Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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SAINT JOSEPH (ante),-ihe co. seat of Buchanan co., Mo. ; about 100 m. from Kan-
sas City, on the Hannibal and St. Joseph, the St. Joseph and Des Moines, the St. Joseph
and St. Louis, the St. Joseph and Western, the St. Louis, Kansas City and Northern,
and the Kansas City, St. Joseph and Council Bluffs railroads; pop. '80, 33,484. Au iron
railway bridge across the river was completed in 1873 at a cost of $1,500,000. The rail-
road connections of St. Joseph have made it the center of an extensive trade, and have
rapidly increased its growth during the last ten years. It has a wholesale trade of more
than $20,000,000 per year, and is the largest wholesaling place in the interior w. of St.
Louis and Chicago. Among its manufactures are steam-mills, pork-packing establish-
ments, iron-foundries, breweries, carriage-factories, furniture-factories, brick-yard i,
shoe factories, clothing factories, etc. It has a fine opera-house, a theater, national and
savings banks, gas-works, etc. The state insane asylum is here. The city is the seat of
a Roman Catholic bishop, and of the Roman Catholic college of St. Joseph. St. Josepli
was founded by Joseph Robideaux in 1813. During the excitement over the discovery
of gold in California in 1849, it was the starting-point of most emigrants for that state.
It became a city in 1851, having then a population of 4,000. Its prosperity, which .was
interrupted during the rebellion, has since been great.

SAINT JOSEPH RIVER, rises in Hillsdale co., Michigan, flows into n. Indiana,
thence to Michigan again, and after a general w. course of 250 m., discharges into lake
Michigan at St. Joseph. It is navigable for 125 m. from its mouth.

SAINT JUST, Louis ANTOINE DE, a notable figure in the first French revolution, wag
b. at Decize, in Nivernais, Aug. 25, 1767; educated at Soissons by the Oratorians, and
afterward went to Rheims to study law, but soon returned to his native village, where
he devoted himself exclusively to literature. When the revolution broke out, Saint Just
was transported with enthusiasm, and became one of its most ardent apostles. Proba-
bly no man in France was a more genuine fanatical believer in the brilliant delusions of
the period. Spotless, even austere, in his morals, reserved in manner but eloquent in
speech, and rigorously earnest in his convictions, he rapidly rose into consideration
among the inhabitants of his native commune, \\l\o elected him liet.col. of the national
guard, sent to Paris in 1790 to assist at the f6tc of the federation. In 1791 appeared his
Esprit de Ifi Revolution et de la. Constitution de la France, in which the various causes of
the revolution are sketched in a calm, keen, precise sort of way; and in the following
year he was cho^n deputy to the convention by the electors of Aisne. Saint Just
entered Paris on Sept. 18, 15 days after the frightful massacres which Lamartine in his
llixtoire dex Girondinis with melodramatic inaccuracy represents him as ordering in con-
junction with Robespierre! He voted* for the death of the king, and in an oration full
of stern but exaggerated republican sentiment, gave his "reasons." It was this speech
that made him famous and influential. The Girondins tried to win him over, but in
vain. In all the fierce debates of this period, Saint Just took a leading part; but he also
displayed a great capacity for administrative organization, and on Feb. 11, 1793, carried



9>r Saint John's.

w ' Saint Lawrence.

his project for the formation of a committee to superintend the war. After the fall of
the Girondins in June (Saint Just took no part in their overthrow, and never once spoke
during the disastrous struggle between tiie two sections), the civil war broke out, and it
is from this point that we date the exhibition of that intense and merciless republicanism
which fitted him so well to be the associate of Robespierre. It is commonly thought
that Saint Just perhaps because he was so young was merely an instrument in ihe
hands of Robespierre; but the known facts of his career lead to a very different conclu-
sion, and some writers have not scrupled to make Saint Just the real head of the
extreme party^ who exercised government in France during the reign of terror. Almost
all the energetic, or, as some would prefer to say, sanguinary measures drawn up to
repress the royalists and timid republicans at home, and to repel the forces of the allied
monarchs on the frontier, were devised by him 1 . On Feb. 19 he was elected president
of the convention. He drew up the terrible report which led to the arrest men t and
execution of Hebert, Danton, and their adherents. Saint Just had no scruples in cut-
ting off his opponents. The intensity of his convictions rendered him indifferent to
deeds of cruelty, however appalling. When the political reaction set in, and the party
of moderation had got the upper hand in the convention, Robespierre and Saint Just
were seized and imprisoned (July 27, 1794), and ordered to be guillotined next day.
Saint Just suffered with sullen 'calmness not a word escaping his lips. See Ern.
Hamel's Hixtoire de Saint Just (Paris, 1859).

