Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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Cassiterides, Hesperides, and Silura3 Insulae. It would seem that the term Cassiterides,
or " Tin islands," under which they were known to the Greeks and Romans, was once
applied to the peninsula of Cornwall, *or at least before the Roman settlement in Britain,
there was some confusion between the Scilly islands and the peninsula of Cornwall.
The inhabitants of Cornwall are said to have brought tin to these islands, where it was
shipped off by foreign merchants.

Numerous remains may be seen of rude pillars, circles of stones, kistvaens, rock-basins,
and cromlechs. The granite of which the islands are composed is, in general, of a rather
coarse quality, and from its color, iron seems to be frequently associated with it. There
are metalliferous veins, or lodes, in some of the rocks, but none that could have yielded
any considerable quantity of ore. The Scilly islands were in 936 granted by Atlfelstane
to some monks who settled at Tresco. They were afterward granted to the abbey of
Tavistock by Henry I., and were conferred by queen Elizabeth on the Godolphin family.
They are now the property of the crown.

Only five of the islands are inhabited. St. Mary's, the largest, comprises 1528 acres;
Tresco, 697; St. Martin's, 515; St. Agnes (a light-house station), 313; Sampson and Bry-
her, 269. The inhabitants are chiefly engaged in agriculture. Barley, oats, and a little
wheat are grown. Large quantities of potatoes are sent to London and Bristol. Fishing,
though not to any great extent, occupies some portion of the population. The climatels
mild. The soil is in general sandy, but in Tresco and St. Agnes it is remarkably fertile.
The cliffs abound with sea-fowl, and are covered with samphire.

St. Mary's had, in 1871, a population of 1383, while the other four inhabited islands
(Tresco, St. Martin's, St. Agnes, Bryher)were collectively inhabited by only 707 persons.
Hugh Town is the capital, und contains an odd mixture of old-fashioned and neat modern
houses. The pier, built in 1750 by lord Godolphin, has been much improved by Mr.
Smith, the present lessee of the islands. The custom-house and post-office are in thj


center of the town. -Some remains of the old church are still seen in the fields on the
southern side of the inland. The modern church, at the e. side of the main street, is
seated on rising ground, and forms a conspicuous object in the panorama of the inlands.

At Treseo are the remains of an abbey founded in the 10th century. Among the
objects of curiosity on this island are the ruins of Oliver Cromwell's camp. cr,.-tle, and
battery, built by the parliamentarians under Blake and Ayscough. At Dolphin down
may be seen traces of ancient mining.

St. Agnes is about. 3 m. s.w. from St. Mary's. It is well cultivated, and is surrounded
bv some fine rock-scenery. Tbe principal attraction is the light-house, 78 ft. high, con-
taining si revolving light, seen at a distance of 18 miles.

SCIMITER, a description of sword used among eastern nations. It is considerably
curved, and has its edge on the convex side. Being usually of high temper, and Us shape
favorable to incision, it forms an admirable cutting instrument, but is powerless as a
thrusting weapon. The scimiter is not, however, any match for the bayonet.

SCINDE. See SINDE, ante.

