Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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himself, and rose to the rank of marshal. In the campaign with Spain he compelled
that country to recognize the Portuguese dynasty of Bragmza, for which he received a
pension of 1,000 from the kingdom of Portugal, with reversion to his heirs. In 1635
the revocation of the edict of Nantes drove hi n elsewhere. After going to Portugal and
Holland ho went to the elector of Brandenburg, and was chosen commander of his
forces; joined the prince of Orange, 1633, in his descent upon England, and was made
commander of hU forces. The next year he was made baron, earl, marshal, and duke,
an*l received 400,000 from the house of commons. In August he was sent to Ireland
to oppose Jani"S II., but by his inaction lost half his army. He fought bravely at the
battle of the Boyne, but was killed while leading a body of French Protestants across
the river.

SCHOMBERG, HEXIU, Comte de, 1575-1633; b. Paris; appointed grand mister of
artillery and superintendent of finance in 1619. After defeating the Protestants in s.
France, he beca:na prime minister. His p nver rendered him a:i object of jealousy to
Richelieu, who obtained his removal in 1831, after holding the office three years. Cre-
ated marshal, he drove the English out of Re in 1637, was conspicuous at the siege of
La Rochelle, and capture! Pinerolo in 1630. Two years liter he defeated the duke of
Moutmorcncy at Castelnaudary, and made him prisoner. He was governor of Languedoc
at the time of his death.

SCHOIOTJBGX, Sir ROBERT HERMANN, a celebrated traveler, was born at Freiburg
in Prussian Saxony, June 5, 1804. He began at an early age to apply himself to geo-
graphical science and natural history, and subsequently "made an abortive attempt to
6U"Cce.l as a tobacco manufacturer in Virginia. In 1830 he went to Anegada, one of the
Virgin isles, and having, by the advice of the governor, carefully surveyed the island,
ami laid a report before the royal geograpical society, he was charged by that learned
body with the survey of G liana in 1835. This enterprise, which was surrounded with
formidable difficulties, he satisfactorily achieved, and from time to time laid the results
of his investigations before the society, in whose Journal they were regularly published.
It was during this exploration, and while he was ascending the Berbice river, that ha
discovered, Jan. 1, 18-J7, the magnificent aquatic plant denominated the Victoria regia
(q vA On -his return to England in 1839. he was presented with the medal of the geo-
graphical society for his Travel* and Researches in British Guiana in 1835-39 (Lond. l'840),
a work which largely contributed to almost every branch of natural science. In 1840
}>;'. r^'urned to Guiana, this time under the auspices of the British government, to com-
plete Vis survey of that country, and survey the boundary line between it and Brazil;
and on hi< return in 1844. after the completion of his labors, h? received the honor of
knighthood. The Description 0f British Guiana, a valuable work, was the fruit of this
expedition. In 1847 he published an excellent and elaborate History of Barbadoet, and
in the following year departed for San Domingo, whither he had been accredited as
British consul ai d representative. In this new sphere he continued to pursue his geo-

00*7 Scholten.

*> School.

graphical and scientific researches, the results of which lie communicated in reports to
the geographical society till 1S.")3. In 1857 he was appointed British representative to
the Siamese court, tie returned ill in I8o4, and died next year.

SCHONBEIN, CHRISTIAN FKIEDKICH, a German chemist, was born at Mitzengen in
Wurtemberg, Oct. 18, 1799; studied natural science at Tubingen and Erhumeu, ;tud ia
1824-23 taught chemical physics at Kcilhuu, near Rudolstadt. To increase his knowl-
edge, he visited England in 18^0, repairing thence to Paris; and in 1828 he was called
to a chair in the university of Basel, where his eminent qualifications were speedily
recognized. In 1889 he discovered ozone (q.v.), and invented gun-cotton (q.v.) in 1845,
obtaining from it by dissolution in ether the material called collodion (q.v.). In his later
years lie confined himself chiefly to experiments with oxygen. Of his works, which
generally tirst appeared in periodicals, the chief are: Dan Verhalten dcs Eisenxzuin &iu-
emiojj' (Basel, 1887). Heitrage zur Phyrilcadi&ken CJtemie (Basel, 1844), Veher die Erzeugung
des Ozotis (Basel, 1844), Ueber die lanymme und rasc/te Verbrennuny der Korper in Aiinos-
pluirischer Luft (1845). He died in 1868.

SCHONBRUNN, a royal palace in the outskirts of Vienna (q.v.), the summer residence
of the imperial family.

