Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

. (page 54 of 203)
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work, lie edited with iStiiiidlin the Gaiti/tgtsdie 13iblioilu.k der Xeueslen 1ha>luyi;.cliai Lit-
eratur

SCIILEY, a. co. in s.w. Georgia; drained by Muckalee creek, and other branches of
tie Flint river; about 250 sq.m. ; pop. '70, 5,1292.851 colored. The surface is level
1 .iere are great forests. The soil is fertile. The principal productions are cotton, corn,
lice, and molasses. Co seat, Ellaville.

SCIII.il EM ANN, HEINKICII. b. Germany, 1822; son of a Lutheran pastor, -who
inspired him at an early age with an enthusiastic admiration of the heroes of ancient
Greece, liis mother died when lie was nine years old, and he then lived for nvo years
with his uncle at Kalkhorst. At fourteen he was compelled to enter a gioeer's .-hop at
J'iiv.-t( i.lu.ig to support himself. He remained in that humble position for over five
j ears, wii< n he obtained a position r.s clerk in the Amsterdam linn of B. II. Schmcderand
I o. In 1846 lie was sent to St. Petersburg by his firm as their local agent, and a year
later established there a business of his own. In the course of a busy life l,e traveled
extensively in Europe and America, anil acquired many languages. After he hr.d
rniHSfcfd wealth he commenced his archaeological investigations and ( x< ava'.ions in the
t-a.-t, and published, in 1819, Itltaque, Le Pelojonese, Tnne; Reclieri-hcn Aidei/lo^ii;!*/*.
In 1874 he i.ub;i.-lie d Trvy ahd it;< lUmains, containing an account of his discoveries at
llissarlik. In 874 Le obtained permission from the Greek government to excavate
Jive cute, wLe;c, in 1877, he n.;.c!e the marvelous discovery of the five royal tombs,
which lc.cj.1 natal. on jiointeel out to Pautanias as those of Agamemnon and his eon. pan-
ions, who were, murdered hy ./Ejasthus. He then wrote in English, .).>"'"/ n Narrn^
ilxe if Researches and Dizcmcriix ut Myccr.cc and Tiryus. In his ex| loralions Dr. Sclihe-
niann h; s been greatly assisted by his wile, who is a native of Greece, and an accom-
p:it,Led Greek scuolar. See AnciLiiOLOGY.



, FRTEDR. CrrpisTorn, n distinguished German historian, was b. at Jover,
Nov. 17, 1776, educated at Gottingen, and after spending many years as a private midl-
and academic teacher, he was, in 1817, called 10 He'idelberg as a professor of history,
where he died, Sept. 23. 1861. His principal wri ings (arranged in the order of time) are
Abnlnrd itnd Dulctn (Gotha, 1807); Ltlen Beza'x unddes Peter Martyr Verm Hi (lleiiidb.
1809); Gctcltichte der Bihlersturmcnflcn Kaiser des Oe*tr<im. lieichx (Frankf. 1812); Welt-
fexe/tt'chfe in ZuRammenMnriender Erznhlung (Frankf. 1817-24); GescJiidite ilex 18 Jalirli.
(Ileielelb. 1823); Universalfiisforificke Uelcnticht der Gexchiclite der Alien Welt undilmr
Citltnr (Frnnkf. 1826-34); Wclfffesc/n'chtefurdasDeutvche Volk (1844-53); and Mudien itbt r
Dante (185(5). Of these works, tlie most notable are the GetcMclite de 18 Jti/irh.. con-
tinued by Schlosser in the later editions till the fall of Napoleon, and the Wcltgescliichtt
fiir dan Dcvfrche Volk. which have been translated into English and other leagues.
JBchlosser is a keen, critical, and powerful writer, who judges men and events by a stern
ethical standard.

SCHI/)Z'ER, AUGUST Lumvio VON. 17C5-1809; b. "VVurtemberg. studied in Wittcn-
bnrg anel GOttingen: was a private tutor in Sweden. In 1759 lie studieel medicine in
Gottingen, and in 1761 accompanied the Russian historiographer Muller as literary assist
ant to St. Petersburg, and taught in the academy as professor e>f Russian history, 17G.V
67. In 1804 he was made privy councilor of justice. Among his most important works
are a General History of the Aorth and a translation of Nestor's liumsian L'hromdes to
980 A.D.

