works giving 24,040,771 kilo-
gram m >s of rye-meal, and 21, 150, Sol of malt. The neighboring meadows are rich i a !e. partly i'ed fcom distillery refuse. Imp >rted GaO, 000 Hectoliters rye, 900,000 barley,
17,(jrO wheat, etc.; exported 54,940 hectoliters of spirits, 7,600,000 kilos of yeast, etc.
The stearine factory used 4,700,000 kilos tallow and palm oil, producing 1,405,000 kilo*
M siriae in cakes, 1.825.000 kilos candles, 1.404.000 olciue, and 244.5JO of glycerine.
Bjer-brewing, metal-founding, basket-makinj, cork-cut. ing, etc., are carried on.

S3HILLER, JOIIANN' CIIUISTOPII. F:u::rmic:r vox, one of the greatest poetical
pcraiuses of Germany, was b. at Marbac'.i, a liula town of Wiirtemberg. on Nov. 11, 1759.
ILs fa!h?r, Joh. Kaspar Schiller, was overseer of the nurseries attached to a country-seat
of the d. ike of WVirtembcrg. Schiller received his first formal instruction from the parish

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 52 of 203)