Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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Agriculture is the chief employment of the inhabitants; the soil is fertile, and the
principal crops ar; grain, oil-seed, and flax. Sea-fowl in immense flocks breed on the s.
side of l he ishnd. and the sale of their egg; is an important item in the trade of Zie-
rikzee (pop. 8.043), which is the principal town.

SCIIUADEIl, JULIUS, b. Berlin, 1815; studied r.t DUsseldorf. Having taken the
great prize at Herlin in 184t, he was able to spend 3 years in Rome. Among his best
work.i are the fresco in the Berlin museum of the "Consecration of the Church of St.
Sophia in Constan'inople by the Emperor Justinian;" ''Lady Macbeth;" and "The Death
of Leonardo de Vinci." lie was appointed professor in the Berlin academy in 1851.

SCHELVELITJS, CORNELIUS, a Dutch scholar, whopc name was once better known
t'vm it is now. was born at, Haarlem in 1615, and educated mainly by his father. In
1612 he succeeded his father as rc-ctor of the university of Leyderi. nnd died Sept. 11,
16(54. S(h revel ins was a laborious and < urditc man, but possessed little critical discern
mcnt. His most notable performance was a Lexicon Mainiale, Grcrco-Lntimtm ft Latiiio-
Gramnn (Lryden, 16">4, 1657, 1661), of which there have been innumerable editions. It
was long extensively used as a text-book in English schools, and. in the absence of any-
thing better, deserved perhaps the respect which it obtained; but otherwise it cannot be
pronounced a good dictionary. It is not at all exhaustive of the words in the Greek
language; it does not sufficiently explain tlid r different meanings,, and its etymologies

' o 4 1 Schopenhauer.


are often erroneous and inept. Schrevelius also executed many variorum editions of
the classics, Juvenal (164S). Hesiod (1650), Terence (1651), Virsil (1652), Horace (1658),
Homer (1656), Martial (1656), Lucan (1658), Quiutus Curtius (1658), Justin (1659), Cicero
(1661), Ovid (1662), and Claudian (1665). These editions are remarkable for llicir
correctness, and for the excellence of the paper and typography, but the notes are defi-
cient both in taste and acumen.

SCHREYER, ADOLPH, b. Germany, 1828; studied painting in Munich, Stuttgart,
and Diisseldorf. In 1854 he went witli the Austrian army through the provinces along
the Danube. His travels extended through Hungary, s. Russia, and Turkey; and he
afterward visited the east and Algeria, He then took up his residence in Paris. He has
made a special study of horses, and his landscapes are distinguished by strength and
mastery of color. The best known of his pictures are perhaps, "The Dying Horse;"
" The Wallachian Extra Post;" and " Horses Frightened by Wolves."

SCHRIVER, EDMUND, b. Penn., 1812; graduate of West Point, 1833; entered the army
in the 2d artillery, was tranferred to adj. gen. department with the rank of capt., 1838;
resigned 1846. He was president of the Rensselaer and Saratoga railroad company,
1851-61. In April, 1861, he was aid-de-camp to gov. Morgan; and in the war of the
rebellion was commissioned lieut.col. llth infantry, 1861; inspector of the army of the
Potomac, 1863-65; rising through successive grades to brig.gen. in the regular army
1864. He was raised to niaj.gen., 1865, fur gallant service in the Shenandoah valley.
He was in the northern Virginia and the Richmond .campaign from the Rupidan to the
surrender of the confederate stronghold.

SCHROCKH; JOHANX MATTHIAS, 1733-1808; b. Vienna; a German church historian.
He held for many years a professorship at the university of Wittenberg, where he
lectured successively on philosophy, poetry, and history. He is best known by hi8
ClifixtUi'i't' Kiri-liriifUKcMclite (35 vols. 1768-1803), and KirchengescMchte seii der Reforma-
tion (10 vols. lfc'04-12) the two last volumes of which were added by Tzschirner.