SCHO NEBECK, a manufacturing t. of Prussia, ten m. s.e. of Magdeburg, on the left
bank of the Llbe. The chemical works, which give employment to about 400 men; the
salt refineries, where the brine obtained from the abundant salt-springs is boiled down,
and salt made to the annual value of 413,000 tlialers; and the breweries and distilleries,
are the principal industrial establishments. Pop. '75, 10,979.

SCHOOLCRAFT, a co. in upper Michigan, bounded on the n. by lake Superior, on
the s. by lake Michigan; drained by Manislee and White Fish rivers; about 2.2~;0 sq.m. ;
pop. '70, 1290. The surface is uneven and heavily timbered. The soil is fertile. The
principal productions are lumber and iron. The soil is not, as yet, extensively culti-
vated. In the n. is a sand-wall 800 ft. high, and several m. in length, called "Tue Pict-
ured Rocks." Co. seat, Onota.

SCHOOLCKAFT, HENKY ROWE, American author, geologist, and ethnologist, was
born at Watervleit (now GuilderUmd). N. Y., March 28, 1793. He entered Union col-
lege in his 15th year, and studied French, German, Hebrew, chemistry, and mineralogy.
In 1817-18 he visited the mining region w. of the Mississippi, sent a collection of min
erals and geological specimens to Washington, and wrote A View of the 1 A <td Mines of
Missouri, etc. (8vo, New York, 1819), ami a narrative, since enlarged, entitled Scenitan.l
Adventures in the & nti-alpine l&?/io/i of the Ozaik Mountains of Missouri <tnd Ar/. m ttnmt9
(8vo, Philadelphia, 1853). In 1820 he was appointed geologist of an exploring expedi-
tion to the copper regions of lake Superior and the upper Mississippi, lie was after-
ward secretary of a commission appointed to investigate Indian claims and negotiate
treaties, at Chicago. As the result of these labors, he made a report to the government,
and wrote also travels in the Central Portion of the Mississippi Valley (8vo, New York,
1825). In 1822 he was appointed Indian agent for the north-western frontier, and estab-
lished himself at Sault Ste Marie. In 1823 he married Miss Johnston, granddaughter
of an chief, who had been educated in Europe. At this period, being in intimate
relations with many Indian tribes, he devoted himself to the study of their history and
ethnology. From 1828 to 1832 he was an active member' of the legislature of Michigan
territory, and founded its historical society, and the Algic society of Detroit. For his
lectures on Ihe Indian languages he received the gold medal of the French institute.
Adding poetry to science, he wrote: The Ilise of the West; Geehale, an Indian Lament;
Indian Mdoaies; Tiie Man of Bronze , or Portraitures of Indian Character; losco, or t},e
Vale of Norma; also a grammar of the Algonquin language. In 1832 he was appointed
to tht; command of an expedition which discovered the sources of the Mississippi, the
Nai'ratire of which was published (8vo, New York, 1834). As superintendent and dis-
bursing agent for the Indians, he negotiated treaties by which the government acquired
lands to the extent of lfi.000,000 acres. He visited Europe in 1842, and the following
year he rnnde a tour, chiefly for the observation of Indian antiquities in western Virginn,
Ohio, and Canada. In 184") he collected the statistics of the Six nations, and published
Jfotca on Ilia Iroquoix. etc. (8vo, Albany, 1848). In 1847 the United States congress
(authorized his publication of Historical and Statistical Information. Concerning the Ilis-
'ti>rj/. Condition, and Prospect s of Ihe Indian Tribes of th* United States, in six rolumes
quarto, trith 333 patten by Major Eastman' and others (Philadelphia. 1851-57). He alsoj
published A'g'c Researches; Thirty Years irith the Indian Tribes of the Korth-irextern Fron-
tier; The Indian in, Ids Wir/iram, etc. In 1847 he was married, for the second time, to\
Mis.s Howard of South Carolina. He died in 1864..^

