Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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prie-it Closer, at Lorch; and in 1773, the duke, who had formed a favorable opinioa
both of Schiller and his father, offered to educate the boy, free of expense, at the mili-
tary academy founded by hi:n at the castle of Solitude^ and afterward transferred to
Stuttgart un.ler the name of Karls-schule. The offer was accepted, and entering the
rigorous academy, Schiller tried to devote himself to jurisprudence. His success in the
new study was small, and after two years ho exchange 1 :t for medicine. But literature,
especially poetry, was tha secret idol of his soul, and its chief delight. Already tho
characteristics of his genius his tendencies toward epic and dramatic idealism were
showing th','ms?lves in his predilections. His first literary attempts of any moment wcro

himself, a "serene highness" sort of man, was induced to lecture the poet on his delin-
quency, and forbad.? hi:n 1o write any more poetry "without submitting it to lit*
inspection!" In 1783 The Rubbers was brought upon the sta<re at Mannheim the poet
lic'ing present without the knowledge rf his superiors, the result of which was arrest for
a forlnight! This led to further complications, and finally, in October of the same year,
BcMller fl'l from the harsh service of the duke into Franconia. and lived for a year
v.nder a feigned name at B inerbach, near Meiningen, where he completed his /feaeo attil
Ca'jale und Liebe, begun at Stuttgart. I)f>n Carlos was also sketched in outline here In
Sept., 1783, he went back to Mannheim, and was for some time closely connected
with actors and theatrical life. To this period belong several of his lesser poems. With
t'.i3 Ca^nle, iin-l Lieba above mentioned ended the first poetic period in Schiller's career,
otherwise known as the Sturm und Drang period, in which a burning energy of passion
and a robust extravagance, passing often into sheer bombast of speech, are the predomi-
nant characteristics. In Mar., 1785, Schiller left Mannheim and proceeded to Leipzig,
where he became acquainted, among others, with'lluber a-nd Konier, and wrote his beau-


tiful Lied an die Freitde; thence, after a few months, he went to Dresden, where li
began the practice of composing during the uight, which so fatally assisted in shortening
liis life. Day Geisterseher (The Ghost-seer), a strikingly powerful romance, was written
here; and the drama .of Don Carlos was completed. In 17S7 he was invited to Weimar,
and was at once warmly received by Herder and Wieland; but some years elapsed before
.Goethe and he could understand one another; after that, they became the closest friends.

(Jotter Uriechenlands (G( Us of Greece), which belongs
clear, and sunny his once turbid and stormful imagination was gradually becoming.
Keinhold of Jena introduced him to the Kantian philosophy, and for some little lime
Schiller was in danger of lapsing from a poet into a metaphysician. The philosophical

with Charlotte von Leugefold, the duke of Meiningen made him a hofrath (privy-coun-
cilor); the French republic also conferred on him the right of citizenship; and in 1802
the emperor raised him to the rank of nobility. While staying for a year with his rela-
tives in Wurtemberg he wrote his exquisite Briefe fiber asthetindie Erziehung (Letters on
^Esthetic Culture). This period, reaching to the close of 1794, is generally regarded a : 3
Schiller's transition period; in poetic accomplishment it is not rich, but in earnest,
thoughtful, and manifold speculation it was highly important to the poet, and we find

/ran ton Orleans (1801), Brunt foil Messina (Bride of Messina, 1803). and finally, his
greatest drama, Wiihelm Tdl (1804). But his health had been long giving way, partly-
owing to a natural weakness of constitution, and partly to incessant application to study ;
and on May 9, 180-1, he expired, at the early age of 46. Ever since his death the fame
of Schiller has been on the increase; he has long been recognized as, next to Goethe, the
greatest poet that Germany has produced, and innumerable editions of his works in
whole or part have been published. The best account of him and his works is given by
Carlyle in his Life of Friedricli Schiller (Loud. 182o).

