Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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us, "chiefly against the damnable opinions of Wierus and Scot; the latter of whom is
not ashamed in public print to deny there can be such a thing as \\ itchcraft." But the
"British Solomon" only reflected the general ignorance and superstition of his age, and
Scot had to run the gantlet of a series of "answers" and " refutations" by a number of
"eminent " divines, a.* well as by Glanvil, the author of the ix^mis Scifniijicn. Scot's
book was ordered to be burned by the common hangman, and copies of it are now
extremely rate. Besides The Discvoerie of Witchcraft, Scot wrote A I'urftct P.atfvi-in "fa
JIoji Garden.

SCOTCH STATUTES frequently mean the ancient acts of parliament beginning with
the reign of J;.mes 1. of Scotland, and continuing down to the union of ih.ghujd and
Scotland. There are also many statutes passed since thai dale which are applicable
exclusively to Scotland, and these are to be found among the statutes at large. The rules
of construction of Scotch statutes do not. differ from those affecting English or British
statutes. One peculiarity, however, distinguishes the old Scotch statutes prior to the
union, which is this, that those statutes lost their force by desuetude, that is, by mere
lapse of time, coupled with neglect or non-observance, or at least with a contrary usage.
In England, on the other hand, a statute, however ancient and however little acted upon,
continues l;:w until it is expressly, or by strong implication, repealed by some subsequent
statute. Acts of sederunt that is, rules of practice passed by the court of session are
also subject to the law of desuetude.

SCOTER, Oidemia, a genus of the oceanic section of ducks, having a short broad bill
with an elevated knob at the base of the upper mandible, the tip much flattened, and
terminated by a large flat nail, the mandibles laminated with broad strong widely sepa-
rated plates; the wings of moderate length; the tail short and acute; the feet very large;
the plumage generally very dark. Their food consists chiefly of marine shell-fish, crus-
taceans, etc. They obtain their food by diving. The COMMON SCOTEK. or BLACK Sco-
TEU (0. niyra). is about the size of the common duck. The whole plumage of the male
is deep black; the bill and legs are also black, except a line of orange along the ridge of
the upper mandible. The female is dark brown. The black scoter is abundant in win-
ter on many parts of the British coast, migrating to more northern regions in spring.
The flesh is oily, and has a fishy taste; but being therefore permitted to Roman Catho-
lics (hiring Lent, is in great request in some countries, so that at Marseilles, Aix, and
other places in the s. of France, arrangements arc made by the magistrates for an
annual shooting or battue of scoters, and great numbers are killed. The VELVET SCOTEII
(0. f'ttffi) is a less common winter visitant of Britain, plentiful only in Orkney.


SCOT LAND. For the g?ography, see GREAT BRITAIN. History. An account has
been given under the article Picts (q.v. of the early inhabitants of the country which lias
long been known by the name of Scotland. The original Scotia or Scotland was Ireland,
and the Scoti or Scots, at Iheir first appearance in authentic hisiory, were the people of
Ireland. The Scots were a Celtic race, and their original scat in "northern Britain was
in Argyle. which they acquired by colonization or conquest, before the end of the 5th
c., and from whence they spread themselves along the western coast from the firth of
Clyde to the modern Ross. The name of Scotland seems first to have been given to the
united kingdom of the Picts and Scots in the 10th century. It was then sometimes
styled, by way of distinction, ScotinKora (Xew Scotland), and it was a considerable time
afterwards before the name of Scotland was applied to it, to the exclusion of Ireland.
This interchange of names was a fruitful source of dispute between Irish and Scottish
writers in the 16: h and following centuries, and it can hardly be said that even now tli
controversy is entirely at an end.

The lirst prince of the British Scots mentioned in our authentic annals was Fcrirus,
son of Ere. who crossed over to Britain about the year 503. His nation had been
converted to Christianity by St. Patrick, and Fergus himself is said to have received
the blessing of the saint in' his early years. His "great-grandson, Conal, was king of
the British Scots when Columba (q"v*) began the conversion of the northern Picts;
and by that prince, according to the best authorities, lona was given for the use of
the mission. Conal was succeeded by his nephew, Aidan. who" was inaugurated as
sovereign by St. Col urn ha in the island of lona a ceremony which Scottish writers,
mi-led by the great French antiquary Martcne, long believed to be the first example
of the benediction of kings Aidan was a powerful prince, and more than once suc-
cc<fullv invaded the English border, but toward the end- of his rein he received a
evere defeat from the Northumbrian sovereign Ethelfrid at the battle of Degsestan.


