Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 57 of 203)
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to aid France against Russia in 1812. Schwarzenberg with his little army entered Rus-
sia from Galicia, passed the Bug, and achieved some slight successes, but was after-
ward driven into the "duchy of Warsaw" (see POLAND), and took up a position at
Pultusk, where he concluded with the Russians an armistice which secured the French
retreat. Schwarzenberg was much blamed for his dilatory conduct at the time; and his
tardiness, ascribed by the French historians to secret instructions from his own govern-
ment, has since been much animadverted upon by them; but nevertheless Napoleon con-
cealed any dissatisfaction he might have felt, and demanded (1813) for him from the
Austrian government the baton of field -marshal. After a brief sojourn at Paris, Schwarz-
enberg was appointed to the command of the Austrian army of observation in Bohemia;
and when Austria joined the allied powers, he became generalissimo of the armies of the
coalition; gained the victory of Leipsic (q.v.), and introduced a cautious system of tac-
tics, which insured a progressive hemming-in of the French, and in spite of their occa-
sional successes, completely wore them out. On the return of Napoleon from Elba, he
obtained the command of the allied army on the upper Rhine, and a second time entered
France. On his return to Vienna, he was made president of the imperial council for
war, received an ex tensive grant of lands in Hungary, and was allowed to engrave the
imperial arms of Austria on his escutcheon. He died of apoplexy at Leipsic, Oct. 15,
1820. His nephew, FELIX LTJDWIG JOHANN FRFEDRICH, born Oct. 2, 1800, distinguished
himself in the Italian campaign of 1848, was placed at the head of affairs in Vienna,
called in the aid of the Russians against Hungary, and pursued a bold policy in Ger-
many. He died at Vienna, April 5, 1852.

1809; descended from a princely German family, ennobled by the emperors Sigismund,
1417; Leopold, 1670; and Francis I., 1746; was made archbishop of Salzburg, 1836;
cardinal, 1842; and archbishop of Prague, 1849. In the Vatican council he opposed as
inopportune the declaration of the dogma of the pope's infallibility, but when it had
been declared, accepted it.


SCHWEDT, a handsome t. of Prussia, in the province of Brandenburg, on the Oder,
31 m. s.s.w. of Stettin. Weaving, brewing, the manufacture of soap and of tobacco,
which is here extensively grown and sold, are the principal branches of industry. Pop.
'75, 9,613.

SCHWEGLER, ALBERT, 1819-57; b. Wurtemberg; studied theology at the uni-
versity of Tubingen; appointed professor thereof classical philology, 1848; afterward
of ancient history. In theology and criticism he was of the "Tubingen school." He
published annotated editions and translations of the Clementine Homilies, 1847: Aris-
totle's Metaphysics, 1847-48; Eusebius, 1852; a History of Philosophy, often reprinted
and translated into many languages into English by prof. J. H. Seelye of Amherst
college; his History of Grecititi Philosophy was published after his death, 1859.

SCHWEID NITZ, a charmingly situated t. of Prussian Silesia, on the left bank of the
TVeistritz, 42 in. s.e. of Liegnitz. and about the same distance s.w. of Breslau by railway.
"Woolen goods, leather, and agricultural implements are manufactured; and the fairs
for corn, cattle, and yarn are much frequented. Schweidnitz was besieged and taken
four times within 50 years, the last time by the French in 1807, when the defenses were
in great part destroyed. Pop. '75, 19,892.

SCHWEIN'FURT, an ancient and long an imperial free city, th.e Trajectu* Suewmim.
of the Romans, now a town of Bavaria, in Lower Franconia, on the Main, 29 m. n.e. of
Wurzburg by railway. It contains a beautiful market-place, in which important cattle
and woo! markets are held. Wine-culture, sugar-refining, and manufactures of chemi-
cals and dyeing materials, as white-lead, ultramarine, Schweiufurt green, etc., are
carried on. " See GREEN. Pop. '75, 11,250.