SCHILLING JOHANNES, b. Saxony, 1828; studied art at Berlin and Dresden. Ho
resided for a number of years in Rome, and in 1808 was made professor at the Dresden
ro}'al academy of art.. His most famous works are the group re; .resentinir the seasons,
now at Dresden; the Schiller monument at Vienna, and the later designed life-size figures
on it, auJ the r;roup "Amor aud Psyche."

SCHICKEL, KARL FRIEPR , a German architect of jrrent celebrity in his own country,
'was 1). at Neuruppin, Mar. 13, 1781. and studied the principles of drawingand design at
Berlin under prof. Gilly. In 1803 he went to Italy to extend 1m professional know-
ledge; but on his return in lb'03 he found the aspect of public affairs s:> threatening
that he could ob'ain little employment, and was forced to betake himself to landseape-
painting. In May, 1811, he was elected a member of, and in 1820 a professor at. the Ber-
lin academy of arts. Other offices and honors were also conferred on him. He died
Oct. 9, 1841. The designs to which he chiefly owes his reputation are those of the royal
guard-house, the memorial of the war of liberation, the new theater, the new Fo'sdam
gate, the artillery and engineers' school, in Berlin; the casino in Potsdam; another in
the gardens of prince Karl at Blienike, near Potsdam; and a great number of castles,
country-houses churches, and public buildings. Schinkel was a man of powerful and
original genius; his designs are remarkable for the unity of idea by which they are per-
vaded, and the viiror. beauty, and harmony of their details. See Kugler's Karl Friedr.
ScJtinkel (Berlin, 1842).

SCHI NU8, a genus of trees and shrubs of the natural order anamrdiarcm. natives of
South America. The leaves so abound in a resinous or turpentine-like fluid, that upon
the least swelling of the other portions of the leaf by moisture it is discharged from the
sacs which contain it. Thus they till the air with fragrance after rain, or if thrown
into water, start and jump about as if alive, discharging jets of this peculiar fluid. The
same phenomenon is exhibited by the leaves of some species of the kindred irenus duTaua,
of which specimens are occasionally to be seen in our greenhouses. The leaves and
twigs when bruised have a very strong odor of turpentine.

SCIITO. a t. in Italy. 15 in. n.w. of Vicenza, situated in a fertile plain between tho
rivers Len-rra and Timonchio; pop. 5,597. It contains manufactories of woolen cloth,
and silk anil (iye works. It is somewhat noted for its mineral springs, and has churches,
hospitals, and other public buildings.

SCHISM, GREEK, the separation between the Greek and L^tin churches, which origi-
nated in the 9th, aud was completed in* the 12th c. See GREEK Ciiuiicu

9OQ Schilling.


SCHISM, WESTERN, a celebrated disruption of communion in the western church,
which arose out of a disputed claim to the succession to the papal throne. < )n the deal h of
Gregory XI. in 1378, a Neapolitan, 1'artolomeo Prignano, was chosen pope by the niajor-
rity of tlie cardinals in a conclave at Rome under ihe name Urban VI. Soon afterward,
however, a number of these cardinals withdrew, revoked the election, which they
declared not to have been free, owing to the violence of the factions in Kome by which
the conclave had, according to them, been overawed; and, in consequence, they pro-
ceeded to choose another pope under the name Clement VII. The latter fixed his see at
Avignon, while Urban VI. lived at Rome. Each party had its adherents, and in each a
rival succession was maintained down to the council of Pisa iu 1410, in which assembly
both were deposed, and a third pope, John XXIII., was elected. This measure not
having been acquiesced in by all, a new council was convened at Constance in 1417, in
which not alone ihe former rivals, but even the new pontiff elected, by consent of the
two parlies, at Pisa, were set aside, and Otho Colonnn was elected under the name of
Martin V. In this election the whole body may be said to have acquiesced; but one of
the claimants, Peter de Luna, called Benedict XIII.. remained obstinate in the assertion
of his right till his death in 1430. The schism, however, may be said to have terminated
in 1417, Having thus endured nearly 40 years.