8CHMALKAID, LEAGUE OF, the name given to the defensive alliance concluded pro-
visionally for nine years at Schmalkalelen (q.v.), Feb. 27, 15ol. between 9 Protestant
princes and 11 imperial cities, with whom other 5 princes and 10 imperial eiiie-s subse-
quently made common cause; and the elector of Saxony and the landgrave of Hesse
were appointed chiefs of the league, ami empowered to manage its affairs. The object
of this formidable alliance, which inchuled the whole of ne)rthern Germany. Denmark,
Saxony, and Wurtemberg, and portiems of Bavaria and Switzerland, was for the com-
mon defense of the religion anel political freedom of the Protestants against the emperor
Charles V. and the Catholic states. The league was not rendered superfluous by the religious
peace of Nllrnbenr in 1532, and on the rumor that the emperor was meditating new hostile
measures against the Protestants, another meeting of the confederate's was held Dec. 24,
1535, which resolveel to raise a permanent army of 10,000 foot and 2.000 cavalry, anel to
prolong tho league for ten years. The confederation was further consolidated by articles
of guaranty which were drawn up by Luther at Wittenberg in 153(5, anel being sub-
scribed by the theologians present at the meeting of the league at Seihmalkalelen in Feb.,
1537, were called the Article* of tSclnnulkuld. Against the league the emperor, engageel
as he was at Hie time in contests with the Turks and French, found himself unable to
contend, though supported by the holy league, a Catholic confederation formed in 1538,
in opposition to the Protestant one. But impolitic management, mutual jealousies, and



Schloiisner.

Sclm cider.

conflicting petty interests dissipated their energies, and prevented their united action.
The "war of fechmaikald " commenced by Uie advance of the army *!:' the league, under
Sebastian SchilnJin, into Suabia. to bar Uie approach of the imperial aimy from Italy.
Bchartlm forcvd his way to the banks of the Daimhc, but the mise"able jealousy of liie
Saxon princes paralyzed his action. The emperor, by a proclamation bearing date July
20, 154(5, put the two chiefs of the league und- r tlie ban of the empire; Man nee. duke of
Saxony, took possession of the electorate, by virtue of an imperial decree: an i the Prot-
estant ami}' was forced to retreat. The elector of Saxony reconquered his d,ctora;e in
the auinm.i of 134(5, but meantime the imperial army subdued the northern members of ^
the league of Schmaikald, and advanced into Franconia to meet the combined armies of*
Saxony and lles^e. The latter were totally routed at MiLilberg (April 24, 1347), and
both chiefs fell into the emperor's hands. This defeat, which has been ascrioed to
treason, and was perhaps as much owing to this cause as to weakness, finished tlie war.
The object of the league, the guaranty of the lioerty of religion to the Protestants, was
subsequently effected by Maurice, now elector of Saxony, who, by a brilliant 1'eal of
diplomacy and generalship, compelled the emperor to grant the treaty of Passau (July
31, loo:), by which this freedom was secured.

SCHMALXALDSN, an old and interesting t. of Hesscn Nassau, Prussia, at the conflu-
eivc cf the Stille and Schmaikald, 11 in. n. of Meiningen. It is surroim.icd with double
walls, contains two castles, anil carries on considerable mining operations, especially ia
iron, and various manufacturer, the chief of which are hardwares. Pop. '<o, 0,187.

SC1IMID, LEOPOLD, 1808-69; b. Zurich; studied theology at Munich and Tubingen;
appoints 1 professor of theology at Giessen in 18J9, and subsequently of philo.-opny.
Though a Rom in Catholic he was opposed to the ultramontane party. HJ was elected
bishop of Men;z in 184'J. but tHfc po:>e refined to confirm him. lie published Dar Geiat
de* Katho'iciisinus oder Grundlegung der (Jkrixtlidien Ireiiik, 2 vols. ; I7ltnnnontan oder
HJxtholixeJi.