SCHOOL-MASTER, AHMY AND NAVY. In the army, Ihe school-master is n non-com-
rni<si;>ued officer of the first ela^s, ranking next to a sergt.maj. His pay varies with
length of service, rising gradually from 4s. a day on Appointment, to 8s. n day after long
service. He has an advantage over other non-commissioned officers in quarters and cer-
tain allowances, To become an army school-master, it is necessary either to be a certifi-
cated school-master, or to have served the apprenticeship as a pupil teacher, and to pass
through a course of training for one year at the normal school in the royai military asy-


him, Chelsea. After the completion of the training, the candidate is required to enlist
as a common soldier for ten years' general service, whereupon he is immediately pro-
moted to the rank of schoolmaster. A few of the most deserving school-masters are
promoted to be sub-inspectors of schools, when they rank as lieutenants, and have 10s.
a day for pav. The duties of the school-master are to teach the soldiers and I heir chil-
dren the rudiments of genera! knowledge, to examine the girls' school, and to deliver
lectures to the soldiers. There were, in 1874, 180 army school-masters, besides 13 sub-
inspectors. ,

In the navy, the school-master is a chief petty officer, whose duties are analogous to
those of the army school-master, except that he has no pupils younger than the ship's
boys. Among the subjects he teaches are the taking of solar and lunar observations,
and the elements of navigation. His pay ranges from 4s. to 6s. a day.


SCHOOL-MISTRESS, ARMY, is a person attached to each regiment or corps for the
purpose of instructing the daughters of soldiers and their sons under eight years old in
the rudiments of English and in plain needlework. She must be a certificated school-
mistress, or a pupil-teacher who has served her apprenticeship. After admission to the
service, she is specially trained for six mouths at one of four training institutions.
This training is at the expense of government. The salary of a school-mistress varies
from 30 a year in the third class to 50 a year in the first class. Proper provision is
made for the quarters and supplies of the school-mistress, whose somewhat anomalous
position among rough men calls for the most circumspect behavior. The annual
charge (1873-74) for army school-mistresses amounted, for 161, to the sum of 5,362.

SCHOOLS, BROTHERS OF CHRISTIAN, a religious congregation in the Roman Catholic
church, established for the religious and secular education of the poor. It originated in
France in the end of the 17th c., and was organized by a charitable ecclesiastic, the
abbe de la Salle, canon of the church of Rheims. The members arc all lay brothers,
and are subject to one general head. Houses of the order are found in almost every
country of Europe. In France this congregation was one of those which ucre specially
excepted from among the suppressed orders, and which were re-established in France
by gen. Bonaparte in the concordat of 1801. It continues to flourish in that country, as
also in Belgium, Italy, Southern Germany, Great Britain, and North America. The
brethren are bound by the ordinary religious vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience.
Their system of education has received the highest testimonies, and they still form one
of the most flourishing of all the lay orders in the Roman church, numbering, it is said,
nearly 3,000 members. Besides this order, which is of French origin, similar institutes
have been formed under the same or analogous names in other countries, the several
varieties of which it would be tedious to enumerate. SISTERS OF THE CHRISTIAN
SCHOOLS. Several congregations of women for the education of poor female children
also exist in the Roman Catholic church. A long catalogue of these, with the hi'tory of
their origin, and their specific constitution, will be found in Wctscr's Air chen- Lexicon,
vol. ix.. pp. 782-784.

SCHOOLS. PUBLIC AND GRAMMAR. Under their respective heads, GYMNASIUMS,
of at sufficient length for the purposes of an encyclopaedia. The list of educational
institutions would, however, be incomplete were nothing to be said regarding the public
and grammar schools of England. By the term "public schools" are generally desig-
nated the ancirnt foundations of Winchester, Eton, Harrow, Westminster, Charter-
house. Shrewsbury, St. Paul's school, and Merchant Taylors'. But there exist more
modern seminaries, which have been instituted chiefly on the model of these, such as
MarlborouM) college, Cheltenham college, and Wellington college. Endowed grammar
schools of old foundation exist in almost all the principal towns of England, and are
frequented both by day pupils and boarders from the country. As almost all the inde-
pendent and endowed grammar schools of England are taught by men whose notions of
school discipline have been formed at one or other of the great public schools, these m:iy
fairly be ndded to those already enumerated as in point of fact public schools. Tie
course of instruction pursued, the methods of teaching, and the habits of life and of
discipline, will be found to be substantially similar in all endowed middle schools,
whether called public or grammar schools. A great number of these schools derive not
only the fixed emoluments of the masters from old bequests, but also the means of board-
ing and educating a certain numbc^Pof boys on the foundation. It was originally for
these foundationers or collegians that a large proportion of the old schools were founded ;
but round them has grown up a large community composed of pupils from all parts of
the British dominions, tutors, and keepers of boarding-houses. The foundationers con-
sequently form simply the nucleus of these schools. The course of instruction is
intended to prepare for the universities, and is consequently adapted to this purpose.
Latin and Greek form the basis of the whole instruction; geography, ancient history,

OQQ Schoolmen.