SAINT KILDA, a small island lying off the w. coast of Scotland, in lat. 57 49' 20"
n., 50 m. w. of the peninsula of Harris, to the parish of which it is reckoned as belong-
ing. It presents bold and lofty precipices to the sea, except at two points, one on the
s.e., the other on the w. side of the island. At each of these points there is a bay with
a low shore. Besides the main island, there are several small islets, and the whole group
has an area of from 3,000 to 4,000 square acres. Pop. '71, 71. Situated in the midst of
the gulf stream, St. Kilda enjoys a mild climate, although the weather is often boister-
ous. On the main island there are 80 or 90 head of black cattle, and nearly 2,000 sheep
(among which is a Spanish breed, whose wool is highly prized) are grazed on it and on
the surrounding islets. Immense numbers of wild-fowl are killed annually, the flesh
of which is very generally eaten and the feathers sold. The sea abounds in delicious
fish, easily caught from the rocky shore without the use of boats. The inhabitants for-
merly were able to export more or less grain annually; but although the population has
decreased within late years, they now consume all the cereal produce of the island,
besides an additional quantity, which they import. The present inhabitants habitually
consume much more farinaceous food than their forefathers did. They do not receive
any gratuitous assistance from the proprietor. The principal exports are kelt or rough
woolen cloth, blankets, feathers, fulmar-oil, salted ling, young cattle, cheese, and tal-
low. See Setou's St. Kilda, 1877.

SAINT LANDRY, a parish in s.w. Louisiana, lying w. of Atchafalaya bayou, and
rained by Teche, Nezpique, and Courtableau bayous; 2,100 sq.m. ; pop. '80, 40,002
9,475 of American birth, 19,531 colored. The surface is low and swampy, but the soil
is very rich; cotton, corn, sugar-cane, and pork are the staples. Co. seat, Opelousas.

SAINT LAWRENCE, a co. in n. New York, having the river St. Lawrence for its
n. andn.w. boundary; 2,800 sq.m.; pop. '80, 85,99370,580 of American birth. 132
colored. It is intersected by the Ogdensburg and Lake Champlain railroad, and the
Rome, Watertown and Ogdensburg. It is drained by the Indian, Grass, Oswegatchie,
Raquette, St. Regis, and Deer rivers; also by 3 large lakes, Long, Black, and Cranberry,
and little ponds and streams. The surface is generally even, especially the banks of the
St. Lawrence river, which for miles spread into level, fertile plains. It is thinly popu-
lated in the s.e., where a large portion is covered with pine, oak, and birch forests, and
groves of sugar-maple, elm, and beech. Its soil is very fertile, yielding large crops of
grain, potatoes, and wool, and is adapted to stock-raising and dairy products. Large
quantities of honey and maple sugar are produced, and it has an active trade in lumber.
Its mineral products are granite, iron ore, lead, limestone, and sandstone used for build-
ing purposes. The leading industries are the manufacture of agricultural implements,
brick, carriages and wagons, cheese, iron castings, metallic wares, etc. Co. seat, Canton.

SAINT LAWRENCE, GULF OP, a western inlet of the northern Atlantic, washes at
once all the British provinces, properly so-called, of North America Newfoundland,
Canada, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward's Island. It has three com-
munications with the ocean the strait of Belleisle, between Newfoundland and Labra-
dor; the gut of Canso, between the island of cape Breton and the peninsula of Nova
Scotia; and a far wider passage than either, with the island of St. Paul in the middle,
between cape Breton and Newfoundland; while in the opposite direction it narrows, at
the w. end of Anticosti, into the estuary of the mighty river, to which, as far even
as its sources, it has gradually extended Us own name. Besides Antieosti, St. Paul's,
and Prince Edward's, already mentioned, this arm of the sea contains very many
clusters of islands, and, more particularly in its southern half, the Magdalens and the
Birds; these islands being, one and all, rendered more dangerous to shipping by the
thickness of the fogs and the uncertainty of the currents. The gulf of St. Lawrence ia
celebrated for the productiveness of its fisheries; but perhaps it is best known as a



Saint Lawrence. OQ

Saint Louis. ^

channel of traffic connecting, as it does, the busiest thoroughfares of maritime trade
with one of the most extensive systems of inland navigation in the world.

