Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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writ may be taken out by the crown or by an injured party. In this country, by an act
of congress of 1793, the writ of scire faciax is prescribed as the method to obtain repeal
of a patent, The process must come before the United States circuit or district courts.
Scire fdrins may also be brought by a state government to compel a corporation to resign
its franchises and charter.

SCIK'PUS. a genus of plants of the natural order cyperncetf. The English name club-
rush is sometimes given to them. The common bulrush (q.v.) is a familiar example.
There are several British species, some of them very small in comparison with the bul-
rush, as S. ca'tpifoaiiK. called deer's Itair in the highlands of Scotland, which is only 2 or
3 in. high, and abounds in moors, affording food to sheep in spring. The root-stocks of
8. dubius are eaten by the natives of theTs. of India; as arc the tubers of ,s'. tti^cn^mt,
which is called pi-tsi by the Chinese, and is cultivated by them in tanks and ponds,
copious supplies of manure being given. The tubers are roundish.

Sclrrlius. O "", (

Scone. - a-

SCJIS2HUS (Gr. bard), a term applied to a kind of cancer (q.vJ

SCITAIII NEJE, or ZINGIBERA'CE/E, a natural order of endogenSus plants, herbaceous
per."!. .bis. There are about 230 known species, ainongwhich are the different kinds of
g;:uT. urdangaK-. zrdoary, cardamom, grains of paradise, turmeric, etc. Most of them
arc ;i<>:a!>:e f</r their aromatic properties, win; h reside chiefly in their root-stalks or iu
tlieii - sivds. Tlie root-stocks of some, particularly when, contain much starch,
whi.\i is used as arrow-root. All the species are tropical or subtropical.


SCLERODEBTffI, Cuvier's name for the family of fishes called ba/isiitlce by Muller.


SCLEKOS TOMA (from the Gr. sc'eros, hard, and stoma, the mouth) is the term applied
to a well-known genus of the family xtrongylulae, belonging to the order of round wo,rms
or nemuioidca (q.v.). Oiie species, the scleroistoma syngatnm, is of special interest, as
being the cause of the disease in poultry known as the gapes (q.v.). Since the article
GAPES was published, it has been ascertained that the entozoon which infests the wind-
pipe of the diseased birds is not a trenmtoid (or fluke-like) worm, but a round worm,
possessing many very singular properties. Dr. Cobbold, to whom we are mainly
indebted for oar knowledge of this worm, removed from a chloroformed fowl with tiie
gapes, seven sclerostomata. " Six were united in pairs, the odd worm being a female,
from which the mail had in all liklihood been rudely torn during the withdrawal of the
forceps" (Entozmt, 1864, p. 80). The females thus extracted had an average length of
| of an inch, while the males scarcely exceeded of an inch. In both sexes, the
breadth of the body was nearly uniform throughout, being about % of an inch in the; and only S 1 5 of an inch in the male. The mouth of the female is furnished
with six prominent chitinous lips. According to Siebold, after sexual congress, '-there
is ultimately a lasting continuity of the sexes by means of an actual growing together"
one of the most remarkable facts ever recorded in natural history. Hence the eggs,
which are comparatively large, and many of which contain fully formed embyros, can
only escape by a breaking-up of the body of the parent. "By whatever mode," says
Dr. Cobbold, "the young make their exit from the shell, it is manifest that prior to
their expulsion the}' are sufficiently developed to undertake an active migration. Their
next habitation may occur within the bodies of certain insect larvae, or even in small
land mollusks; but I think it more likely that they either enter the -substance of vegetable
matters, or bury themselves in the soil at a short distance from the surface."

Considering that this worm infests the trachea of the domestic fowl, the turkey, the
pheasant, and the. partridge, as well as of many birds of less importance (as the magpie, the
black stork, the starling, the swift, etc.). it is of the greatest importance to check its devel-
opment,. With this view, the worms must not only be removed by the means described in
the article GAPES, and more fully iu Cobbold's Entozoa, pp. 90, 91, but they must be
totally dettroyed after their removal. If they be merely killed and thrown on the ground,
the mature eggs will probably remain uninjured; and when decomposition sets in, the
young embyros will, sooner or later, escape from the shell, migrate in the soil or else-
where, and ultimately find their way how, we cnnnot tell into the air-passages of cer-
tain birds, iu the same manner as (heir parents did before them.