' ) 'J Schixiii rr.

arithmetic, and mathemntics being admitted to a very subordinate place in the curriculum.
Tin; school time devoted to arithmetic and mathematics is now, however, considerably
greater than was formerly given, and modern languages and the elements of science
begin to receive a larger share of attention. There are, of course, tutors available at
thase educational seats for all usual branches of instruction, including music and draw-
ing; but these subjects are alien to tiie proper work of the school, and do not alt'ect the
standing or promotion of the pupils. At Kugby the school course includes both French
and Geraian, and natural science is admitted as an alternative study with tlie^e. In the
more modern institutions, such as Marlborough, Cheltenham, and Wellington colleges,
attempts have been made to provide a modern course of instruction, running parallel
with the classical, for the benefit of those boys who either show an inaptitude for
classical studies, or who are not destined for the universities. That a sound education
may be obtained by huans of science and modern languages cannot be doubted; but its
value, as compared with classical discipline, even for who do not contemplate a
university COUIHC, or one of the learned professions, is still an open question. If, how-
ever, it be the case that there is a natural inaptitude in some boys for linguistic discipline,
who yet possess capacity for scientific study or the acquisition of a modern language, we
are driven to the conclusion that such a course of study ought to be provided for this
portion of the youth of Great Britain. Whether it ought to be provided at the existing and public schools is a subject at present keenly debated, but must be ulti-
mately very much a question of finance. In Germany many of the gymnasiums provide
a course of modern or real study, and this, combined with the wide diffusion of middle
schools, under the name of renl-xclnden, meets all the reasonable wants of that portion of
the middle class which does not, contemplate a 'professional life. In France the lycees
provide an ancient and modern courso, rucking parallel with each other, for all pupils
above a certain a^e. Up to age all are tangnt the same subjects. In Scotland, the
number of mid lie schools in imp>rtaat towns, either established by private enterprise
or by the town council or endow. nent, renders it unnecessary for boys to seek away from
their homes the preparation necessary for either the Scottish universities or com nercial
life. The Scotch schools are elastic in their system, adapting themselves to the wants
of parents, and all of thorn ad:nit the modern element iuto their course of study;' but the
currr-idum of study does riot carry pupils so far as it ought, and the funds of the schools
are wholly inadequate.

The ''schools inquiry commission" reportei on the grammar schools of England in
1833, and their report led to the appointment of an endowed schools executive commis-
sion for purposes of reform. The Scotch endowed schools commission reported to
government in 1871-75.


SCHOOLS, KEGrlMEUTAL, in the British army, comprise the school for adults and
boys above years of age, under the school-master (q.v.), and the infant and indus-
trial schools under the school-mistress (q.v.). for girls and little boys. In the first, plain
subjects are taught to soldiers who voluntarily attend, or to soldiers' children. The
education is wholly secular, the only theological teaching being exposition of a portion
of Scripture during the first half-hour of morning school; but even at this, attendance is
at the option of the parents. The infant school is conducted on similar principles. The
ind istrial school is to fit girls for the occupations of life, and to render them capable of
entering domestic service; a grant of money is made by government for the provision
of materials. There is a school of each sort in every battalion of infantrv or reiriment
of cavalry, the total cost of which amounts, for 1873-74. to 36,253. Adult soldiers are
admitted gratuitously; for children, there is a nominal charge of Id. each a month. The
orphans of soldiers and the children of soldiers serving abroad are received at any neigh-
boring school without payment; those of pensioners, contractors, etc., at 3d. a month;
and ths children of officers at 5s. a month. It is forbidden that any difference should
be made in the schools in the treatment of these different classes of pupils.

SCHOONEE, is a swift, sharply-built vessel, carrying usually two masts, though
occasionally a greater number, and commonly is of small size. There are two classes of
schooners the " fore-and-aft schooner," or soiiooncr proper, and the " topsail schooner."
In the former, both foremast and mainmast arc rigged like the mainmast of a cutter,
with fore-and-aft sails. In the latter, the foremast carries a square topsail and a square
topgallant sail. Off a wind, the former rig has a great advantage, as the schooner can
sail up within 4i or even 4 points of the wind; but before the wind, the square topsail
gives the advantage to the topsail schooner; and as the latter can on occasion strike her
squarcsails, and set a fore-and-aft topsail in their place, she has usually the preference.
No sailing-vessel is faster than a schooner of tine build, when s'ae carries ample canvas;
hence it is a favorite form for the larger class of yachts; and before the introduction of
S'.CLV.TI dispatch-vessels, was employed much in the packet service. Schooners are still
employed in the navy as revenue cruisers: and to a great extent, in the merchant service
for running small cargoes, ami especially those of perishable eroods, as fish or freh fruit.
They easily managed by a small crew; but from the sharpness of their build, have
no -great amount of stowaire.