SCHWEINFURTH, GF.OHG AUGUST, a distinguished African traveler, was b. in Riga,
Sept. 29, 1836. He studied at Heidelberg, Munich, and Berlin, making botany his

Schweinita. 94-fi


specialty. In 1SC>4 he made a journey through the valley of the Nile, and along th
coa>ts oY the Red sea; and on his return to Berlin in 1866 had the botanical, zoological,
and <reolo;rical fruits of his travels classified. In 1808, by the aid of a grunt from tiie
rova'i "academy of sciences of Berlin, he again started for Africa and made Ins way from
Khartoum into the interior in the company of the ivory-traders, along the valley of the
AVhke .Nile. Between the 4th and 01 li parallels of n. hit. he penetrated as far westward
us ihe 26th meridian, carefullv noting the nature of the countries through which he
passed, and the character of thVir various trihes. lie returned in 1872; and in 1874 pub-
li-hcd the results of his travels under the title of 1m llerzen von. Afrika, '2 vols. An
j;:i-iish translaiion. The I/cart of Africa, \vaspuhlished the same year. Schweiufurth
\v;;s made president of the Egyptian geographical society in 1875.

SCHWEIN'ITZ, EDMUND ALEXANDER VON, 1825-80; b. Bethlehem, Penn. ; studied
theology in the Moravian seminary there, and at the university of Berlin: became a

the Life of f^eisberger, the Western Pioneer and Apostle to the Indians, 2 vols.

SCHWEINITZ, LEWIS DAVID VON, PH.D., 1780-1834; b. Bethlehem, Penn.; edu-
cated in Germany, and resided there, 1798-1812; went, as a Moravian minister to Salem,
N. C. ; resided at Bethlehem, 1821-34. He was specially devoted to botany, and by
original researches added 1400 new species io the catalogues of American flora; was
author of several botanical monographs, among which are those on the genera civta and
caret, catalogues of the fungi of "North Carolina and of North America, and of plants
collected by Thomas Say in the n w. territory.

SCHWENKFELD, KASPAR VON, 1490-1561; b. Silesia; became an enthusiastic
advocate of the reformation, but his views concerning the deification of the body of
Christ, the Lord's supper, and the admission of only holy persons to the church, brought
on him the opposition of the reformers. Having been expelled from Silesia he \\ as
driven from town to -town. His moral character was never assailed by his opponents,
and his writings are valuable contributions to the history of the reformation. A sect
named after him arose in Silesia, but the most of them removed in 1734 to eastern Penn-
sylvania, where they still have about 1000 members, with churches and schools.

SCHWE RIN, capital of the grand duchy of Mccklcnburg-Schwcrin, is agreeably
situated on the w. shore of the Schweriner see. a lake 14 m. in length and 3 m broad,
and abounding in fish. Schwerin is divided into the old town, the new town, and the
suburb, is well built, and contains one of the finest Gothic cathedrals in northern Ger-
many, begun in 1248 and finished in the 15lh century. The ducal castle, erected by
Wallenstein, stands on a small island. In Schweriu there are tobacco-factories, an iron-
foundry, breweries, etc. Pop. '75, 27,989.

SCHWERIN, KURT CHRISTOPII VON. Count. 1684-17.")7; b. in Swedish Pomerani.i.
He became an ensign in the Dutch army when 16 years old; served under Marlborough
and Eugene, and entered the Pnissian service in 1720 as maj.gen. lie was made fieid-
marshal in 1740 by Frederick the great. In 1741 he won the battle of Mollwitz. through
Avhich Frederick secured Silesia. He took Prague in 1741 and was killed in the great
battle of Prague during the seven years' war.

SCHWYZ, one of the mountain cantons in the middle of Switzerland, is bounded on the
n. by the canton of St. Gall and the canton and lake of Zurich, and on tiie s. by the canton
of Uri and the lake of Lucerne. Area. 350 sq.m. ; pop. (July, 1876), 49.2i6 of whom
only 800 are Protestants. The whole surface is covered with mountains, except small
tracts in the s.w. and n e. -. but there are no glaciers nor any everlasting snow except on
the Rieselstock, 8,890ft. high, on the c. frontier. The canton comprises a third part of
lake Zug, the most northern angle of the lake of the Four Cantons, the whole of the
mountain-mass of the Righi (q.v.), the plain in which lies the small lake Lower/, and
the valleys of the Muottn, Sihl, and Aa. the principal rivers. Cattle-breeding is the
employment of almost the whole of the inhabitants, and the number of cattle is esti-
mated at about 20.000. Only about one-thirtieth of the whole area is cultivable; fruits
and wine are cultivated to some extent; and cattle, cheese, and timber are exported.
Woven fabrics for home use are almost the only manufactures.