SCINTILLA TION (Lat, scintilla), a term applied to denote the sparkling or flickering
of the stars. The phenomenon is not yet quite explained, but that it is certainly due to
the earth's atmosphere is proved by the following facts, which unbrace nearly all that is
known on the subject. If, on a clear evening, we look at, a bright star, such as Sirius, we
observe that the intensity and color of its light are constantly changing from great bril-
liancy to almost total'obscurity, from bright red to tine blue, and so on. .A sit ri-es above
the horizon, these appearances diminish in intensity; and stars near the zenith scarcely
scintillate at all. Again, the amount of the scintillation depends i.pon ihe chs.ractcr o'f
the weather on some evenings, all large stars appear to scintillate sircngly; on others,
there is barely a trace of the appearance. It is commonly said that a planet can be dis-
tinguished from a star by the absence of scintillation. This is nearly, but not quite, true;
for feeble scintillations have been occasionally observed in Mars and Venus, but vcrv rarely
in Jupiter and Saturn. One of the reasons of the non-scintillation of plan' Is ?-cc:ns to be
their finite apparent size; for all the more conspicuous planets show a sensible disk even
in a poor telescope, while no instrument that lias ever been constructed has thown a real
disk in a star. Thus, a single particle or vesicle of vapor may be large enough to conceal
a s'ar for an instant, while it could have no such effect on a planet. It is pretty or; :'in
tbat scintillation is not due to unequally heated masses of air, since it usually 'modifies
only the appearance, not the position, of a star. Another cause is easily seen in ihe com-
paratively feeble light of the planets. It is well ascertained that tiie scintilla'! ion is n.uch
less when viewed from the top of a mountain. For a good idea of what i> known., and
what we desire still to know on this subject, see a paper by prof. Dufour, Philosophicdi
Magazine, 1860

SCI 0, one of the most beautiful islands in the ^3Egean sea, belongs to Turkey, and
lies 7 in. off the coast of Asia Minor, at the entrance to the gulf of Smyrna. It is";33 in.
long, and 18m. in greatest breadth. Area, 400 sq.m. ; pop. about 60,000. It is moun-
tainous in the n., and is extremely fertile. Silk, h'gs, cheese, wool, and gum-ma: lie are
its principal products; and its wine, which was famous in ancient times, is Mill est< ; med.
Kastro, the capital, a thriving and handsome town of 18,800 inhabitants, stands <'n ihe e.
coas u , has a harbor, a castle, and two light-houses, and carries on a growing trade in
fruits, confectionery, and silk and woolen goods.

In early times, bcio formed one of the 12 Ionian stales, and it contributed 100 ships
to the Greek force that fought and was defeated by the Persians in the sea light off
Miletus (404 B.C.). In more recent times, the island was taken by the Genoese \a Io46,
and in 1566 by the Turks, in whose hands it has since, except* for a short interval,
remained. It was conferred as private property upon the sultana, enjoyed her protec-
tion, and consequently prospered. After it had enjoyed a long period of case and
wealth, a dreadful calamity befell the island at the outbreak of the Greek insurrection.
A number of the Sciotes having, in 1822, joined the Samians, who had revolted, the
island was attacked by a Turkish fleet and army, and the inhabitants, enervated by
peace and wealth, were indiscriminately massacred; 25,000 fell by the sword, 45. 000 were
sold an slaves, and 15,000 escaped from the island. Subsequently, however, many of the
Bciote families returned, and now the island is fist recovering the blow it sustained.
Trade is returning; and the vineyards and the olive, citron, and mastic groves are again

SCIO (ante). On Sunday, Mar. 27, 1881, Scio was visited by an earthquake, and
shocks continued to follow each other at intervals for the next ten days. The villages
on the s. side of the island were completely wrecked, hardly a house being left standing.
The district of Scio suffered most severely, the old Genoese fortress, containing about
400 houses, inhabited by Jews and Mussulmans, b-ing destroyed by the first shock, and
the ground depressed about 20 inches. The center of the volcanic action was near
Nenita, overlooking Megalo bay on the e. coast of the island, where 800 persons per
ishcd out of a population of 1200. On the w. side many houses fell, but no pcr.-on was
The first shock was vertical, followed immediately by horizontal oscillations.
The population of the island was at the time about 70.000, and the total number of the


dead was about 4,000. Of the survivors, about 25 per cent were believed to h;ive been
injured. Seven of the principal villages, containing 8,570 people, lost 1327 killed. At
least nine-tenths of the houses in thus, and s.e. portions of llie island were destroyed, and
80,000 out of the entire population of tiie island were left without shelter. Subscriptions
were immediately taken in the principal cities of Europe and America, and large sums
were sent to the island for the relief of the wounded and the destitute, many thousands
being in a starving condition.