SCHISMA, the name given to one of the very small intervals known in the theory of
music, which amounts to the difference between the comma ditonicum and comma syn-
tonicum. See COMMA.

SCHIST (Gr. sc/u'stos, split) is a term applied somewhat loosely to indurated clays, as
bituminous schist and mica schist. It is more correctly confined to the metarnorphic
strata, which consist of plates of different minerals, as mica schist, made up of layers of
quartz separated by laminae of mica; chlorite schist, a green rock in which the layers of
chloiite are separated by plates of granite or felspar; and hornblende schist, a black rock
composed of layers of hornblende ia;d felspar, with a little quartz.

SCITIZ OFIIYTE, a microscopic organism belonging to Cohn's order scJiizosrorece*
and allied to bacteria, having so mar a relation indeed as to be regarded as a variety of
IticiUun, or as a phase in the growth of this organism. See GERM THEORY OF DIS-
EASE, vol. vi., p. 647. But, in whatever manner it may be classified, a certain kind of
echizophyte is one of the rrganisms which are regarded as disease (jcrirz, and, as has
probably been established, is the peculiar disuse iicim in the ncine phifftie (q.v.) of this
country. Whether it has any agency in the production of other diseases is uncertain,
for whatever agency disease germs have in producing disease the precise manner of com-
munication has not been determined.

PCIILAXJIXTTTErr. HERMANN, ADOLF, and ROBERT, three brothers b. in Munich
Hermann 1826, and Adolf l29; Robert being the youngest. "While at tl e university
the two older brothers miule original researches, chiefly in the eastern Alps; in 1851
they explored the vicinity <f Monte Rosa, the highest pe:ik of which they were the first
to ascend and measure rccurately. finding its height 14,284 French feet, In 1854 the
three brothers were sent out by Ihe British East India company to continue the scien-
tific survey of India. They ascendeel the Himalaya mountains, examining the glacier
of Milun, 10m. long and 3*.000 ft. 1-road; crossing 4 passes about 18,000 ft. high; the
peak of Gunshankosor, 19,640 ft. high, near the sources of the Indus; and on the high-
est mountain of Thibet, reached an elevation of 22.260 feet. The whole extent of their
travels was about 18,000 miles. Adolf, having determined to continue his researches,
advanced alone into regions of Thibet and Turkistan never -visited by any scientific
traveler. He lost his life 1857, probably through the hostility and misapprehension of
the native tribes.

SCHLAirGZJTBAD, one of the most distinguished spas of Germany, on the northern
frontier of the Rheingnu district, 6 m. w. e)f Weisbaden, in a beautiful and secluded sitr
nation, embosomed amid wooded hills. The water of the baths has a temperature of
80 F., and contains the muriates and carbonates of lime, soda, and magnesia, wall a
fclight excess of carbonic acid. The baths have a marvelous effect in beautifying the
skin, and in soothing and tranquillizing. The village is itself very small, and in the
height of the season the pop. is only about 2,000.

SCHLATTER. MICHAEL, 1716-90; b. Switzerland; educated at St. Gall; was
ordained and sent by the synods of Holland to the German Reformed emigrants in
Pennsylvania; was pastor of the Reformed churches in Philadelphia and Germantown,
1746-51 ; and organized churches in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland, and Virginia.
He assisted in organizing the synod of the German Reformed church in 1747; visited
Europe in 1751, and returned with six other missionaries. In 1757 he was chaplain of
an expedition to Nova Scotia airainst the French, and espousing the cause of the colo-
nies at the outbreak of the revolution he was imprisoned in 1777.