Schwv/. one of the three original cantons, and also one of the four Forest Cantons.
has supplied the name to the whole country of which it form? a part. The government
is a representative democracy. SCHWYZ, the capital, is a small town, containing a beau-
tiful parish church, and most picturesquely situated 17 m. c. of Lucerne.

SCIAC'CA (anc. Thermit- ^clvntinai). a seaport of Sicily, in Ihe province nnd 30 m.
w n w. of the city of Girgenti. It is defended by the castle of Luna, is surrounded by
old walls, iiml has a fine cathedral. Outside the walls are the hot springs, which are
visited by invalids, and upon a neighboring height the so-called Sf>tfe di St. Calo^ro.
At the bottom of one of the wells a noise is heard resembling that of n cascade. Pop.
'72. 18,896. Sciacca was the birthplace of Agathocies, tyruui ol riyrucuse, and of
the historian.



, a family of acanthopterous fishes, resembling perches; having
a compressed body: a simple or double dorsal tin, the first part spiny; the gill-covers
variously armed: the head generally inflated, and its bones cavernous; the scales are
otenoid, and in general obliquely ranged. The sciuMiidae are divided into many .ueneru,
mid widely disinbuted. Must of them are marine, but a I'uw inhabit fresh water. Only
two species are reckoned as British, the maigre (q.v.) and the bearded umbriua (q.v.),
both excellent for the table. The power of emitting sounds winch belongs to the maigre
is possessed also by others of the family in a remarkable degree. Among these are
species of pmjvitnat, as P. chromin, known by the name DRUM-FISH, because tiie sound
which it emits resembles that of a drum.

SCIAG BAPHY, the drawing of sections (q.v.) of buildings, so as to show the interior
of them.

SCIAT ICA is the term given to neuralgia of the great sciatic nerve. See NERVOUS
SYSTEM, li has been shown by Graves to be a frequent complication of gout; but
rheumatism, or exposure to cold and wet. is its most common cause. It is characterized
by irregular pains about the hip, especially between the great trochanter of the thigh-
bone and the bony process on which the body rests when sitting, spreading into neigh-
boring pans, and running down the back of the thigh to the leg and loot: or the pains
may occupy only isolated parts, as the kueejoint, the calf of the leg, or the sole of the
foot, Sciatica is a very obstinate disease, but the treatment is the same as that of
neuralgia generally, except when it is merely a complication of gout, in which case the
primary disease must be attacked as well.

SCIATIC STAY (possibly a corruption of Asiatic), in merchant vessels, is a strong
rope fastened between the main and foremast heads. "When loading or unloading, a
traveling tackle is suspended to it, which can be brought over the fore or main-hatchway
as occasion demands.

SCI'CLI, a t. of Sicily, in the province of Syracuse, on the small river Scicli, 21 m.
\\.s.\v. from Xoto. The woolen manufacture is carried on. Scicli is supposed to be (he
ancient Caamence. Pop. 10,029.

SCII1TCES, the name for such portions of huxnan knowledge ns have been more or
less generalized, systematized, and verified. Generality as opposed to mere particulars,
system as opposed to rnr.dom arrangement, and verification as opposed to loosei,e;-s of
assumption, concur iu that superior kind of knowledge dignified by the title in qr.e.-lion.-
(Jeogir.phy. chemistry, and political economy are now sciences. The fu>l has be< n so
for n any'igfs, although greatly advanced in recent times; the two last, scarcely more
than a century. Chemical facts and maxims of political economy had been known from
a much earlier date, but thej" did not in either case amount to- science; the generalities
were few or had, system and certainty were both wanting. In the different branches of
natural historv mineralogy, botany, zoology there had been a large store of accumu-
lated fads before any one branch could be called a science. The quidily of the knowl-
edge is of more consequence than the quantity.

The term philoxopli.y (q.v.) is to a certain extent, but not altogether, coincident with
science, being applied to the early efforts and strainings after the explanation of the
univer-e, that preceded exact science in any department. Both names denote the pur-
suit of knowledge as knowledge, or for intellectual satisfaction, in contrast to the search
that is limited to immediate practice or utility.

The sciences have been variously classified, and the principles of their classification
have been a subject of discussion. We shall here describe the mode of classifying them
in accordance with present usage, and with the principles most generally agreed upon.