The history of Aidan's successors is obscure and uninteresting, except to the pro-
fessed sUuk'iit.s of our early history. Their kingdom was overshadowed by the iv.ore
powerful monarchy of the Piels. with which, as well as with its neighbors in tl:e s.
the Britons of Cumbria it was engaged in almost unceasing conflict. The Scots were
for a time under some sort of subjection to the English of jSorthumbria. but recovered
tueir independence on the defeat and death of king Egi'rid in battle wiih the Picts at
Kechtansmere in 085. In the middle of the !)th c., by a revolution, the exact nature of
which has never been ascertained, the Scots acquired a predominance in northern Brit-
ain. Kenneth, son of Alpiu. the lin< a! descendant of Fergus and Aiilan. succeeded his
father as king of the Scots in 83(5. The Pielisli kingdom was weakened by civil dis-en-
HOU and a disputed claim to the crown. Kenneth laid claim to it as the true heir in the
female line, and was acknowledged king in the year 843.

King Kenneth transferied hia residence to Forlevlot in Stratherne, which had been the
Picti>h capital, fixing soon afterward the ecclesiastical metropolis of the United Kingdom
at Dimkcld. where he built a church, dedicated to St. Columba. The Picts ai:d Scots,
each sj. caking a dialect of the Celtic tongue, gradually coalesced into one pcoj le, w !:o-c
territory extended from the firths of Forth and Clyde to the northern cxtn mi; v of
Lritain. The crown descended to a line of princes of the family of Ker.neth, wfn sc
rule gave a unity and comparative tranquillity to the Scots of Britain, which lho-e of
Ireland, at iio tune really united under one prince, never possessed, and the good effects
of which, as contrasted with the state of the sister island, are experienced "to the pre-
s< ut day. The lirs-t interruption to the descent of the crown in the line of Kcr.iK'th was
the reign of a usurper named Grig, round v. Lose name, simplified to Gregory by the
writers of a later age, a cloud of legendary fiction gathered. The old "family was
restored on his expulsion in 893.

The reign of Constantiue, son of Aodh, who succeeded in 904, was a remarkable one.
In his time, it is probable that the scat of the ecclesiastical primacy was transferred
from Duukeld to St. Andrews, ar.d that the regal residence was fixed at Scone. At the
latter place, in the sixth year of his reign, the chronicles mention that Constanline the
king, K clinch the bishop, and the Scots, "swore to observe the laws and discipline of the
fauh and the lights of the churchesar.d the gospels. This seems to indicate the meeting
( f feme sort of council, civil or ecclesiastical, or more probably a combination of both,
: c( c reiii g to the form prevalent at this perie-d be>th among the Celtic and the Teutonic
i ations. E\enlefore the os-tahlisl'.n-.e nt of the kingdom of the Pit-Is and Scots in the
]MM>n of Kenneth, northern Britain had experienced the attacks of a new enemy, the
tre: ndinavian invaders, generally s-pcken (.f under the name of Danes. Cemstautine
roiled ;lem bravely, but toward the uiei of hisiciLU he entered into an alliance with
Hum hi opposition to the 1'nglish. A powerful army, composed of Scots and Pie-ts,
I/ritons, and Danes discmbarkcel on the Hum her, and was encountered at f5rui:anbuigh
1 y Athe Istaric, king of Englar.d. A latllewas fcrglit there, the first of a series of
unfortunate combats by Scottish princes on English ground. The confederate army was
t>f< a'ed, and though Consl;;ntine escape el, his se n was among the slain. "VVcary of
ftrife. tin 1 kinsr i-oen afterward retired to the Culeiee monastery at St. Andrews, of which
lie became abbot, and where he died in 953.