SCHLEGEL, AUGUST WILFIELM A T ON, a distinguished critic, poet, anel scholar, was b.
at Hanover, Sept. 8, 1767, and studied at Gottingcn, where he nce^uired a reputation
by his devotion to philological and classical studies. He first began to assume a prom-
inent position- in literature while a lecturer at Jena, contributing assiduously to Schiller's
Jloren and Muxen-Almanach, and to the Allgemeine Literatwzdtung. About the same

Schlejjel. 230


time his translation of Shakespeare began to appear (9 vols. Berl. 1797-1810) the influ-
ence of which on German poetry and the German stage was equally great Bubs*
quently the poet Ticck, with Schlegel's consent, undertook a revision ot the work,
to-cilicr witli a translation of such pieces as Schlegel had omuted (13 vo.s Bert,
1825 1839 1843); and from their conjoint labors the people of Germany are able to lorin
a faithful 'idea of the surpassing genius of our countryman. Schlege also deliver
at Jena a series of lectures oh aesthetics, and, along with his brother Priedrich, edited
the IthancBum (3 vols. Berl. 179<M800), which in spite of, perhaps because of, ihe sever,
itv of its criticism gave a lively and wholesome impulse to the poetry ot its time,
published besides his first volume of poems (tiedichte, Tub. 1800); and again i company
with his brother, the Cliamkteristiken und Kritiken (2 vols. konigsb. 1801). In 180J
Bchle^el left Jena for Berlin, where he gave a second series of lecture* on literature,
art, and the spirit of the time. Next year appeared his Ion, an antique tragedy o:
considerable merit. It was followed by his Span. Theater (2 vols. Berlin, 180,3-9), con-
sistin" of 5 pieces of Calderon's, admirably translated, the effect of which has been to
makc that poet quite a favorite with the German people; and his Liumorutiuusse i ler
Jtal Span und Portug. Poesie (Berl. 1804), a charming collection ot lyrics from tho
sunny south, from the appearance of which dates the naturalization in German verse of
the metrical forms of the Romanic races. Probably his most valuable, and certainly
his most widely popular work, was his Vorlesungen fiber dranuitiscfa Kunst and Lite

"Pygmalion," "St. Lucas," and is notable for the richness and variety of its pootio
forms as also for the singular facility and elegance of the versiiication. In l:
Schlegel, now raised into the ranks of the nobility, and privileged to use the sucro
von before his name, was appointed professor of history in the university of Bonn, ana
devoted himself especially to the history of the fine arts and to philological research.
He was one of the first students of Sanskrit in Germany, established a Sanskrit priut-
inM>flice at Bonn, and an Indische BibliotJiek (2 vols. Bonn, 1820-23). Among tae proofs

works it is unnecessary to mention. Schlegel was not happy in his domestic relation!.
He was twice married, first to a daughter of prof. Michaelis of Gottingen, an.l again to
u daughter of prof. Paulus of Heidelberg, but in both cases a separation sooa i>eca:uj
necessary. Scldegel was quarrelsoms, jealous, and ungenerous in his relations witii
literary men, and did not even shrink from slander when his spleen was excited. Ho
died May 12, 18 id.