Dr. Cobbold, whose classification of intestinal worms will doubtless for many years
be the standard one, places the dochmius nnchylostomum, or anchylnstoma duodennlc (see
STUONOYLID-*:), in this genus, with the name of sderoxtoma duodcnale. This worm,
which usually measures about of an inch in length, is especially characterized by an
asymmetrical disposition of four horny, conical, oval papilUc, of unequal size, forming
the so called teeth. The female is larger than the male in about the ratio of 4 to 3. mid
is the more numerous in the ratio of 3 to 1. This worm was first discovered bv Dubini
at Milan in 1833, and though at first thought rare, is now known to be tolerably'common
throughout northern Italy. It is remarkably abundant in Egypt, where Primer found
t in nearly every corpse, sometimes in hundreds of specimens in the jejunum, and to a
less extent in the duodenum. Griesingcr, in his memoir On tlie Frequency of Ento-nn in
Er/ypt, and the Dixeases they wwmw(1854), considers that about one-fourth of the popula-
tion are constantly suffering from a severe nna'mic chlorosis, occasioned solely by the
presence of this parasite. A tolerably full account of this disorder, and of the treatment
to be adopted, is given by Kuchcnmeister iu his Manual of Parasites, vol. i. pp. 386

SCLERO'TIUM, a spurious genus of fungi, now regarded as merely the mycelum of
fungi, and these probably of very different kinds, which have been arrested in their
development, assuming a peculiar form. This form is that of a fleshy mass, often a
ball. Examples are to be found among almost all kinds of decaying vegetable matter,
as fruits, esculent roots, etc. When a crop of onions rots off, as is often the case, to
the vexation of the gardener, a sclerolium will generally be found attached to the bulbs
in the form of little irregular black masses, or as a multitude of small granules. On the
under side of decaying cabbage-leaves, and scattered on the ground beneath the pl.intto
which they belong, may in like manner be seen little balls, varying from white or red-


disli brown to dark brown and black, in size about equal to cabbage-seeds, whence
stories of showers of seeds have sometimes originated.

SCLOPIS DE SALERANO, PAOLO FEDEKIGO, Count, 1798-1878; educated at the
university of Turin. In 1848 he was minister of justice and ecclesiastical affairs; pre-
sided over the senate, 1849-61. In Ib72 he was president of the court of arbitration at
Geneva under the treaty of "Washington, which settled the claims of the United States
against Great Britain.


SCOLOFA'CIDJE, a family of birds of the order gralla, having a long, feeble, soft, and
gomewhat flexible bill, which is remarkably furnished with nerves, particularly toward
the tip, so as extremely sensitive, whilst many of them have alsoa peculiar muscle,
enabling them to separate the points of the mandibles the moment that their prey is felt.
They are thus admirably fitted for seeking their food which generally consists of
worms, slims, etc. in mud, soft earth, or wet sand. The membrane of the tip of the
bill is almost pulpy in many of them. The species are numerous, and very widely dis-
tributed, generally inhabitants of swampy or very moist places. Snipes, woodcocks,
sand-pipers, anil curlews are familiar examples.



SCOLY'TUS, a genus of coleopterous insects of the family xylopJiarji. See BARK-
BEETLE. One species, S. destructor, a beetle only about one-sixth of an inch in length,
of a dull color, with short antenna 1 , thickened at the extremity, has of late years
destroyed great numbers of fine elms in the neighborhood of London and elsewhere in
England. The female insect burrows in the wood, and lays a row of eggs; the larva;, as
soon as they are hatched, begin to feed upon the wood, and eat their way in Jong tun-
nels, diverging on all sides from the original one. This pest appears to be spreading in

' SCOMBERESO CID.E, a family of fishes, of the order plectognathi, having the maxillary
bones united with the elongated premaxillaries at the corners of the mouth. The flying-
fish (e.i'occetHx) belongs to this family. '1 he gar-fish and the saury pike are the only
species common on the British coasts. Until the plectoguathi we/e recognized as a
separate order, the scomberesocidce were reckened as belonging to the esocidce, or pike