Dining the reign of Malcolm the first of that name, and the successor of Coustantine,
p portion of the Cumbrian kingdom, includ'mg the modern Cumberland and part of
"\Ve-s: n; ore-land, which had been wrested from the Britons by Edmund, king of England,
A as 1 e stewed 1 y that prince on the See.ttii-h Mm icign. This grant was the foundation
e f that claim e f'lu .mnire made ly He English kings on the Scottish sovereigns, which,
nflcrwjird became the cause or the pretext for the- great struggle between the two nations.
The northern kingdom was still further inert asid in the reign of Kcnne'th, son of Mal-
colm, by the aequi>ilion of Lothian, ard of nc.rthem Cumbria, or Strathelyde. The
foriru r province, formerly a part of the Northumbrian kingdom, and entirely English in
i's population, was bestowed on Kenneth 1 y Edgar, king of England. The 1 Cumbrian
kingdom, which had at one time extended along the w. coast from the firth erf Clyde
to the border of AVale-s. had been weakened by the loss of its southern territories; and it
now fell under the dominion of the Scottish king The last addition to Scotland in ihe
s. took place under Malcolm II.. son e>f Kenneth, who acquired the Merse and Teviot-
dale. from the earl e>f Xorthumbm, and thus ndvanced his kingdom on the eastern
border to the Tweed. The reign of Malcolm II. extended from" 1003 to 1038. The
kings who immediately followed arc better linown to the general readers than any of
their predecessors, poetry having made their names familiar to every one. Malcolm's
successes was his grandson, Duncan, whose brief reign was followed by that of Mac-
beth (q.v.). The latter was a vigorous and prudent ruler, munificent to the church, and
famous as the only Scottish king who made a pilgrimage to Rome. But althorgli by
marriairc he wa-s connected with the royal line, he was unable to secure the affection of
Ins subjects. Malcolm, the elelest son of Duncan, assisted by his kinsman, Siward, earl
of Northumbria, invaded Scotland. The usurper was defeated and slain at Lumphanan,
in Mar, in 1056. and Malcolm was acknowledged as king.

The long reign of Malcolm III. was the commencement of a great social and political
revolution in Scotland. His residence in England, and still more his marriage with the
English princess Margaret, the sister of Edgar Atheling, led to the introduction of Erg


lish customs, the English language, and an English population into the northern and
western districts of the kingdom, which hitherto had been for the most part inhabit* d
hy a Celiic race. The influx of English colonists was increased by the tyranny of Will-
iam the conqueror and his Norman followers. All received u ready welcome from the
Scottish king, whose object it was to assimilate the condition of the (Scots, in every
respect to that of their fellow-subjects in Lothian; aud what his stern, though generous,
character might have failed to accomplish, was brought about by the winning gentleness
and Christian graces of his English queen.

Malcolm fell in battle before Alnwick castle in the year 1093, and Margaret survived
only a few days. On this event, it seemed as if the work of their reign was about to be
utterly overthrown. The Celtic people of Scotland, attached to their old customs, and
disregarding the claims of Malcolm's children, raised his brother, Donald Bane, to the
throne. The success, however, of this attempt to restore a barbarism which the better
part of the nation had outgrown, was of brief duration; Donald was dethroned, and
Edirar, the eldest surviving son of Malcolm and Margaret, was acknowledged as king.
The very name of the new sovereign marked the ascendency of English influence. That
influence, and all the beneficial effects with which it was attended, continued to increase
during the reigns of Edgar and his brother and successor, Alexander I. The change
went steadily on under the wise and beneficent rule of David (q.v.), the youngest son
of Malcolm. His reign, which extended from 1124 to 1153, was devoted to the task of
ameliorating the condition of his subjects, and never was such a work more nobly
accomplished. David was in every respect the model of a Christian king. Pious,
generous, and humane, he was at the same time active and just, conforming himself to
the principles of religion and the rules of the church with all the devotion of his mother,
but never forgetting that to him, not to the clergy, God had committed the government
of his kingdom. He was all that Alfred was to England, and more than St. Louis wus
to France. Had lie reigned over a more powerful nation, his name would have been
one of the best known among those of the princes of Christendom. As it is, every
Scottish scholar has delighted to do his character justice. At the time of David's acces-
sion, Scotland was still but partially civilized, and it depended in a great measure on the
character of its ruler whether it was to advance or recede. It received a permanent
stamp from the government of David. The Celtic people were improved morally
socially, and ecclesiastically, and all along the eastern coast were planted Norman,
English, and Flemish colonies, which gradually penetrated into the inland districts, and
established the language and manners of that Teutonic race which forms the population
of the greater part of Scotland. David encouraged and secured the uew institutions by
introducing a system of written law, which gradually superseded the old Celtic tradi-
tionary usages, the first genuine collection^ of Scottish legislation belonging to his reign.
David was as great a reformer in the church as in the state. The ecclesiastical system

E'evalent in Scotland almost up to his time differed in some points from that established
England and on the continent, bearing a great resemblance to that of Ireland, from
which it was indeed derived. David established dioceses, encouraged the erection and
endowment of parishes, provided for the maintenance of the clergy by means of tithes,
and displacing the old Celtic monastic bodies, introduced the Benedictine and Augus-
tiuian orders.