SCHMIDT, HENRY T., s T.D., b. Penn., 1806; educated at the Moravian pyedagogium.
anil the theological seminary at Nazareth, Penn.; pastor of Lutheran cnurcnes in New
Jersey 1831-83; professor at Hartvvick seminary, N. Y., 1833-33; pastor of a German
chiirchin Boston 1838-38; professor at Gettysburg, Penn., 1438-43; pastor of Lutheran
churches in Montgomery co., N. Y., 1844; principal of llartwick seminary, 1843-47;
elected professor of the German language and literature in Columbia college, New York,
in 181S. He published History of Elucation and Pl-iin of Culture and Instruction; The
&'.rii)tumF, Okaraeier of the Lut/ieran Doctrine of tlie Lord's- Supper; Course of Ancient
Geography.

SCIIMITZ, LEOXIIARD, PH.D., I^D., b. Germany, 1807; studied history and philol-
ogy at the university of Bonn; became professor in a gymnasium of that city; went to
England 183o; rector of the high school at Edinburgh 1843-66; classical tutor to the
prince of Wales 1839, and to prince Alfred, 1862-63; principal of London international
college 1863-74, afterward classical examiner in the university of London: translated
into English Niebuhr's lectures and Zumpt's Latin Grammar; contributed to Dr. Smith's
classical dictionaries and to cyclopaedias; and published Latin and Greek grammars and
a series of histories for colleges and schools.

SC1IMUCKEII, SAMUEL S., D.D., 1799-1873; b. Md. ; educated at Princoton college,
onl .lined a Lutheran minister in 1818; pastor of a church in Newmarket, Va., 1820-26;
prof.-ssor of didactic theology in Gettysburg theological seminary 1836-64, and also




zin; contributed to Biblical Repository and other reviews.
SCHNEE BEX&, a pleasahtly-bnilt and important mining t. of Snxony, surrounded
by mountains, 20 m. s.w. of Chemnitz. The principal products of the mines are silver
(though not in its former great abundance), cobalt, bismuth and nickel, iron, etc. Cloth,
shoes, and segars are manufactured. Pop. '73, 8,074.

SCHNES KOPPE, the culminating point of the mountain chain of the Riesengebirge.
See BOHEMIA. ,

SCHNEIDER, HORTENSE CATHERINE, b. France, 1835: a French actress who
played at the age of fifteen at the Athenee of Bordeaux. She then received instruction
in singing, and played for three years at Agen in secondary parts. After that she
obtained an engagement at the Bou'ffes-Parisiens of Paris; and in 1856 made her debut
in Le Chien de Garde at the TfiedtredeqVhri&es, where in 1864 she achieved a great
success by her acting in La Belle llelene. She appeared in La Grande Duchcsse de Gerol-
sttin in 1867 in which she won a great triumph.

SCHNEIDER, JOHANN GOTTI.OB, 1750-1822; b. Saxony; educated at Leipsic, where
he devoted himself to classical literature and phiiolojry. "in 1774. in association with
Brnnk, he prepared an edition of the Greek poets, and two year later was made professor
at Frankfort on-the-Oder. In 1811 he was called to a chair at Breslau. Besides a num.-



Schnetz. 9*34.

Scholastics.

Iyer of works on natural history, and editions with notes of various Greek writers, -0
published, 1797-98, a critical dictionary of the Greek language.

SCHNETZ, JEAN VICTOR, 1787-1870; b. France; studied painting with David,
Gros, and Regnault. He painted many religious and historical pictures, of which the
bot-known, perhaps, a/e" Christ Culling little Cnildren umo Him," " The Monk
Lugaged in Prayer," and " The Gypsy Foretel ling the Future of bixtus V." He was
long director of the French academy at liome.