SCHRODER, ANTOINETTE SOPHIE, 1781-1868; b. Germany; a noted actress. She
appeared on the stage when only 12 years old at St. Petersburg, where her parents were
acting. In 1795 she married Stol liners, the director of another company but was sepa-
rated from him soon afterward. Her second husband was the singer Friedrich SchrOder,
who died in 1818; and she then married the actor Kunst. She acted in all the principal
theaters in Germany, and acquired a great reputation by her impersonations of Pha?dra,
Medea. Lad}" Macbeth, and other trainc characters. She retired from the stage in 1840.
See Svrhie ticki'dOer, by P. Schmidt (1870).

SCHRODER, FKJEDKICH LUDWIG, 17441816, b. Germany. He began acting in
the company of his parents when a mere child, and made a great reputation as a tragedian
before he was thirty years of age. He became manager of the theater at Hamburg in
1771, and introduced 'to the German pui.lic several of Shakespeare's plays which he had
translated. He was the anther of many plays, and his Dramatische Werke were edited by
Billow with an introduction by Tieck.

SCHRODER-DEVRIENT, WILHEI.MINE, 1804-60. b. Germany; daughter of Fried-
rich Ludwig. She was a ballet dancer til! she was fifteen years old, when she made
her debut at Vienna in Racine's Pliedre. In the following year, after cultivating her
powerful voice, she appeared as prima donna with great success in such operas as
Fidelia, Evryanthe, Korma, the Hvyiienots. She was separated in 1828 from her first
husband, Karl August Devriwit, and after separating from her second husband, Doring,
married a Livonian nobleman, Von Bock.

SCHRODTER, ADOLPH, b. Prussia, 1805; studied art at Berlin and Diisseldorf. In
1859 he became professor of drawing at the Carlsruhe polytechnic school. His humor-
ous pictures are well known, and engravings of them are common in this country. The
best are the " Wine Tasters," " Auerbach's Cellar," Falstaff," and "The Two Monks.''

SCHUBERT, FRANZ, a German musical composer, who was born at Vienna in 1807,
nnd died at the early age of 25. During his lifetime his works attracted little notice,
but they acquired a high and deserved reputation after his death, and have gained for
their composer a large share of posthumous fame. His songs and ballads are hardly to
be surpassed for masterly construction and richness of fancy, while they are full of sim-
ple, ornate, and expressive melody. Schubert also composed several operas, symphonies,
sonatas, and other larger works.

SCHUBERT, GOTTHILF HEIN^TCH VON, 1780-1860; b. Germany. After studying
theology at Leipsic and medicine at Jena, he practiced as a doctor at Altenburg. Freiberg,
and Dresden. He acted as director of an educational institution at Nuremberg 1809-16,
and then was tutor to the children of the grand duke of Mecklenburg-Schweriu till
1819. He held a professorship of the natural sciences at Erlangen till 1827, and after-
ward at Munich.

SCHULTE, JOHANN FRIEDRICH; b. Winterbcrg, Westphalia, 1827; studied law, and

practiced in Berlin and Bonn; was appointed professor of eanon law at Prague in

1855 and at Bonn in 1872. His publications are: System des Katfioliwhen Kirchenrecht*;

Die Lehre von den Quellen des Katholischen Kirchenrechts; Die Rechlsfrage des

U. K. XIII. 16


<f<sr Rcg'.crung bei den BiacTioffswaklen. He opposed the dogma of papal infallibility and
joined Dodinger aud Reinkeus.

SCHUM \-CHER, HEINRICH CHRISTIAN, 1780-1850; b. Denmark; educated ft Copen-
hagen imd Gottingeu. In 1813 he was appointed director of the Mannheim observatory,
and in 1S15 professor of astronomy and director of the Copenhagen ooservaiory. In 18
be was director of the Holstein and Laueiiberg survey; in 1824 co-operated with the
English board of admiralty in determining the difference of longitude between Green-
wich and \ltona and in 1822 published tables (if the distances of Jupiter, Saturn, Mars,
and Venus from the moon. In 1821 he began the publication of his AsfronomwM
A'achrichten, which survives him.