SCIOPPITJS (Latinized form of Sc/ioppc). K A SPAR, a noted classical scholar and con'
troversialist. was 1>. at Neumark, in the Palatinate, May 27, 1576; stuukd at He'.del-
borir, Altdorf, and Ingolstadt; anil in 1597, visited Italy, Bohemia, Poland, and Hoi land.
Alre.idy he had become celebrated by his Latin verse and his notes upon different Latin
authors. Next year he abjured Protestantism, and became a Roman Catholic, in con-
sequence of which he was decorated by the pope with various titles, and received a pen-
sion of GOO florins, together with a residence in the Vatican. Henceforth, his career is a
scries of fierce onslaughts chiefly on his former co-religionists, but also directed against
all whom accident or malice led him to hate. The lirst person whom lie selected for
attack was the illustrious Scaligcr (q.v.), against whom, in 1607, he lunched his </'.//>
Hytwbolimc&u* (Mainz). I-i this production, Henry IV. is also assailed. Sent in 1608 by
the court of Rome to the diet of Ralisbon, for the purpose of observing the religious
condition of Germany, he published in tiie same yea:' more than twenty pamphlets
against the Protestant's, recommending the Catholic powers to use every means for their
extermination. Such. sentiments were, of course, highly satisfactory to tiie emperor of
Germany, who was a devoted Catholic: anil, in consequence, Seioppius. on visiting
Vienna, met with a favorable reception and was raised to the dignity of count-palatine.
In 1611 lie fired oil' two libels against king James 1. of England; the first was entitled
Ec.t''cxi.<ixtit:>.ix Autoritati Set: D. Jncobi, M j. Hi- it. Ifagix, Oppositus (Hart berg), and the
sec >n I, Cll;/rinin Ragium, etc. Some three years after, when staying at Madrid, he was
dreadfully beaten by the domestics of lord Digby, the English ambassador, in retaliation
for the abuse of his sovereign. Boioppius fled from Spain to lugolstadt, where he issued
his L"j,iiux La!, ft against the ambassador. In 1618 Seioppius went to Milan, where he
resided for the next 12 years, devoting himself partly to philological studies, and partly
to theological warfare. He died Nov. 19. 1649. Suioppius was a prodigious scholar,
and might have rivaled Scaliger himself in reputation, as he did in learning, had it not
been for the infirmities of his temper and judgment. To this day. his works, espcvi illy
those on the Latin language, aiv reckoned valuable. The principal are: Varin

(Heidelb. 1593); VeriaimiUum Li'n-i Q : '<tt/<<>f, etc. (Niinib. I'/Jo): ^nK/i.-'-f.t' Lee
(Niirnb. 1597); DJ Arts Gritted (Niirnb. 1597); fyiiiboltt Critica in Apnhii (>i>irtt (Augs-
burg, 1605); Observations* Luiy/uo Latino.' (Frankf. 1609); De Rheforicu.rnm Exertitatiannm
(/< ' -ri'/'/x (Mil. 1638); Qr&minati&i Philooph ! .ca; sive Institutional Gr<tnnn<iti<'ic L'ttina
(Mil. 1628); Pnni'lo.rn Literal- in (Mil. 1628); Mc.rc>u-in* BMnf/uift, etc, (Mil. UttS); L'/idi-
meiitd G ruiiiiiiuUciE P/iilvs-tphicai (Mil. 1629); Axli-olir/M Ecc'cxistxtirn. (KS - 4); DC, Scholurnm
et Studioruni Rn'ione (['ad. 1636); M.iir-urt-n Quairili/iguia (Basel, 1617), etc.

SCIO'TO, a river of Ohio, rises in (he high lands of the n.w. portion of the state,
flows s.e. to Columbus, then s. to its junction at Portsmouth with tin- river Ohio. It is
200m. long, flows through a rich valley, is navigable 130 m., and for 90 in. feeds the
Ohio and Erie eanal. It is crossed by numerous railways.