SCOHEEHIDJS, or SCOMBIUD^-E, a large family of acanthopterous fishes, containing
many species highly esteemed as articles of food, and some of them of great value on
account of the abundance in which they are caught. Some of them attain a large size.
They have a smooth body, covered generally with small scales, and often very beauti-
fully colored; the tail-fin generally large, and the tail very muscular and powerful.
The gill-covers have no armature. The sides of the tail are often keeled and armed,
with sharp-keeled scales. The front spines of the anal fin are generally detached, and
sometimes those of the first dorsal fin. The second dorsal fin is often represented by
numerous finlets, as in the mackerel (q.v.). To the same tribe with the mackerel,
characterized by finlets and by the want of armature on the lateral line, belong the
bonito (q.v.), the tunny (q.v.), the albacore (see TUNNY), and the seirfish (q.v.). The
importance of the mackerel fishery is well known, also that of the tunny fishery
of the Mediterranean. The sword-fish (q.v.) is an example of another group, com-
prising only a few species, having no finlets. and remarkably characterized by the
dagger-like prolongation of the muzzle. The pilot-fish (q.v.) belongs to. a tribe
having the first dorsal represented by isolated spines. There are other tribes or
groups, some having the lateral line cuirassed, some not having this armature, and
not having finlets nor detached spines. The dory (q.v.) and allied genera, often
regarded as forming a tribe of scomberida?, have been constituted into a distinct family,
seMce. The scomberidre are all marine. They are more numerous in warm than in cold
climates, although some are found in very northern seas, of which the mackerel is the
most important instance. It and the scad (q.v.), or horse-mackerel, are the only species
common on the British coasts, although several others are known as of rare occurrence.

SCONCE, in fortification, is a term applied to any small redoubt or fort, detached
from the main works for some local object, as the defense of a pass or ford, etc. The
word is not now often used.

SCONCE, a candlestick affixed to a wall by a bracket, and frequently with a mirror
or other reflector.

SCONE (pronounced Scoori), a parish in Perthshire, lying on the left bank of the Tay,
about 2 m. from Perth. It is famous as the seat of one of the most venerable of Scot-
tish abbeys. Scone is first mentioned in the beginning of the 10th c., when a council
was held there in the 6th year of the reign of kingConstantine, at which time it is styled
by the chronicle which records the fact, reyalis civitos, the royal city. A monastery "was
built at Scone probably about the same period, and there was located the famous stone
on which the kings of the Scots were inaugurated, and which was carried by Edward I.
of England to Westminster abbey. In place of the ancient monastery, an abbey of can.-


ons regular was founded by Alexander I. in 1115. and there the sovereigns Continued to
be inaugurated and crowned. Alexander III., the ia>t of the ancient race of kings, and
Kobert Bruce, the founder of the new dynasty, were crowned at Scone; but after the
accession of the house of Stuart, the coronation sometimes took place in other churches.
lu the summer of 155'.). when P< rth was held by the lords of the congregation, a disor-
derly multitude of their adherents assaulted the monastery of Scone, set it on fire, and
left it a blackened ruin. The last coronation which was celebrated at Scone was that of
Charles II. on Jan. 1. 1651. The abbey church had never been restored, and the solem-
nity took place in the parish kirk, the crown being placed on the king's head by the mar-
quis of Argyle. In Jan., 1716, the Jacobite leaders endeavored to encourage their fol-
lowers by fixing a day for the coronation of the chevalier at Scone, but the design was
abandoned. In the reign of James VI. the abbey of Scone was erected into a temporal
lordship in favor of sir David Murray, afterward created viscount of Stormont. The
great chief-justice, the earl of Mausriel'd, a younger son of the fifth viscount Stormont,
was born at Scone; and the Scottish peerage is now merged in the British earldom. The
viscounts of Stormont had a residence near the site of the abbey, and hence known as
the palace of Scoue. The present palace was erected on the same site in the beginning
of this century.

SCO FAS, a celebrated Greek sculptor and architect, belonging to the later Attic
school, the head of which was Praxiteles (q.v.), was b. in the island of Paros, and flour-
ished during the first half of the 4th c. B.C. Nothing is known regarding his life or the
period of his death. His principal architectural works are: "The Temple of Athena
Alia at Tegea," the first both in point of size and beauty in the Peloponnesus; "The
(.-econd) Temple of Duma at Ephesus" (though Dcinocrates is also and even more gener-
ally named as the architect of this building); some of the bas-reliefs in the famous mau-
soleum erected by Artemisia, queen of Caria, in memory of her husband (and flow in
the British museum). His sculptures, by which we mean his single statues ai:cl groups
illustrating the divinities of Greek mythology, were very numerous, and for the most
put were executed in marble. They embrace subjects from the myths of Aphrodite
(Venus), Dionysus (Bacchus), Apollo, Artemis (Diana), etc. But perhaps ti.e IK :1 ,lc -t,
and certainly the most famous piece of sculpture executed by Scopas was that which lat-
terly stood in the Flaminian circus at Rome, and represented Achilles conducted to the
inland of Leuce by the divinities of the sea. It included statues of Neptune. Thetis, the
Nereids, Tritons, and a variety of sea-monsters, and, according to Pliny, the v, hole was
f-o beautiful that it would have been sufficient to have immortalized Sccpas, even if he
had done nothing more.