It is convenient to prepare" the way by distinguishing between theoretical sciences,
which are the sciences properly so called, and practical sciences. A theoretical science
embraces a distinct department of nature, and is so arranged as to give, in the most com-
pact form, the entire body of ascertained (scientific) knowledge in that department: Mich
are mathematics, chemistry, physiology, /oology. A practical science is the appli-
cation of scientifically obtained facts and laws in one or more departments to some prac-
tical <>inf, which end 'rules the selection and arrangement of the whole; as, for example,
navigation, engineering, mining, medicine. Navigation selects from the theoretical
sciences mathematics, astronomy, optics, meteorology, etc. whatever is available for
guiding a ship on the seas, and converts the knowledge into rules or pn seri;-li> :;s for
that purpose. The arts that can thus draw upon the exact sciences are by so much
the more certain in their operation; the}' are the scientific arts.

Another distinction must be made "before laying down the systematic order of tha
theoretical sciences. A certain number of these sciences have for their subject-ivattet
each a separate department of natural forces or powers; thus, biology deals with.
the department of orirani/cd beings, psychology with mind. Others deal with the
application of powers el-esvhere recognized to some region of concrete facts or pher-om-
ena. Thus, geology does not discuss any natural powers not found in other sciences,
but seeks to apply the laws of physics, chemistry, and biology to account for the
appearances of the earth's crust. The sciences that embrace peculiar natural power.- are


called abstract, general, or fundamental sciences; those that apply the powers treated of
under these to regions of concrete phenomena are called concrete, derived, or applied

The abstract or theoretical sciences as most commonly recognized, are these six:
mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology (vegetable and animal physiology), psychology
(miiid), sociology (society). The concrete sciences are the natural history group mete-
orology, mineralogy, botany, zoologv, geology, also geography, and we might, with
some explanations, add astronomy. The abstract or fundamental sciences have a defi-
nite sequence, determining the proper order for the learner, and also the order of their
arriving at perfection. We proceed from the simple to the complex, from the independ-
ent to the dependent. Thus, MATHEMATICS relates to quantity, the most pervading,
simple, fundamental, and independent attribute of the universe. The consideration of
this attribute has therefore a natural priority; its laws underlie all other laws. As
mathematics is at present understood, it has an abstract department, which treats of
quantity in its most general form, or as applied to nothing in particular including
arithmetic, algebra, and the calculus and a concrete or applied department viz.,
geometry, or quantity in space or extension. It has been suggested that general mechan-
ics, or the estimation of quantity in force, should be considered a second concrete
department. But usually mechanics ranks with the next fundamental science in order,
called physics. >

NATURAL PHILOSOPHY has long been considered the name of a distinct department
of science: the designation PHYSICS is now more common. This science succeeds math-
ematics, and precedes chemistry. Of all the fundamental sciences, it has the least unity,
being an aggregate of subjects with more or less connection. Mechanics, hydrostatics,
hydraulics, pneumatics, acoustics, astronomy, are all closely related; they represent the
phenomenon of movement in mass, as applied to all the three states of matter, solid,
liquid, and gas. The remaining subjects heat, light, and electricity together with the
attractions and repulsions that determine cohesion, crystallization, etc., are described
as relating to movement in the molecule. We have thus molar physics and molecular
physics; and the tendency is now to treat the two separately.

CHEMISTRY lies between physics and biology, reposing upon the one, and supporting
the other. It assumes all the physical laws, both molar and molecular, as known, and
proceeds to consider the special phenomenon of the composition and decomposition of
bodies considered as taking place in definite proportions, and leading to change of prop-
erties. The composition of a cup of tea from water, sugar, milk, and infusion of tea-
leaf is physical; the composition of marble from oxygen, carbon, and calcium is chem-
ical. In the one case, the properties of the separate ingredients are still discernible; in
the other, these are merged and untraceable.

BIOLOGY, or the science of living organization, involves mathematical, physical, and
chemical laws, in company with certain others called vital. It is most usually expounded
under the designations vegetable and animal physiology; and in the concrete departments,
botany, zoology, and anthropology.

PSYCHOLOGY, or the science of MIND, makes a wide transition, the widest that can be
taken within the whole circle of the sciences, from the so-called material world, to the
world of feeling, volition, and intellect. The main source of our knowledge of mind is
self-consciousness; and it is only from the intimate connection of mind with a living
organism that the subject is a proper sequel to biology. Not until lately has any insisrht
into mind been obtained through the consideration of the physical onyan the brain; 80
that psychology might have been placed anywhere, but for" another consideration that
helps to determine the order of the sciences, viz., that the discipline, or method, of the
simpler sciences is a preparation for the more abstruse. Mathematics and physics espe-
cially are an admirable training of the intellect for the studies connected with mind
proper, although the laws of physics may not of themselves throw any direct light on the
successions of thought and feeling.