SCHNORR VON KAROLSFELD, JULIUS, 1794-1853; b Leipsic; received his first
instruction from his father an eminent painter, studied in the academy of painting at
V it una; went to Rome, 1815, and attached himself to the school of young German
artists under the auspices of Cornelius and Overbeck. Considered one of the most
promising of this band, he was chosen with Cornelius and Overbeck to paint the walls
of the villa Muslim at Rome in fresco with designs from Dante, Ariosto, and Tasso.
Ludwig, king of Bavaria, employed him to decorate iiis great works at Munich, Schuorr's
greatest works w^re the frescos trom the ancient German poem A'tbeluitgen Lied for the
new palace, and the historical paintings in encaustic in that part of the palace called
Fcst-iiaalbuu. He was appointed professor of historical painting in the academy of
the line arts at Munich, 1827, and hi 1840 professor of the line arts, and director of tlie
picture gallery in Dresden.

SCHCELCHER, VICTOR, b. France, 1804; educated at, the college Louis-le-Grand.
He was an early advocate of the abolition of slavery, and studied the question in Mexico,
Cuba, and the United States in 1829. In 18*8, as undersecretary for the navy, he
secured the passage of a law abolishing slavery in the Freuoli colonies. He was returned
to the constituent assembly for Guadaloupe and Martiljlque, and to the legislative
assembly for tiie former. Expelled from France after the coup d'etat, he remained in
England till the fall of the second empire, when he returned to France, and during the
siege of Paris commanded the artillery of the national guard. In 1871 he was returned
to the national assembly for the department of the Seine, for Guiana, and for Martin-
ique, and took his seat for the latter. He was afterward elected a life senator. He is a
member of the extreme left. He has published several books on slavery, a Life of Handel,
and The Sunday Rest, 1870.

SCHOFFERor SCHAIFFER, PETER, 1430-nbt. 1503; b. Gernsheim; began life aa
a copyist in Paris, afterward employed by Gutteuburg and Faust, printers, at Mainz.
He is said to have "discovered the more easy method of casting types." In 1455
Gutten burg retired, and he became a member of the firm with Faust; the latter died
1466, and he carried on the business alone. His name appears with Faust's at the end of
the Psalter, 1457. He married the daughter of Faust, and had three sons, all printers;
John Scl.offer succeeded him. A monument to his memory has been erected in his
native place.

SCHOFIELD. Joirsr MCALLISTER; b. N. Y., 1831; graduated at "West Point 1853.
and was commissioned in the artillery. He was for some years instructor in natural
philosophy at West Point, and afterward at Washington university, St. Louis. At the
beginning of the rebellion he held the rank of rapt. ; was made chief -of -staff to gen.
Lvon, and was with him at Wilson's creek. In 1861 he was olaced in command of the
Missouri militia, and in the next year of that military district. He defeated Hindman
near Pea Ridge. Ark., Oct., 18ti2, and drove the confederate forces back to the Arkansas
valley. In 1864 he was made a bri.pen. in the regular army after most valuable Ejprvices
under pen. Sherman in the Atlanta campaign and in the movements leading to the sur-
render of Johnston. Later he was in command at the battles of Franklin and Nashville,
and cnptnred Wilmington and Goldsborough, N. C. He was hrevetted maj.gen. 1865;
in 1867 was in charge of the Virginia district; was secretary of war 1868-69; and was
then assigned to command the Missouri military department. Still later he was at the
head of the West Point academy, and is now, 1881, in command in the north-west.

SCHOIIAR'IE, a co. in e. New York, intersected by the Albany and Susquchanna,
the Mlddleburg and Schoharie Valley, and other railroads: 700 sq.m. ; pop. '80, 32.939
82.199 of American birth, 481 colored. It is drained by Schoharie, Catskill, and
r Cobleskill creeks. Its surface is hilly; the Catskill mountains occupy the s. and w., and
the Helderbcnr the e. portion. It is lanrcly covered with forests of oak, hickory, and
nsh in the highlands; and groves of sugar-maple and elm by the rivers. In the n.w.
sulphur springs are found, and it contains extensive ledges of Helderberg limestone and
sandstone. The soil is fertile, producing grain, potatoes, hops, maple sugar, dairy
products, etc. Live stock is raised. The manufactures consist of cooperage, iron cast-
ings. Agricultural implements, paper, leather, etc. Co. seat, Schoharie.