SCHLEGEL, KARL WiLHELM FitiEDRicn VON, distinguished both for his scholarship
and intellectual ability, was a brother of the preceding, and was b. at Hanover, Mar.
10, 1772. He studied at Gottingen and Leipsic, and in 1797 published his first work,
Griechen und Ramer (The Greeks and Romans), which won praise from oLl Hevnn. It
was followed in the course of a year by his Ge-tchicMe der Poem der Grif.hzn >i:>'l
Romer (History of Greek and Roman Poetry), a sort of fragmentary continuation of tho
former. Both of these productions bore evidenc3 of rich learning, independent
thought, and a thorough appreciation of the principles and method (if histonc criti-
cism; but the chief vehicle at this time for the dissemination of his philosophical vic\vs
of literature was the sharp-fanged periodical called the AtJienceum, edited by himself and
his brother, August Wilhelm. Proceeding to Jena, he started there as a prfrnf d<wnt,
holding lectures on philosophy, which met with great applause, and still editing the
Atftenaum, to which he also began to contribute poems of a superior quality, and in
the most diverse meters. In 1802 appeared his Alarkos, a tragedy, in which the antique-
clasical and new-romantic elements are singularly blended. From Jena, he soon went
to Dresden, and thence to Paris, where he gave a few more of those philosophical pre-
lections, in the manufacture of which both he and August Wilhelm were unhappily
much too expert; edited the Europa, a monthly journal (2 vols. Frankf. 1803-5); niul
applied himself assiduously to the languages of southern Europe, and still more assid-
uously to Sanskrit, the fruits of which were seen in his treatise, Ueber die&prachcnad
Weisheit der Indier (Heidelb. 1808). See PHILOLOGY. During his residence in Paris he
also published a Sainmlung RomantischerDic-htiingcn des Mittekilters (Collection of Mediae-
val Romantic Poems. 2 vols. Par. 1804), and the pious-chivalric romance of Lf>f?ier und
Mailer (Berl. Ib05). On his return to Germany he published a volume of dithyrambic
and elegiac poems (Gtdtchte, Berl. 1809). At Cologne, he passed over to the Roman
Catholic Church, a chance to which his mediaeval studies powerfully contributed, and
which, in its turn, no less powerfully affected his future literary career. In 1808
Bchlcgel went to Vienna, where, in 1811. appeared his Ueber die nenere GetdUfhU (Lec-
tures on Modern History), and in 1815 his Genchichte der alien iind neuen Literatur (His-
tory of Ancient and Modern Literature). In 1822 a collected edition of his writings,
in 12 vols. (Sdmmtliche Werke), was published bv himself. Subsequently he delivered
two series of lectures, one on the Philosophy of Life (Philosophic des Lebeim, Vienna, 1838).


aud another on the Philosophy of History (Fhiltwphie der Geschicfite, Vienna. 1829), both
of which are well known in England and other countries through the medium of trans-
lations. S-hie.uvl died J:iii. 12, 1829. liis M6S. were published by liis friend Wiudisch-
mann (2 vols. Bonn, 1830-37).

SC1ILEICHEK, AUGUST, 1821-GS; b. Germany, educated at Leipsic, Tubingen, and
Bonn. He was appointed professor of philology at Bonn in 1850, and at Jena in 1857.
As a comparative philologist his rank was second only to Bopp. Among his works are
Zur Vergleicheiidei SpracJien,geitcJtdite(l848-SQ); and Compendium derVergicichcuden Gram-
wtatik der liidtj-Llei'iiuiitifchen tiprac/icn (I8o2).