These five sciences embrace all the fundamental laws of the world, and, if perfect
their application would suffice to account for the whole course of nature. To a person
fully versed in them, no phenomenon of the explained universe can appear strange: the
concrete sciences and the practical sciences contain nothing fundamentally new They
constitute a liberal scientific education. It is not uncommon, however, to rank SOCIOLOGY,
or the laws of man in society, as a sixth primary science following on psychology of
which it is a special development.

Dr. Neil Arnott, in his work on Phytics, first published in 1828, gave as the primary
departments of nature physics, chemistry, life, and mind Under which he would include
the laws of society). He did not discard mathematics, but looked upon it as a system of
technical mensuration, created by the mind to facilitate the study of the other sciences,
ii9 well as the useful arts. The natural laws expressed by mathematics are few and sim-
>le, and the body of the science consists of a vast scheme of numerical computation
whose value appears in its applications to astronomy and the other physical sciences
Auguste Comte, who, in his Count de P/rilosophie Positive, went over the entire circle
the theoretical, abstract, or fundamental sciences, enumerated these as follows: mathe-
matics astronomy, physics, chemistry, biology, sociology. He thus detaches astronomy
from physics, considering it as the abstract science that brings forward and works out

. Scilly.

the law of gravitation. He has no distinct science of psychology, an omission that has
been generally condemned.

Mr. Herbert Spencer, in a tract on the Clamfieation of the Sciences, takes exception to
the scheme of Cornte, and proposes a threefold division, according to the gradations of
conereteness in the subject-mutter. The first group is termed ABSTRACT SCIENCE, and
treats of the forms of phenomena detached from their embodiments. The most compre-
hensive forms are space and time; and the sciences corresponding are mathematics and
logic. The second group is ABSTRACT- CONCRETE SCIENCE, or the phenomena of nature
analyzed into their separate elements gravity in the abstract, heat in the abstract as in
physics and chemistry. These are two of the fundamental sciences in every scheme, and
they are called abstract-concrete by Mr. Spencer, in comparison with the foregoing class.
The great principle of recent introduction, termed the law of correlation, conservation,
or persistence of force, serves to connect physics with chemistry, and imparts to the two
taken jointly a greater unity than belongs to physics singly. The third and last group is
CONCRETE SCIENCE, or natural phenomena in their totalities, or as united in actual
things astronomy, biology, psychology, sociology, geology, etc. Mr. John Stuart Mill,
in an article in the Westminster Review, April, 1865, has described Comte's scheme at
length, and also criticised that of Spencer.

It may he held as generally admitted that mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology,
and psychology, with or without sociology, are the sequence of the primary or funda-
mental sciences, and that the natural history group, from not containing any new laws of
nature, are not fundamental. Astronomy, or tiie laws of the solar system, and of the
other celestial bodies, might be called a natural history or concrete science, if we sup-
posed a prior abstract science that discussed the operation of gravity, together with the
laws of motion in bodies generally, or without special application to the existing solar
and sidereal systems. The first book of Newton's Principia would be the abstract, the
third book the concrete, form of the science.

The practical sciences do not admit of any regular classification. They are as numer-
ous as the separate ends of human life that can receive aid from science, or from knowl-
edge scientifically constituted. Connected with mind and society, we have ethics, logic,
rhetoric, grammar, philology, education, law, jurisprudence, politics, political economy,
etc. In the manual and mechanical arts, there are navigation, practical mechanics,
engineering civil and military, mining and metallurgy, chemistry applied to dyeing,
bleaching, etc.

The medical department contains medicine, surgery, midwifery, materia medica,
medical jurisprudence. A science of living, or of the production of happiness by a skilled
application of all existing resources, was greatly desiderated by Plato, and would be the
crowning practical science.


SCIL'LY ISLANDS. These islands, situated a little w! of 6 w. long., and about 50
n. lat., are the most southern parts of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, if we except
the channel islands. The group consists of about 40, comprising a circuit of about 30 m. ;
and their general denomination is derived from a very small island, about an acre in
extent, and almost inaccessible, called Scilly, probably from its position near dangerous
rocks, similar to that of Scylla near Sicily. By the ancients, these islands were named

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 57 of 203)