SCORE, in music, compositions for several voices or instruments, or for an orchestra,
FO written that each part has a separate staff for itself, these staves being placed over
each other, bar corresponding to bar. It is so called because the bars are scored or drawn
through all the parts from top to bottom. Occasionally, where there is a deficiency of
staves for all the parts, or where any of the parts have so little to do that it is not worth
while to assign them a separate staff, parts related to or connected with each other, as
two flutes, two clarionets, or three trombones, maybe written on the same staff together.
The arrangement or distribution of the parts in a score is matter of some importance.
As a general rule, the highest part should be placed uppermost, then the next lower, and
gradually descending. All the parts of a chorus should be placed together. Perfection
in reading score is not very easily attained, but is necessary for a thoroughly trained
musician. The student of music who can read or play the great master-works from the
score, will become far more intimately acquainted with them than he could by mere
pianoforte arrangements, and will come to understand the means by which their com-
posers have produced the wonderful effects that are to be found in their music. The
use of so large a number of clefs, and the practice which has obtained of writing parts
for particular instruments in other keys, have added greatly to the difficulty of Mudying
the score. Among various suggestions for simplifying the score, one which was lately
advocated in Brown's Elements of Musical Science, consists in the use of but one clef, the
bass or F clef, the other parts being distinguished from the bass by short bars attached
to the clef, which direct the performer to take the notes one, two, or three octaves

SCOEESBY, WILLIAM, D.D., a celebrated Arctic explorer and savant, was the son of
William Scoresby, the most distinguished whale-fisher of his time, and was born at C'rop-
ton in Yorkshire', Oct. 5, 1789. He commenced a sea-faring life at the age of 10, ar.d in
liis 21st year succeeded his father as commander of the Resolution, and carried on Hie
business of whale-fishing. After having made 17 voyages to the Spitzbergen and Green-
land whaling-grounds, he published the results of his observations of the countries
within the Arctic circle in An Account of the Arctic Regions (2 vols., 1820), a work which
not only increased and extended the author's reputation, but added largelv to the
sciences of meteorology, hydrography, and natural history. In 182? he explored the
e. coast of Greenland, "a tract hitherto wholly unknown, and published in the following
year at Edinburgh an account of this expedition and its fruits. In 1824 he was elected
a fellow of the royal society of London, and some time after was chosen correspondant


of the French institute. He had retired from his profession in 1822. find now proceeded
to give effect to a strong desire which had long possessed him, of becoming ;m author-
ized teacher of religion, by entering himself at Queen's college, Cambridge; he gradu-
ated as B.D. in 18i>4. (subsequently (1839) received the degree of U.D., and labored
faithfully and zealously, first at Liverpool and afterward at Bradford, till failing health
compelled him to retire to Torquay. He still continued his physical researches, giv-
ing special attention to terrestrial magnetism, especially in its relation to navigation;
ami published the results, many of which were of great value and interest, in the form
of memoirs in the Pliii.owphical Trdnmti-iio/m, the Transactions of (he Rcyal Society oj
Eli/tburrih, the Iteportu of (he British Ax*t>ciatwn, and subsequently in an improved
form in his Mngnetical Iiirastir/ationg (Lond. 2 vols. 1839-52). For the better prosecution
of these researches he made a voyage to the United States in 1847, and to Australia in
1853, returning from the last-named country in 18.56, enfeebled in health by the arduous
labors which he had undergone. He died at Torquay on Mar. 21. 1857. Besides his
work on Zoiytir, M<!ff/ieti*m, which described a series of researches entered into for the
purpose of eliciting some natural connection between magnetic and mesmeric agencies,
he published various works of a religious nature. His life has been written by hia
nephew, 11. E. Scoresby -Jackson (Lond., 1861).

SCO RIJE are the cinders and slags of volcanoes, more or less porous from the expan-
sion of the gases contained in the melted materials. See VOLCANIC ROCKS.