SCHUMANN, ROBERT, a modern German musical composer of considerable note. Ho
was born at Zwickau, in Saxony, in 1815, and sludied^chiefly at ^Leipsic. ^ Re is looked
of tin

Whatever may ~ _ -

music of the present day has been very considerable. English musicians have, however,
hesitated to agree with his countrymen in placing him on an equally exalted pinnacle
with Beethoven. His compositions evince deep study of Sebastian Bach, as well as ;i
large share of individuality, freshness, aud scientific knowledge. They continually sur-
prise us by startling modulations, and the frequent interruptions in tiie nine impart to
thorn an air of eccentricity. Schumann's works comprise several symphonies, a cantata
called Paradise and tfie Peri, and a number of small pieces, which have obtained mo:e
favor in this country than his larger compositions. Schumann married Mile. Clara
Wi'jck, one of the most celebrated of living pianists, and died iii 185b'.

SCHURZ, CARL, b. Prussia, 1829; educated at Cologne and Bonn. lie edited a
liberal newspaper in association with Gottfried Kinkel, professor of rhetorical Bonn,
where he endeavored unsuccessfully to organize an insurrection in 1849; escaped with
Kinkel; was adjutant in the revolutionary force, and on the capture of Rastadt, which
he helpL-d defend, fled to Switzerland. He returned to Germany in 1850 auJ contrived
the escape of Kinkel, who had baen sentenced to 20 years' imprisonment. After a resi-
dence in Paris as correspondent for German papers, and in London, where he was a
teicher, ho settled in Philadelphia, 1812. Removing to Ma.lisoj, Wis., ia 1853, he
made republican campaign speeches in Genmn in 1856. and the next year TT-S an unsuc-
cessful candidate for lieutenant-governor. In 1858 lie began to practice law in Milwaukee.
He was a member of the republican convention in 1860, an.l delivered both English and
German speeches during the canvass of that year. Late in 1831 he resigned the position
of minister to Spain, to which president Lincolnliad appointed him, and joined the army.
lie was made brig. gen. in 1863; commanded a division at the second battle of Bull Run,
was commissioned maj.gen. 1863, led the llth corps at Chancellorsville, was at Gettys-
burg and Chattanooga, aud at tb.3 close of the war.resiime:! the practice of law. He was
Washington correspondent of the N. Y. Tribune., 186o-<56: founded the Detroit P/^t
in 1868, ami the next year became editor of the St. Lo-.ris Weitlcr^f. Pmt. He was tem-
porary chairman of the republican convention at Chicago in 1868, and U. S. senator
from Missouri, 1869-75. He opposed many of tin msas ire.s of the Grant administra-
tion, and in 1872 wa-t president of the Cincinnati convention which nominated Greoloy
for president. During tho state canvass in O!iio in 1875, he made some powerfulspeechea
against the inflation of the currency. H3 was secretary of the interior under the
Hayes administration, 1877-81. In 1881 he became editor of the New York Evening Pottt.

8CHUYLER, a co. in \v. Illinois, bounded on the s.e. by the Illinois river, and on
the s. w. by Moin rivr, traversed by the St. Louis, Rock Island and Chicago and the
Buda and Rushvilie railroads; about 425 sq m. ; pop. '80, 16,249 15,692 of American
birth. The surface is rolling. There are heavy forests. The soil is fertile. The
principal productions are corn, wheat, oats, aud cattle. Co. seat, Rushvilie.

8CHUYLER. a co. in n. Missouri, adjoining Iowa ; bounded on the w. by the C'..arlton
river; drained also by then, for'i of the Salt river, and the n. and middle Fabins rivers;
traversed by the Missouri, T^va and Nebraska, aud the St. Louis, Kansas City and
Northern railroads: about 825 sq.m. ; pop. '80, 10,470 10,132 of American birth. The
i-.rface is rolling prairie or woodland. The soil is fertile. The principal production*
arc corn, wheat, oats, tobacco, and wool. Co. seat. Lancaster.

SCHUYLEIl, a co. in s.w. New York on the Chemung canal and the Northern
Central railroad; about 350 sq.m.; pop. '80, 18.84217,942 of American birth. The
surface is hilly. The soil is fertile. The principal productions are oats, wheat, corn,
barley, wool, and butter. Co. seat, Watkius.