SCHOLARSHIP, a benefaction, generally the annual proceeds of a bequest perma-
nently invested, paid for the maintenance of a student at a university. At the university
of Oxford there nre 37. and at Cambridge 43, scholarships; their values ranging from 20
to 100 per annum. In both universities the scholars are chosen from the undergradu-
ates, and are often elected before they have begun their attendance at the university.
They arc on the foundation, but their connection with the college is not so intimate aa
that of the fellows. The regulations under which they are placed, and the advantages



OOK



Schnetz.



which they enjoy," differ in the different colleges. A number of the scholarships which
were formerly restricted have recently been thrown open to public competition. The
bursaries (q.v.) of the Scottish universities are nearly analogous to the bcholarships of
the English.

SCHOLASTICS, or SCHOOLMEN*, originally the name given to the teachers of rhetoric
at the public schools under the Roman empire, but now used almost exclusively to
denote the so-called philosophers of the middle ages. After ihe fall of the old cla'ssic
civilization there ensued a long anarchy of barbarism, lasting from the 6th to the 8lh c. ;
but from the time of Charlemagne a visible improvement took place. That gnat
monarch encouraged learning; and the monasteries as well as the schools which he esti.b-
lished ; became subsequently the seats of a revived culture of philosophy. Conformably,
however, to the spirit of a time in which learning and literary skill were confined to
churchmen, philosophical activity showed itself chiefly in the domam of theology. This
preparatory period of scholasticism say from the 9th to the llth c. embraces the dis-
tinguished names of Johannes Erigeua Scotus (see ERIGEN.V), who cannot, however, be
properly classed among the scholastics; Gerbert of Aurillac, afterward pope Sylvester
II. (q.v.); Berengarius (q.v.) of Tours; and Laufranc (q.v.). Archbishop of Canterbury.
A further development of scholasticism occurred toward the middle of the 12th c., when
Roscclinus opened up the question concerning the nature of universal conceptions, which
led to the great struggle between the Xoiniualists (q.v.)aud Realists (q.v.). This struggle
terminated in the triumph of the latter: and henceforth, during the golden age of scholasti-
cism (the 12th and 18th centuries), it continued to be the prevalent mode of thought in
philosophy. Slill, however, scholasticism regarded philosophy as dependent on theology.
No one dreamed of doubting, or at least of disputing, the truth of any of the church
doctrines. These were alike too sacred and too certain to be so handled, and the only
thing left for a humble philosopher to do was. in fact, to sort and systematize them;
hence the expression philoyophia theologies ancilla (philosophy is the handmaid of theology),
which has found its way down to modern times. Whatever did not directly belong to
ecclesiastical dogma was either neglected or treated in accordance with tie vague tradi-
tions of Platonic or Aristotelian thought handed down from antiquity. Hence sprung
that vast array of artilicial subleties and distinctions which had no better foundation to
rest on than uross ignorance of the matters discussed, combined with a restless spicula-
tiveness. The formulas of logic were abused through an irrational realism, which
regarded them not only as a means to the attainment of philosophical knowledge, but as
the material organcn of philosophy itself. At first the dialectic treatment of dogma
was only fragmentary, as we see it in the principal scholastics of the 12th c. , Gilbert de
la Poll ee, Alanus ab Insulis, and Petrus Lombardus (q.v.). During the 12th c., how-
ever. the increased intercourse of the west with the Arabs and Greeks-led to a more
definite acquaintance wjth the physical and metaphysical writings of Aristotle, though
still only through the medium of incomplete translations, and in this way the circle of
vision of the scholastics at least widened, if it did not become clearer. From this period
datos the almost papal authority of the great Stagirite in philosophy, and the rise of the
vast and elaborate systems of mediaeval theology. The three chiefs of scholasticism in
this, its highest development, were Albertus Magnus (q.v.). Thomas Aquinas (q.v.), and
Duns Scotus (q.v,); around each of whom stand groups of more or less independent
scholars and followers. The celebrity of such teachers was largely increased by the
want of books, which compelled their pupils to rely upon their oral communications,
and necessitated those extraordinary public disputations which were the only means
"philosophers" had of advertising their wares in the middle ages. The honor paid to
them by their admirers is visible in the epithets attached to their names; thus Alanus is
the doctor tnnrersalis; Alexander Rales (q.v.), the doctor irref me/alias; Duns Scotus, the
doctor twbtiti&simv*; Thomas Aquinas, the dodoi' aiifjclicus; Guillaume Durand cf St.
Pourcain, the doctor retotut&isiinus, etc.