SAINT LAWEENCE EIVEE constitutes by far the largest body of fresh water in the
world. Including tlie lakes and streams, which it comprises in its widest acceptation,
it covers, according to the lowest estimate, fully 78,000 sq.m. ; and as nearly the whole
of this area averages considerably more than 600 ft. in depth, the aggregate cannot rep-
resent less than 9,000 solid miles amass of water which would" take upward of 40
years to pour over the falls of Niagara, at the computed rate of a million cubic feet is
a second. As the entire basin of this water-system falls short of 300,000 sq.m., the
surface of the land is only three times that of the water.

This mighty artery of north east America rises, under the name of the St. Louis, on
the spacious plateau which sends forth'also the Mississippi toward the gulf of Mexico,
and the Red river of the n. toward Hudson's bay all three being said, in wet seasons,
occasionally to mingle their floods. Lake Superior, the next link in the chain, finds its
way to lake Huron through the rapid of St. Mary, which has been overcome by a ship
canal on the right, or American side. Below lake Huron, which receives lake Michigan
from the s., the river St. Clair, lake St. Clair, the river Detroit, and lake Erie maintain
pretty nearly the same level, till the river Niagara descends 334 ft. to lake Ontario,
which is itstlf still 230 ft. above sea-level. From this, the last of the connected series of
inland seas, issues the St. Lawrence proper, which, with a few comparatively insig-
nificant expansions, presents the character first of a river, and then of an estuary, down
to the gulf. Between lake Ontario and the city of Montreal, which marks the head of
the navigation, there are various cataracts or rapids, which, besides having been grad-
ually ascertained to be more or less practicable, may be all avoided by means of canals
on the British side. At about two-thirds of the distance from lake Ontario to the
city of Montreal, the intersection of the parallel of 45 determines the point where
the St. Lawrence, after having been ail international boundary from the head, or
nearly so, of lake Superior, becomes exclusively Canadian. * Immediately above
the island of Montreal, the St. Lawrence is joined by its principal auxiliary, the Ottawa,
from the n.w.; and a little more than half-way between this confluence and Three
rivers, the highest point of tidal influence, the Richelieu or Sorel, from the s., brings in
the tribute of lake Champlain. Between Montreal and Quebec the St. Lawrence has
recently been much deepened (see MONTREAL). At Quebec, after a run of nearly
400 m. from lake Ontario, it steadily widens into an estuary of about the same length.
The entire length, including the chain of lakes, is about 2,200 miles.

In connection with the improvements on itself and its affluents, the St. Lawrence
offers to sea-going ships the noblest system of inland navigation in the world, embracing
a continuous line of about 2,000 m.; its advantages, however, are materially impaired
by the severity of the climate, which binds it in the chains of winter at least five months
in the year.

SAINT LEONARDS, EDWARD BCRTENSHAW SUGDEN, Baron, 1781-1875; b. Lon
don; called to the bar in 1807. He restricted himself to chancery practice after 1817,
and was made king's counsel in 1822. He was returned to parliament in 1828, made
solicitor-general in 1829. and lord chancellor of Ireland in 1835, and 1841-46. He was
lord chancellor of England in 1852, and was raised to the peerage. He published several
valuable legal treatises Law of Vendors and Purchasers, 1805; and Practical Treatise on
Power*, 1808.

SAINT LO, an old t. of France, capital of the department of Manche, built on a
rocky elevation on the right bank of the river Vire, 55 m. by railway s.e. of Cherbourg.
From the high central part, several streets, more or less steep, branch off indifferent
directions. The town, which is said to owe its origin and its name to a St. Lo, bishop
of Coufanee, who caused a church to be built here in the 6th c., was destroyed by the
Normans in 888, and taken by the English in 1346, and again in 1417. Noteworthy are
the beautiful churches of Sainte-Croix. founded in 805, and of Notre Dame, which dates
from the 15th century. Flannels, druggets, and cotton fabrics, cutlery, and leather are
manufactured, and a'considerable supply of horses for cavalry are here obtained. Pop.
'76, 9,519.

SAINT LOUIS, a co. in n.e. Minnesota, bounded on the n. by Namekan river and
lake, and on the p.e. by lake Superior, drained by the St. Louis, Vermilion, Cloquet, and
other rivers; traversed by the Northern Pacific railroad; about 6,500 sq.m.; pop. '80,
4,504 2,518 of American birth. The surface is uneven, heavily timbered, with several
lakes. The soil is partly fertile, and grows wheat, corn, etc. Much lumber is exported.
Co. peat, Dul u th.