SCHUYLER, PKTKK, b. about 1650; acted as mediator between the five nations of
the Indian race and the white settlers of New York and the New England colonies. He
was at tlie head of an expedition which destroyed the French .settlements in 16S1. In
1710 he went to England with a party of live Indian chiefs, whom he had invited to
accompany him, for the purpose of awakening in the government an interest in the
occupation of Canada, then held by the French. In 1719 he \>us governor of New York.

9J.Q Sclinmacher.

Soli wau thaler.

SCIIUYLER, PHILIP, 1733-1804; b. Albany, N. Y. ; entered the army during the
French and Indian war, 1755, and was assigned by lord Howe to the commissary's
department. After the war he was a member" of the colonial assembly of New York,
and resisted earnestly the British attempts to tax the colonies without their consent; was
a delegate to the continental congress, 1775, by which he was nuide a maj.gen. and
assigned to the command of the troops in New York and of the expedition against
Canada; but sickness having compelled him to relinquish this service, it devolved on
gen. Montgomery. On his recovery he actively superintended Indian affairs and army
discipline. St. Glair's evacuation of Ticonderoga threw, for a time, unfounded sus-
picious on gen. Schuyler, which led to his being superseded ; but a court of inquiry after-
ward fully approved his conduct, and Washington solicited him to accept a new com-
mand. Though he declined this, he rendered efficient service in the military operations
in New York. Before the national constitution was formed he was a member of
congress; and aftcrwaid twice represented his state in the U. S. senate.

SCKTJYL KILL, a river of Pennsylvania, which uses in the carboniferous highlands of
the eastern center of the state, and, flowing 120 in. s.e., empties into the river Delaware
5 m. below Philadelphia.

SCHUYLKILL, a co. in e. central Pennsylvania, drained by the Sclmylkill, Little
Schuylkill, and Swatara rivers, and Mahauoy and Cattawissa creeks: on the Phila-
delphia and Heading railroad; about 775 sq. in.; pop. '80, 129,977 103,831 of American
birth. The surface is mountainous, heavily wooued; and there are extensive deposits of
coal and iron. The so-called southern coal field is in this region. The chief export is
anthracite coal, much of which is transported on the Schuylkill Navigation company's
canal. Co. seat, Pottsville.

SCHWAB, GUSTAV, 171)2-1850; b. Germany; educated at Tubingen; tutor in the thco-
logical seminary there till 1817. He was professor of ancient literature in the Stuttgart
gymnasium. 1817-37, and a pastor there, 1837-45. He was afterward chief councilor of
the Evangelical consistory. His ballads and romances are highly esteemed in Germany.
Hi; best-known prose work is, perhaps, Die Sclionsten Sugan dcs (Jlassiclien Alterthuins
(1S38-40). His chief poetical works are Getlichte (1828); and Filnf Bucher deutsclier
Li> li r u ud Gtdiehte (1838).

SCHWALBACII, or LANGENSCIIWALBACII, a German watering-place in Hesse-
Nassau, n.w. of Wiesbaden; pop. '71, 2,043. Many visitors annually come to drink the
waters, which are also largely exported. They are the strongest known chalybeate


PC'ITTv'ALBEIl, known as CHELIDOSTTTS, a swallow, the Greek translation of Pchwnl-
ber, d. 1521 ; a monk of the Scotch Benedictine abbey of St Egidius. He wrote the
Latin verses to Albert Durer's The Apocalypse, The Passion, of Christ, and The Life of the
Virf/in Mm if, while in the monastery; and verses on subjects connected with the church
and its devotees. He had the reputation of being a good Latin scholar, and for his love
of learning was nicknamed Musophilns. He became abbot of the Schotten Klonter near
Vicuna, 1515.