SCHLEIERMACHEE, FHIEDRICII ERNST DANIEL, one of the greaU st and most influ-
ential theologians of modern times, was born at Breslau, Nov. 21, 170ri. His boyish
years were spent in the school kept by the Moravian brotherhood at Niesky. and here he
first received those ix-ligious impressions, the influence of which was visible in his whole
after-life. In 178T he proceeded to the university of Halle; and, on the conclusion of his
academic cuiirsc, acted for some time as a teacher; but in 1794 became assistant-clergy-
man at Laiidsberg-oii-the- \Varthe, where he remained for two years. He then went to
Berlin, and occupied himself partly in the translation of some of Blair's and Fawcett's
sermons, and in the redaction of the Athena: a in, conducted by his friend Friedrich
Schlegel; but the lirst work that won for him general celebrity was his ludcii iiltcr dw
in (Discourses on Religion, Berl. 1799). which startled Germany from its spiritual
torpor, vindicated the eternal necessity of religion, and sought to separate those elements
of it that are essentially divine from the incrustations of dogma and the formalities of
practice. Neander looked upon these reden as making the turning-point in iiis spiritual
caree>. They are now regarded as both making and marking an epoch in the theological
history of Germany. The reden were followed by the Mvnologcn, and the Brief e eiiies
Predigerx uussei'halb Berlin in 1800. Two years later he was appointed preacher at the
charity-house in the Prussian capital; and during 1804-10 produced his famous
translation of Plato, with commentary, which is considered in Germany, to this day, the
most profound and penetrating treatise on the philosophy of the great Athenian, though
English scholars are disposed to regard its criticism as decidedly too subjective, and ia
many important respects baseless. In 1801 appeared the lirst collection of kwpredigten
(sermons), followed between 1808 and 1833 by no fewer than six other collections. They
are masterpieces of penetrating and eloquent discussion, appealing equally to the heart
and the intellect of hearers and readers. In 1802 Schleiermacher went as court-preacher
to Stolpe, where he published his GruniUi/uer* einer KriiiJc der bisherigen Sittenlehre; and
in 1804 was called to Halle as university-preacher, and professor of theology and phil-
osophy. In 1807 he returned to Berlin, having previously published Die WethnacJitf-feier,
tin Genpriirh (Christmas festival, a dialogue, Halle, 1806), bearing on the calamitous state
in which Germany then found herself, owing to tlio victorious insolence of the French.
Among his next publications maybe mentioned Uebcr den Sngentmnten ersfen Brief des
Panlus an den. Ttiiirffieiis (concerning the so-called first epistle of Paul to Timothy, Berl.
1807). In 1809 he became pastor of Trinity church, Berlin; and in 1810, when the uni-
versity of Berlin was reopened, with a brilliant array of professors, under the rectorship
of Fichte, no name shone more conspicuous than that of Schleiermacher. In 1811 he
was chosen a member of the Berlin academy of sciences, in whose Transactions are to be
found many valuable papers by Schleiermacher on the ancient philosophy, and in 1814
secretary of the philosophical section. In 1817 he was appointed president of the synod
assembled in Berlin. His latest, and perhaps his most important work is Der ChristlicJM
Glaube nnch den Grundmteen d,r L'runf/. Kirclie im Zusammenhanrje dnrgcstdlt (the
Christian faith systematically presented according to the fundamental propositions of
the evangelical church, 2 vols. Berl. 1821-22). in which his deepest and most Christian
thought is visible. He died at Berlin, Feb. 12. 1834. The list of Schleicrmacher's disci-
ple* i.e., of men who have derived the groundwork of their principles from him is one
of the most splendid that any theological reformer could show, embracing, among others,
the names of Neander, Nilzsch, Twesten, Olshausen, Lucke, Bleek, and Ullmann. In
1804 appeared a posthumous work of Schleiermacher, Das Leben Jeu t Vorksungen an
der Unicertitdt zn Berlin im Jnhr, 1832, in which he conceives of Jesus as a man in whom
the divine spirit works as perfectly as it possibly can in humanity, and treats his history
accordingly. Strauss has replied in a critique (Berl. and Lond. 1865). Schleiermacher
was very far from what in England is called orthodox, but he was a great, earnest,
devout Christian man. of massive understanding, and whose eloquence was scarcely less
golden than that of Plato himself. Germany overflows with literature on Schleier-
macher, his system, and his ideas. For an account of his earlier life, see the autobio-
graphical sketch first published in Niedner's Zeitsch rift fur Idxtoritche Theolorjie (1851);
and for his later life, AusSchidermacher's Leben in Brief en (1858; translated by Frederick
Itowan, Lond. 1860).


SCHLETTSTADT (French SchlestadC), a t. of lower Alsace, on the left bank of the 111,
2fi m. s.w. of Strasburg. Till the war of 1870-71 Schlettstadt was a Firnch fortress
of the third class. It was bombarded and compelled to capitulate Oct. 24, 1870. The
fortifications have been demolished. Pop. '75, 9,094; '66, over 10,000.

fiohleiisner. OQO

fcclmeitler. ZOw

8CIILEUSNER, JOTIANN FIUEDRICH, D.I>., 1756-1831; b. Loipsic; studied theology
and philosophy in Leipsic university; professor of theology in GOttingen i.i 178-i;
professor of theology, and provost of the college church in Wittenberg iu 1793. Ili;
principal works are Lexicon Gra-m La(. in A'ovuin Teatamentum, 2 vols. ; 3/, Br<
1, ..' '< on in LXX.. 5 volumes. His lexicon ou the Septuagint continues to be a standard

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 53 of 203)