SAINT LOUIS, a co. in e. Missouri, bounded by the Missouri river on then, and n.w.,
and by the Mississippi on the e. ; drained by the Meramec; between fifteen and twenty
railroads traverse the co. : 530 sq.m.; pop. '80. 31,888 (outside of the city), 25,299 of
American birth. The soil is fertile; all ordinary agricultural products are found.
There are several kinds of building limestone, and" mines of bituminous coal; there are
also extensive manufactures of bricks, beer, tobacco, iron, and many other articles.
Co. seat, St. Louis.



)(\ Saint Lawrence.

"V Saint J.uui.-..

SAINT LOUIS, a port of entry of Missouri, U. S., the chief city and commercial
metropolis of the central Mississippi valley, stands on the right bank of the Mississippi,
18 m. below its confluence with tiie Missouri, and 174 m. above the mouth of the Ohio.
It is regularly built upon the limestone bank of the river, on two terraces, rising 20
and 40 ft. above high water, with wide and well-built streets running parallel to the
river, crossed by others at right angles. The principal structures are a city hall, court
house, custom house, arsenal, merchants' exchange, mercantile library, city hospital,
post-office, marine hospital, university, cathedral, and several of the largest hotels in
the world. There are 162 churches and missions, of which 538 are Roman Catholic;
numerous general hospitals, asylums, and convents; the St. Louis university, under
charge of the society of Jesus, with 22 professors; the Washington university, academy
of sciences, German institute, normal and high schools, 84 nesvspapers and periodicals,
of w r hich 10 are daily, and 12 in German, an opera-house, and 5 theaters. Several city
railways have replaced the omnibuses, and the water supply is pumped from the Missis-
sippi. Among the manufactories are flour and lumber mills, sugar refineries, lard
and linseed-oil factories, provision packing- houses, manufactures of hemp, whisky,
tobacco, and vast iron-foundries and machine shops, which in the year 1874 produced
goods valued at $240,000,000. Saint Louis hast a vast trade by steam-boats to tho
whole Mississippi valley, 68,000 tons being owned there, and extensive railway connec-
tions. Ills also the chief center of the American fur trade, and of a vast traffic in agri-
cultural produce. There are 26 banks and 31 insurance companies. In 1764, Saint
Louis was the depot of the Louisiania Indian trading company; in 1708, it was cap-
tured by a detachment of Spanish troops; in 1804 was ceded with the whole country w.
of the Mississippi to the United State-;; the first brick house was erected in 1813; in 1820
its population was 4,590; in 1860, 151,780; in 1870, 310,864.

SAINT LOUIS (nntf), the principal city of Missouri, capital of St. Louis co., on thew.
bank of the Mississippi river, about 20 m. below its confluence with the Missouri; lat.
38 37' 28" n., long. 90 15' 16" west. Its fortunate situation has of recent years, and
especially since the development of its railroad system, caused an immense growth in
population and general prosperity. Founded in 1764 as a mere trading post with the
Indians, by Pierre la Clade Liagueste, who named it after Louis XV. and erected a
large house and four stores; it numbered iu 1770 some 40 families, and at the time of
its acquisition by the United States in 1803 it hold about 1500 inhabitants, and its yearly
shipment of furs was valued at $290,000. la 1830 the population was 4,598; in
1840, 16,469; in 1860, 1^0,773, and in 1870, 310,864. In 1880 the population was
350.522. It was incorporated as a town in 1809, chartered as a city in 1822. The first
newspaper was established in 1808; the first bank in 1816. In 1817 the first steamboat
arrived here, and in 1851 the first railroad was commenced. The city suffered severely
from cholera in 1832 and in 1849. The latter year w;u also the year of the great fire
which destroyed a large portion of the old town. Thu was composed mainly of
wooden structures which were replaced by more substantial buildings the favorite
material being a sort of limestone found on the spot which though soft when first quar-
ried is soon hardened by exposure. The city is built on rising ground with gentle undu-
lations; at the highest point it is about 200 ft. above the level of the river. In the older
portion near the river, which is entirely given up to trade, the streets are narrow and
crooked; the modern section is laid out regularly in broad streets nnd avenues. The
principal thoroughfares are Grand avenue, which intersects the city from n. to s. ;
Front street, which extends along the levee; Main street and Second street in which are
the principal wholesale houses, and Fourth street, which contains the chief retail stores
and is the fashionable promenade and shopping street. Lindell boulevard and Forest
Park boulevard in the western part of the city are the favorite drives. The handsomest
residences are in Lucas place, in Chouteau avenue, at the w. end of Washington avenue,
and in Pine, Olive, and Locust streets. There are nearly 400 m. of pnved and mac-
adamized streets and alleys and 18^ m. of river frontage. Total area 62| miles. Besides
its many public squares, the city is remarkable for the number of its parks, comprising in
all nearly 2,500 acres. The largest of these is the Forest park, 4 m. w. of the court
house, containing about 1374 acres mostly covered with primitive trees. O'Fallon park
(180 acres) also is remarkable for its magnificent trees as well as for the fine view which
it commands of the Mississippi river; Tower Grove park (277 acres) in the s.w. part of
the city has beautiful green lawns intersected by carriage roads which afford the pleas-
ftntest drives in the city; and Shaw's garden (109 acres) immediately adjoining, is
exquisitely laid out, contains all the ornamental and fruit trees which can be raised in
the climate, and has numerous conservatories filled with rare exotics. Although at
present the property of Henry D. Shaw, it is open to the public and the title will vest
in the city on the death of the owner. The most beautiful spot in the city, however, is
Lafayette park in the s. portion, containing only 30 acres, artistically 'laid out and
adorned with statuary, etc. The Fair grounds (83 acres), superintended by the St. Louis
agricultural and mechanical association, are attractive on account of "their halls of
industrial and mechanical exhibits; they contain also a zoological garden claimed to be
one of the completes! in the world, and an amphitheater wit if a seating capacity for 40.-
000 people. The annual fairs are held here, usually in the first week of October.