SCHWANTHALER, Lunwio MICITAKT,, a celebrated German sculptor, was b. in 1803
at Munich, where his father, Franz Schwanthaler, practiced the same art. Young
Schwanthaler entered his father's workshop at the age of 16; and on the death of the
latter in 1821, he undertook to carry on his father's business. His first important com-
missions were received in 1824 from king Maximilian. After a brief residence in Rome,
he set up a studio of his own at Munich, and shortly after executed for the OlyptotJieh
there two fine bas-reliefs from Homer: " Achilles struggling in the Scamander," and the
"Battle by the Ships," besides a statue of Shakespeare for the saloon of the theater, and
the Bacchus-frieze for the banqueting-hall in the palaceof duke Maximilian. In 1832 ho
revisited Rome, for the purpose of preparing models for that portion of the national
monument of Valhalla intrusted to his supervision. He remained two years. On liia
return to Munich, he began his bas-reliefs to illustrate Pindar's Epinikia (Triumphal
Odes) and the myth of Aphrodite, the latter of which is a frieze. In 1835 he was
appointed professor at the Munich academy. Henceforth, the interest of his career is
mainly professional; but the number of his works is singularly great, while their excel-
lence is such as to place him in the first rank of German sculptors. His distinguishing
characteristics are a thorough originality of design, and boldness of imagination; wliiie
the extraordinary extent of his acquaintance with the sculpture of Greece and of the
middle ages gave a great, richness and variety to his execution of details. Among his
works may be mentioned 24 statuettes in the Pinakothek at Munich; the great bas-relief
frieze (in the Barbarossa hall), more than 209 ft. long; the models for the 12 statues of
the ancestors of the house of Wittelsbach, the 15 colossal statues for the front pediment
of the Valhalla, the models of the 15 statues of the "Battle of Arminius" for the northern
end of the same structure, and the model of the colossal statue of Bavaria, 54 ft. high; a
marble statue of the emperor Rudolf for the cathedral of Spires, models for the statuea
of Goethe and Jean Paul Richter, a statute of Mozart, marble groups of Ceres and Pros-,
erpina (at Berlin), etc., besides numerous other works executed by his pupils from hia
designs. He died in 1848.

Schwartz. O/LJ.



SCHWARZ, BERTHOLD, b. Germany, early in the 14th century; a Franciscan monk,
whose name is thought to have been Konstantin Aucklitzen. He was an alchemist, who
lived at Nuremberg or Mentz, and was called Schwarz(i.e., "Black") from his supposed
practice of the black art. He is said to have discovered gunpowder when in prison for
sorcery. It is supposed that gunpowder was discovered as early as 1330, or at least
before any date assigned to Schwarz's discovery, which probably consisted in utilizing
it for military purposes. There is a monument to him at Freiberg, his birthplace. .

SCHWARZ, CHRISTIAN FRIEDRICH, a distinguished German missionary, was b. at
Sonnenburg, in Brandenburg, Oct. 26, 1726. He studied at Halle, and having resolved
to become a missionary in the East Indies, obtained ordination at Copenhagen, with the
view of joining the Danish mission at Tranquebar, where he arrived in 1750. His
career is a beautiful example of what may be accomplished when piety, integrity, good
sense, and a charity that knows how to prevent the virtue of zeal from lapsing into the
vice of fanaticisn, unite harmoniously in a man. After laboring 15 years at Tranquebar,
he went to Trichinopoly, where he founded a church and school, and also acted as
chaplain to the garrison. Here the fruits of his long and consistent career of pious
activity gradually began to show themselves in considerable conversions from Hinduism.
In 1777, another missionary was sent to his assistance; and by the pel-mission of the
rajah of Tanjore, whose friendship' he had acquired, he built a church in that city. So
highly did the native rulers admire his integrity, that once, when Hyder AH, of Mysore,
was arranging terms of peace with the Madras government, he demanded that Schwara
should act as their agent "him, and no other one," said the sultan, " will I receive and
trust." On this occasion, Schwarz resided three months at Seringapalam. During the
terrible Carnatic war which soon after followed (1781-83), and for which Schwarz thought
the British were to blame, a striking testimony was give-n of that universal respect enter-
tained for his character. The inhabitants and garrison of Tanjore were dying of starva-
tion, and neither the British nor the rajah could induce the cultivators to sell them
provisions. In despair, Schwarz was appealed to, and when he gave his word that pay-
went should be made, the farmers believed him, and sent the requisite supplies. On the
death of the rajah of Tanjore in 1787, Schwarz was appointed tutor and guardian of his
his young son, Maha Sarboji, who turned out. under Schwarz's care, one of the most
accomplished sovereigns in or out of India. Schwarz died Feb. 13, 798.