Schopenhauer. 240*>.

SC30PENHATJES, ARTHUR, a German philosopher, son of Johanna Schopenhauer, an
authoress of teusulurable distinction (bom 1770, died li-38), was born at Danzig, Feb. 22,
1788. He studied first at Gottingen, where the lectures of Seliulze inspired linn with a
love of philosophy, and afterward at Berlin and Jena, iu the last of which places he
graduated iu 1813. During the same year he published his first treatise. Utter diejier-
fache \\ur:eldcx SatzesvoinzareichciuUn Grande (Rudolst. 1813, 2(1 ed. Frankf. 1847), in
which he lays down the logical bnsis of his future sys:em. Schopenhauer spent the
winter of 1813 at Weimar, where lie. enjoyed the society of Goethe, and the orientalist
Friedr. Maier, who first turned his attention to the ancient Indian literature and philo-
sophy, the study of which exercised a great influence on his future development. He
then proceeded to Dresdjn, where he published a treatise oil sight and color (Ueber clan
Sektn iind die Farben, Liep. 1816), which was followed, three years later, by his great
work Die WM alss Wille and Vortstellunu (The World considered as Will and ld;a, Leip.
1819;' 2d ed. 1844). After 1820 Schopenhauer lived partly in Italy and partly iu Berlin,
up till 1831, when he fixed himself iu Fraukfurt-ou-the-Maiu, devoting himself uninter-
ruptedly to the elaboration of his system. The fruits of his studies were Ueber den
Willeu in dei- Natur (Frankf. 1836); iMer die Freiheit dea Willens, Ueber dus Fundament
der Moral, the supplements to his principal work, which appear in the 2d edition of 1844;
and l'a,rerf/a uud i'araUponieiia (Berl. 1851). lie died Sept. 21, 1860. The fundamental
doctrine of Schopenhauer is that the only essential reality in the universe is \\ill; that
what are called appearances exist only in our subjective representations, and are merely
forms under which, single original will shows itself. This will is not necessarily accom-
panied by self-consciousness, though it ever strives after, its attainment, and hence

Schopenhauer professed the most unmeasured scorn calling llegel. for example, a mere
" scribbler of nonsense" and iu return was treated by them with, such sovereign con-
tempt that for years his name was almost unknown to the majority of German students.
His theories of ethics and aesthetics also rest on peculiar and not very intelligible
grounds. The best account of Schopenhauer's philosophy is to be found in Frauen-
sUidt's Briefe ubur die tic/iopenhauemc/w Pkilosopiiie (Leip. 1854). See Life, by Helen
Zimmern (1876).


SCHOBL ROCK is a granitoid- rock, in which tlic mica is replaced by schorl or tour-
maline. Some specimens occur in which the felspar is also absent, and the mass is
composed entirely of quartz and schorl. Schorl rocks are rare, occurring probably only
as small bosses in granite.

SCHOTTISCHE (Ger. Scottish) a somewhat fanciful name given to a slow modern
in 5 time.

80IIOULER, WILLIAM, 1814-72 ; h. Scotland; emigrated to the United States, and
edited the Lowell Courier, 1841-47. He had charge of the Boston Atlas, the organ of the
New Engl-md whigs. 1847-53: served iu the legislature and in the constitution*:] conven-
tion of 1853; was connected with the Cincinnati Gazette, 1853-56. and with the Ohio
State Journal, 1850-58, when he resumed his position on the Boston Atlas. He was
adj. gen. of M ussaelmsetts during the war of the rebellion. He published :i Ilistary <//
Mas&tchuetta in t/te Civil War.

SCHOTJWEN. nn insular portion of the province of Zealand (q.v.). is bounded on 'he
8. by the Scheldt, on the n. by the most southern branch of the Mans, find on the w. by
the No"lh sri. Area, 60 sq.m. ; pop* (including the eastern part, called Duivland) Jan.
1, 1875. 23.8C9. The surface is low, and the i.-land is protected on both sides by dykes.

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 55 of 203)