SCORP-ZE'NA, a genus of fishes, of the family of mailed cheeks. The head is large and
compressed, more or less armed with spines or tubercles. The body is of a somewhat
perch-like form. Some of the scorpance are remarkable for their ugliness; some exhibit
very fine colors. They are numerous in the Mediterranean, and widely distributed in
the seas of warm climates. They frequent rocky shores in shoals, and feed on crusta-
ceans, small fishes, etc. They are popularly called hog-fish and scorpion-fish. The flesh
is dry and tasteless, but the liver yields a useful oil. The bergylt (q.v.) belongs to a
nearly allied genus.

SCORPION, Scorpio, a genus of arachnida, of the order pulmonaria, formerly includ-
ing the whole of the family scorpionidce, to all of which the popular name is still
extended. Scorpions are natives of warm climates, both in the eastern and western
hemispheres. The species a,re numerous. They have the body elongated, and no
marked division between the thorax and abdomen. Six segments of the abdomen are
broad; but the last six are narrow, forming a tail; and the last segment is modified iuto
a curved and sharp sting, having two pores on its lower side, from which the venom
flows, supplied by two poison-glands in the base of the segment. The palpi are moditie I
into pincers or claws like those of the lobster, by means of which prey is seized. There
are fo;ir spiracles or breathing pores on each side of the abdomen. There are two
remarkable comb-like appendages on the under surface of the thorax, the use of which
is unknown. The number of eyes is various; in the restricted genus scorpio, of whic-k
the COMMOX SCOJIPIOX (S. Europ&uy) of the south of Europe is an example, there ,arc
only six; but in some of the genera eight and twelve. Scorpions feed on beetles and
other insects, and after seizing them, pierce them with the sting before eating them.
They also eat the eggs of spiders, etc. They lurk under stones and in holes and crev-
ices, but come forth to seek th^ir prey, running with great activity. In running, they
carry the tail curled over the back. When alarmed or irritated, they show great fierce-
ness, evidently aware of the power of their sting, and moving it in all directions, as if
threatening an adversary. They are universally disliked, and not a little dreaded,
being apt to get into houses, and into beds, hiding themselves under pillows, in shoes,
boots, etc., so that accidents are very frequent in countries where they abound. The
sting of a scorpion is seldom fatal, but even that of the common European scorpion is
very painful, and that of some of the largest species which are 6 in. long is much
more severe, attended with much nausea and constitutional derangement, nor do the
effects soon cease. It is of use to press a large key or other tube on the wound, so
as to force out part of the poison. The best remedy is ammonia, internally adminis-
tered, and also applied externally.

The female scorpion displays great regard for her young, which she carries for some
time clinging in great numbers to her back, limbs, and tail. ,

SCORZONE RA, a genus of plants of the natural order compositce, sub-order cichoraceai,
having j'eliow or rarely rose-colored flowers. The species are numerous, mostly
natives of the s. of Europe and the east. No species is found in Britain. The common
scorzonera of our kitchen-gardens, 8. Hispnnica, a native of the s. of Europe, has long
been cultivated for its esculent roots. The root is black externally, white within, about
the thickness of a man's finger, long, and tapering very gradually, whence the name
viper'* grass, sometimes given to the plant, the root being supposed to resemble a viper.
It contains a white milky juice, and has a mild, sweetish, mucilaginous taste; it is very
pleasant when boiled, the outer rind being first scraped off, and the root steeped in
water, to abstract part of its bitterness. The leaves are an inferior substitute for mul-
berry leaves in feeding silkworms. Other species of scorzonera are used in the same

U. K. XIII. 17


SCOT. REGINALD, a writer who has acquired an honorable reputation as an early dis-
believer in the reality of witchcraft, was a youngerson of sir John Scot of Scotshall, near
Smeethe in tlie co. of Kent, anil was born in the lirst half of the 16th century. He studied
at Oxford, and on his return home devoted himself exclusively to learned pursuts.
Nothing further is known regarding him except that he died in 1599. His famous work,
entitled Tlie Discovert* of Witchcraft, was published in 1584, and is designed to demon-
strate the absurdity of the prevalent belief on the subject. It is full of learning, and is
marked in many passages by sound sense and humane feeling, qualities that naturally
excited the antipathy of a person like king James, who wrote his uawianology, as he lells

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 59 of 203)