Saint Louis. > A

Saint Mary.

Other parks are Northern park (180 acres), Lrndell park (60 acres), Carondelet park, etc.
The two cemeteries, Bellefoutaine and Calvary, both in the n. part of the city, ar beau-
tifully laid out and decorated with trees and shrubbery.

The general style of architecture iu the city is substantial rather than ornamental,
although of late a lighter and more artistic order has come into vogue for the resi-
dences of the wealthy. One of the finest public buildings is the court house, occupying
the square between Chestnut and Market and 4th and 5th streets, a massive limestone
building with columned porticoes, surmounted by a huge iron dome, in which are the
five county court rooms, the supreme court room, the law library, and the offices of the
various couuly officials. The criminal business of the city is transacted iu the four
courts, in' Clark ave., the criminal courts, the jail, and the police headquarters, being
all within its precincts. The new custom house and post-office, on Eighth street, an
immense structure of red and gray granite, not yet completed, will be one of the finest
public buildings in the United States. The entire cost will probably exceed $5.000,000.
The chamber of commerce, iu Third street, a solid building of gray limestone; the Col-
umbia life insurance building, constructed of rose-red granite in florid architecture, the
masonic temple, with its richly decorated interiors, and the mercantile library building
with its collection of over50,000vols., are noteworthy structures. There are 163 churches,
as follows: 38 Roman Catholic, 23 Presbyterian, 23 Methodist (of which 4 are colored),
22 German Evangelical, 16 Baptist (6 colored), 15 Episcopal (1 colored), 4 Hebrew, 4
Congregational, 3 Christian, 2 New Jerusalem, 2 Unitarian, 2 Independent, 1 Friends'
meeting-house, and 8 miscellaneous. Of these the finest are the Roman Catholic cathe-
dral, with its Doric portico, its front of polished free-stone and its lofty spire containing
a fine chime of bells; Christ church (Episcopal), of stone in the Gothic cathedral style;
St Georges (Episcopal) a rather plainer structure; the first Presbyterian, in Lucas
place, an elaborate and ornate building of the English Gothic order, whose spire is
remarkable for its graceful elegance; and the Jewish temple, corner of 17th and Pine.
Other fine buildings are the church of the Messiah (Unitarian), the Second Presbyterian;
St. Alphonsus and Sis. Peter and Paul (both Roman Catholic); the Union church (Meth-
odist); the Congregational church in Locust street, a'nd the Presbyterian churches iu
Pine and Walnut streets. St. Louis is remarkable for the number of its charitable insti-
tutions many of which are under denominational charge. Thus the deaf and dumb
asylum in Christy avenue, thu St. Louis hospital in Montgomery street, the convent of
the Good Shepherd for the reformation of fallen women, and many minor charities, are
controlled by the Roman Catholic religious orders; St. Luke's hospit::! is under the
direction of the Protestant Episcopal sisterhood of the Good Shepherd. The Emigrants'
home and the Widows and Infants' asylum were endowed by private individuals. The
county insane asylum on the Arsenal road is a large brick and stone building .with ele-
gant grounds. The institution for the blind, under the control of the state, has facili-
ties for 200 pupils, who are taught various industries. Many of the educational institu-



Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 6 of 203)