SCIOTO, a co. in s. Ohio, adjoining Kentucky; bounded on the s. by the Ohio river;
drained by the Scioto and Little Scioto rivers and Brush creek; on the Ohio canal and
on a branch of the Marietta and Cincinnati and the Seioto Valley railroads; about 630
sq.m. ; pop. '80, 33,511 30,568 of American birth. The surface' is hilly and heavily
wooded. The soil is fertile The principal productions are corn, wheat, and grass.
Much pig and forged iron is made. Co. seat, Portsmouth.

SCIP 10, PrjjLirs CORNELIUS, surnamed AFRICAN rs MAJOR, one of the most accom-
plished warriors of ancient Rome, but whose reputation is perhaps somewhat greater
than his merits, was b. 237 or 234 B.C. He is first mentioned as taking part, though only
a youth, in the battle of the Ticinus(218 B.C.), when: he saved his father's life. Two years
later he fought at Camia3 as a military tribune, and was one of the few Roman oarers
who escaped from that disastrous field. In 212 B.C. he was elected a-dile, though not
legally qualified by age, and, in tiie following yenr, proconsul, with command of the
Komati forces in Spain. His appearance there restored fortune to the Roman arms. By
a bold and sudden march he captured N->rti Cqrthttgo, the stronghold of the Carthagin-
ians, and obtained an immense booty. His humane and courteous manners Avon over
many of the native chiefs; and when he commenced the campaign of 209 B.C. his supe-
riority over his opponents in address, if not. in generalship, was manifest. At Hrpcula,
in the valley of the Guadalqniver, he defeated Hasdrubal Avith heavy loss, but could not
prevent him from crossing the Pyrenees to the assistance of Hannibal. In 207 B.C. he
won a more decisive victory over the other Hasdrubal, son of Gisco and Mago, at an
unknown place called Silpia, or Klinga, somewhere in Andalusia the effect of which
was to place the whole of Spain in the hands of the Romans. Soon after he returned
to Rome, where. he Avas elected consul (205 B c.), though he had not yet rilled the office
of pretor; and in the following year he sailed from Lilybumm, in Sicily, at the head of



a large nrmy, for the invasion of Africa. His successes compelled the Carthaginian
senate to recall Hautiibal from Italy. This was the very thing that Scipio desired and
had labored to achieve. After some abortive efforts at reconciliation the great struggle
between Koine and Carthage, between Scipio and Hannibal, was terminated by the battle
fought at Xaragra, on the Bagradas, near Zama, Oct. 19, 203 B.C., in which the Cartha- .
giuiau troops were routed with immense slaughter. Hannibal advised his countrymen/
to abandon what had now become a hopeless and ruinous contest, and his advice was
taken. Peace was concluded in the following year, when Seipio returned to Koine and
enjoyed a triumph. The surname of AFRICANUS was conferred on him, and so extrav-
agant was the popular gratitude that it was proposed to make him consul and dictator
for life, honors that would have been the destruction of the constitution, but which
Scipio was either wise enough or magnanimous enough to refuse. When his brother,
Lucius, in 190, obtained command of the army destined to invade the territories of
Antiochus, Scipio served under him as legate; in fact, it was only when he offered to
do so that the senate granted Lucius the province of Greece. The latter was victorious
in the war, and on his return to Rome (189 B.C.) assumed (an imitation of his brother)
the surname of ASIATICUS. But the clouds were now gathering heavily round the
Scipios. In 187 B.C. Cato Major and others induced two tribunes to prosecute Lucius
for allowing himself to be bribed by Antiochus in the late war. He was declared guilty
by the senate, Kis property was confiscated, and he himself would have been thrown into