With Thomas Aquinas and Duns Scotus scholasticism culminated. After their
time, various cnuscs co-operated to bring about its decline and fall. The mystical
theology (see MYSTICISM) gradually developed its natural antagonism to speculations
resting on a basis of formal logic, and not appealing to the human heart and spirit.
Such men as St. Bernard (q.v.) of Clairvaux. and the monks of St. Victor at Paris, ia
the 12th c., together with Bonaventura in the 13th, '.vere unconsciously hostile to the
dominant style of thought; Avliile in the 14th r.ud 15th centuries Tauler. Thomas &
Kemnis, Gerson, Nicholas of Clemangis. and others, deliberately set themselves against
it. The very nature of the scholastic thought was inimical to its own perpetuity. The
hyper-logical, hair-splitting course which it followed produced rival systems, and results
discordant with the doctrines of that theology which it undertook to support, until it
finally laid down the astounding proposition, that a thing might be philosophically true
and theologically false, and rice ?v/w. The quarrels of t'ic two great orders the Domi
means and the Franciscans each of which took part with its metaphysical chief; the
former being called Thomists (from Aquinas), and the latter, Scotists(from Duns Scotus),
materially injured the common cause of scholasticism; and the revival of nominalism
under William of Occam (q.v.), its mot distinguished advocate, powerfully contributed
to the same result ; but it was not till after the revival of letters had done its work of



R; holt en.
gciiool*



enlightening the judgment and purifying the taste of Europe, that scholasticism was
vbiWv hi Uarigtr The reformation shook the system to its foundations Luther him-
seff K-adiir' the tissault with the strength and valor of a cojur-de-lion ; but still, so tena-
ciou-ilv did it cling to the semblance of life, that in the universities it held its tooting till



the ir'th c . and even later. In fact, in some Roman Catholic states, such as Spain, it is
still aim >st "he 'only kind of philosophy going. The two great intellectual reformers
whose writings mark the transition from the mediaeval to the modern mode of thought,
are lord Bacon (q v.) and Descaites (q.v.), who may be said to have administered the
death-blow to scholasticism. The literature of this phase of speculation is enormous
an 1 few critics have ventured far into Us cobwebbed regions. For example, the printed
writings of Albertus Mairuus, Thomas Aquinas, and Duns Scotus, amount to 51 folio



,

-lies- but however slid we may be that the reign of scholasticism is over, and how-
fliankful to men "like Laureutius Valla, Erasmus, Rudolf Agricola, aiul Ham us,



volu:
ever




S u rope by the vivacity
their fantastic speculations.

SCIIOLTEX' JOHANNES HENDRIK, b. at Vleuten, near Utrecht. Netherlands, 1811;
was minister at Mcer Kerk 1838-40; professor of theology at the athenaiuui of Fraue-
ker 1st )-;:!. when he was appointed to the university of Leydeu. He is the founder of
a new sclio >1 of Dutch theology which claims independence in applying scientific prin-
ciples, lie has published Gesckisdenis dvr Gods dienst en wtj* beyeerte; De leej- der ter-
nor rn.de, Icerk in hare grondbeginselen, 2 vols. ; De wye wil critisch onderzoek; Ret evangelic
nan r Johannes; De oudste getuigenixsen aangaande de schriflen des Xieuwe Testaments;
Super naturalisms in verband mil Bybel, Christendom en protestantisme.

SCilO.MBERG. FKEDERICK HERMAN*, Duke of ; 1616-90; b. Heidelberg, Germany;
son of count Schomberg an;l a daughter of lord Dudley; began his military career in the
Swedish army during the thirty years' war, ami was punished by the emperor for the part
he took by confiscation of his property; entered then the service of the Netherlands under
Frederick, prince of O ran ire; afterward went to France, where, 1650-85, he distinguished



Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 54 of 203)