GCZrWAUZSUEG, EOTJSE OF, one of the oldest German families, founded about the
middle of the 12th c., by Sizzo, count of Schwarzburg and KSsernburg. The two sons of
Sizzo were Heinrich, who succeeded his father as count <;f Schwarzburg, and Gunther,
who became count of Kasernburg. The former, dying childless in 1184, his possessions
went to his brother, who left two sons, Gunther", who continued the family of the counts
of Kasernburg, and Heinrich, from whom sprung the counts of Schwarzbuig. In 1C49,
Gunther XXL, the younger son of Heinrich XII., was elected emperor of Germany, but
he died within the year of his election. Count Gfmther XL. of Schwarzburg and Arn-
stadt, who introduced (1541) the reformation into his states, was the common Jinci-storof
the two existing lines of the Schwarzburg family; his son, Johann Gunther, founding
the line of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen (q.v.), and Albert, that of Schwarzburg Itudol-
stadt (q.v.).

SCHWARZ BURG-RTT'DOISTADT, a German principality, bounded on the e. by Wei-
mar, Altenburg, and Meiningen, with a detached part, 30 m. to the n., in Prussian
Saxony. Area. 367 sq.m. ; pop. '75, 76,676, of whom above 76,000 were Lutherans. It
consists of the Upper Lordship (Rudolstadt, 282 sq.m.) and the Lower Lordship (Fh-arikcn-
liauKtn, 85 sq. miles). The Schwarza, Tim. and Saale water the surface, which is for the
most part covered with spurs of the Thuringcr-wald. The ordinary crops are raised,
and timber, salt, and metals are the principal products. The principality contains many
spots distinguished for beautiful scenery; and besides the vale of the Schwarza, the con-
vent ruins of Paulenzelle, and the remains of the castle of Kyffhausen, attract many
visitors. Schwarzburg-Ruflolstadt has a diet of 16 members, of 'whom 12-are chosen by
general election. Schwarzburg-Rodolstadt has one vote in the federal council, and one
in the diet.

is partly surrounded by
Protestants. It consists of
^Armtadt). The former of
these, watered by the Helbe and Wipper, is fertile and agricultural: while the latter is
mountainous, and is the seat of active manufactures. The diet contains five members
nominated by the prince, 5 chosen by the most heavily taxed, and 5 by general election.
Sclnvarzburg-Sondershausen has one voice in the federal council, anil sends one repre-
sentative to the imperial diet.


(1429) by the emperor Sigismund to the dignity of baron of the empire.

family' have acquired a European reputation; the first, ADAM, count of Schwarzenberg,

who was born in 1587, and became prime-minister and adviser of Georg-Wilhelm, elector


of Brandenburg. He was all powerful during the Thirty Years' war, and brought down
terrible calamities on Brandenburg by his obstinate adherence to the alliance with Aus-
tria against the Protestant league for which he was punished after the accession of the
"great elector," in 1640, by being despoiled of his power, and imprisoned in the fortress

at his own cost. He was under the orders of Mack in the campaign of 1805, and com-
manded a division at Ulm; but when he saw that the battle was lost, he cut his way
through the French army, and retired with his regiments to Eger, afterward taking part
in the great battle of Austerlitz. He was ambassador at the Russian court in 1808, by
the express wish of the emperor Alexander; fought at Wagrain in 1809; and after the
treaty of Vienna, conducted the negotiations preliminary to the matrimonial connection
of Napoleon with the Hapsburg family; and both in this capacity and as ambassador at
Paris, so gained the esteem of Napoleon, that the latter expressly demanded for him the
post of geueral-in-chief of the Austrian contingent of 30,000 men which had been sent

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 56 of 203)