+& i~~ v,... s .,.v,~e,~. against him (and which were probably groundless), __
on the first day of his trial, a eulogy on his own achievements, and opened the second
day bv reminding the citizens that it was the anniversary of the battle of Zama, and
therefore not a time for angry squabbling, but for religious services. He then summoned
the people to follow him to the capitol to give thanks to the immortal gods, to pray that
Koine might never want citizens like himself. His audience were electrified, and the
thing was done before opposition became possible. To resume the trial was out of the
question; but Scipio felt that popular enthusiasm w r as not to be depended on; that the
power of the oligarchy of that compact body of ambitious and exclusive nobles was
irresistible; that its hatred of him was unappeasable, and that his day was over. He
retired to his country-seat at Liternum, in Campania, where he spent the remainder of
his life, and where he died, 183 or 185 B.C. Scipio is commonly regarded as the greatest
Roman gen. before Julius Caesar; and certainly, in the brilliancy of his gifts and
accomplishments, he was unsurpassed; but if his career be strictly criticised, it will be
found that he owed as much to fortune as to genius. Nevertheless he won a multitude
of splendid successes, and made the most of his great advantages. His beauty, bravery,
end courtesy, his proud yet pious belief that the gods favored him with their inspiration,
\von him the love and reverence of soldiers and women; and his magnanimity toward
his fallen rival, who flitted about the eastern courts in dreary exile, is a bright feature
in his character, and nobly distinguishes him from the cruel-hearted oligarchs of the

SCIPIO, QUTNTUS C^CILITJS METELLUS Pius, d. B.C. 46; son of P. Cornelius Scipio
Nasica: adopted son of Metellus Pius, and has been called P. Scipio Nasica as well as
Q. Metellus Scipio. He divulged to Cicero the conspiracy of Catiline in B.C. 63. He
was elected tribune in 60, was accused of bribery by the disappointed candidate, and
Cicero took up his defense. In 53 he was nominated for the consulship, and was a.
leader of the Clodian mob against Milo. He was father-in-law of Pompey, who made
him hi* colleague in 52, when he was chosen consul, they together re-establishing the
consulship. His efforts were in accordance with every measure which would tend
toward the overthrow of the power of Caesar, and widen the breach between the aristo-
cratic and democratic parties. He was an oppressive ruler of the province of Syria,
where he was proconsul, was with Pompey in Greece, 'and after the battle of Pharsalia.
went to Yuba and took command of the army of Attius Varus. He was defeated at the
battle of Thapsus, and again on the African coast he lost the day in an engagement with
the fleet of Sithius, find rather than be taken prisoner he gave himself a mortal wound
and plunged into the sea.

was a younger son of Lucius ^milius Paulus, who conquered Macedon. but was adopted
by his kinsman, Publius Scipio, son of the great Scipio. who had married the daughter
of that Lucius ^Emilius Paulus who fell at Cannie. Scipio accompanied his father on
his expedition against Macedon, and fought at the decisive battle of Pydna, 168 B.C. In
Greece he made the acquaintance of Polybius the historian, who afterward became one
of his closest and most valued friends. In 151 B.C. he went to Spain as military tribune,
in the wake of the consul Lucius Lucullua, where he distinguished himself alike by his
valor and his virtue. Two years later began the third and last Punic war, which mainly
consisted in the siege of Carthage. Scipio still held the subordinate position of military
tribune; hut the incapacity of the consuls, Manius Maniliusand Lucius Calpurnius Piso,
and thp brilliant manner in which he rectified their blunders, fixed all eyes upon him.
The favorite both of the Roman army and the Roman people, Scipio was at length, in


147 B.C., when only a candidate for the sedilesliip, elected consul by an extraordinary
decree of the Comitia.wud invested with supreme command; old Cato, who could with
difficulty be got to praise any one, applying to the young hero and his incapable com-
rades (according to Plutarch) the Homeric line

He only is a living man ; the rest are flitting shades.

The story of the siege of Carthage, the despairing heroism of its inhabitants, the deter-
mined resolution, the sleepless vigilance, the incessant labors of Scipio, are too well
known to require description. Suffice it to say that after a protracted defense of months
the city was finally taken by storm in the spring of 146 B.C.; and by the orders of the-
senate it \\as leveled to the ground, and the plowshare driven over its site. Scipio, a
man of noble and refined soul, obeyed the savage behest with sorrow, even with horror.
As he gazed on the ruin he had wrought the thought flashed across his mind that some
day Rome too might perish, and the words of the Iliad rose to his lips

The day shall come when sacred Troy shall perish,
And Priam and his people shall be slain.

.Scipio, though probably the most accomplished Roman gentleman of his age, was rig-
orous in his observance of the antique Roman virtues; and when holding the office of
censor in 142 B.C., he strove to follow in the footsteps of Cato. But his efforts to repress
the increasing luxury and immorality of the capital were frustrated by the opposition
of bis colleague, Lucius Mummtus, the rough conqueror of Corinth. In 189 B.C. Scipio
was accused of the cri/nen majestatis by the tribune Tiberius Claudius Asellus, but was
acquitted, and soon after was sent to Egypt and Asia on a special embassy. Meanwhile,
however, affairs had gone badly in Spam. Viriathus, the Lusitanian patriot, had again
and again iullicted the most disgraceful defeats on the Roman armies, and his example
had roused the hopes of the Celtiberian tribes, who also rushed to war against the com-
mon foe. The contest continued with varying success; but the interest centers in the
city of Numautia, whose inhabitants displayed amazing courage in the struggle with
Rome. For long it seemed as if the Nnmantioes were invincible one consul after
another finding tueir subjugation too hard a task but at length, in 134 B.C., Scipio,
re-elected consul, was sent over to Spain; and after a siege of eight months, forced the
citizens, who were dying of hunger, to surrender, and utterly destroyed their homes.
He then returned to Rome, where lie took a prominent part in political affairs, appearing
as the leader of the aristocratic party, in consequence of which his popularity with the
democratic party greatly declined. Although a brother-in-law of Tiberius Gracchus,,
whose sister, Scmpronia, he bad married, he rather disclaimed any sympathy with his
political aims; and when he heard of the murder of his kinsman, quoted his favorite
Homer: " So perish all who do the like again." His attempt (129 B.C.) to rescind that
portion of the agrarian law of Tiberius Gracchus relating to the lands of &>cii, excited
the most furious indignation. "When he went home from the senate he had to be accom-
panied by a guard. Next morning he was found dead in his bed; the prevailing sus-
picion being that he was murdered either by or at the instigation of Papirius Carbo, his
most rancorous political enemy. Scipio was neither a rigid aristocrat nor a flatterer of
the people. Inferior in splendor of genius to his adoptive grandfather, he surpassed
him in purity of character, in simplicity of patriotism, and in liberality of culture.

SCTRE FACIAS, in law, a writ used to enforce the execution of, or to vacate some
already existing record. The sheriff is by it directed to give notice (in the Latin, scire
faciitf} to the party against whom it is taken, to appear and show cause why its purpose
shall not be carried out. The party resorting to it may be an original party, or a new
party who claims injury from the record or wi>bes to take advantage of it. Records
affected by it may bo judicial, which are judgments or recognizances in the nature of
judgments, or non-judicial, to wit: letters-patent and corporate charters. In the former
case the object of the xri.ref arias writ is to revive the judgment, which would otherwise
lapse after the time by statute specified, or. at common law. in a year and a day. The
defendant h ordered "to come in and show cause why execution should not issue. If
the record is in nature of a recognizance, the object is also to obtain execution. The
chief case in which the writ of scire facia* is employed, as regards non-judicial records,
is to procure the repeal or forfeiture' of letters-patent already issued, and in England the

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 58 of 203)