David, though devoting his energies to the improvement of his subjects in the manner
which has been mentioned, did not forget duties of a less agreeable kind. He knew
that a Scottish king really held his crown by the tenure of the sword, and none of his
fierce ancestors was a more intrepid warrior than the accompliched and saintly David.
His skill and courage were shown, though without success, at the battle of the Standard
As the representative through his mother of the ancient kings of England, he had many
mentis in that country; and had the Scottish army been successful, the history of the
two kingdoms might in some respects have been different. As it was, he contented him-
self with maintaining the cause of his sister's child, the empress Matilda against kin*

David's grandson and successor, Malcolm IV., reigned for twelve years, and the next
king was William the lion, Malcolm's brother, who' ruled from 11G5 to 1214 These
princes pursued the policy of their grandfather with equal resolution, thouirh sometimes
with less success. They were embarrassed by their connection with the ^EnHish king

David's grandson and successor, Malcolm IV., reigned for twelveyears and t
ting was William the lion, Malcolm's brother, who" ruled from 11G5 to'l14
>rinces pursued the policy of their grandfather with equal resolution though soi
vith less success. They were embarrassed by their connection with the En<rlU,,
lenry II., who took advantage of his superior power and ability to impose unwis
unjust restraints on the independence of the Scottish sovereigns and their kinsjdo

c ana

kingdom A

policy which laid the foundation of the unhappy national strife of after-vcars This was
averted for a time by the concessions of Richard I. in 1189. " For more* than acentury "
says lord Hailes, " there was no national quarrel, no national war between the two king-
doms a blessed period." That period was well employed bv the next two kings
Alexander II. and Alexander III., the son and grandson of William the lion to con-
solidate the institutions of their kingdom, and extend and confirm what had been becun
by David. Alexander III. was one of the ablest and best of the Scottish kin-'s By a
treaty with the king of Norway, he added to his kingdom Man and the other inlands i of
the western sea, held by the Norwegians. His sudden death, in 126 was one of the
greatest calamities with which Scotland could have been afflicted. It closed a period of
prosperity a course of improvement which the kingdom did uot again enjoy for nearly



500 years. The history of this interesting period has yet to be written. The only
inodern account of any value is that in l lie accurate but meager annals of lord Hailes.
Tytlcr begins liis history with the reign of Alexander III. ; and Robertson, in his narra-
tive of two reigus which in popular language is called the history of Scotland, just as
lord Macuutay s similiar work is called the history of England speaks of what took
place during the whole time from the union with the Picts to the death of Alexander III..
us " events which may be slightly touched, but merit no particular or laborious inquiry."

On the death of the infant granddaughter and heiress of Alexander III., in 1290, the
succession to the crown was disputed. The question between the two chief claimants,
Baliol and Bruce (q.v.), was not free from doubt according to the customs of the time;
and Edward I. of England, to whom the decision was referred, appears at first to have
acted with good faith. But this great king, who had already subdued Wales, was now
bent on uniting the British Islands under one scepter; and in the pursuit of that object
he sacrificed humanity, honor, and justice. The results were most deplorable. The
national spirit of the Scots was tiually roused, and after a long struggle under
Wallace and Bruce they secured their independence on the field of Banncckburn
(q.v.). The battle of freedom was won; but it was at the expense of tranquillity
and civilization. The border counties were continually wasted by the English; the
central provinces were the scene of frequent warfare among the chief nobles; and
the highland districts became more and more the seat of barbarism, the Celtic tribes
re-acquiring something of their old ascendency, just as they did in Ireland in the
troubled times which followed the invasion of Edward Bruce. The strong arm of
king Robert might have repressed these disorders, had his life been longer t-pared
after the treaty of Northampton; but his death, and the accession of an infant
eon, again plunged the country into all the miseries of foreign and civil war. When
that son, David II., .urew up to manhood, he proved in every respect unworthy of his
great father. His reign, and that of his successors Robert II. and Robert III., the two
first princes of the house of Stewart, were the most wretched period of Scottish history.
In the year 1411, half of the kingdom would have become absolutely barbarous, if the
invas'on of the lord of the Isles had not been repulsed at llarlaw (q.v.), by the skill of
the earl of Mar. and the bravery of the lowland knights and burgesses.

A happier time began to dawn on the release of James 1., in 1424, from his English
captivity. The events of the following period are better known, and a brief notice of
the most important will be sufficient. Reference may be made for details to the accounts
of the particular kings. The vigorous rule of James I. had restored a tranquillity to
which his kingdom had long been unaccustomed; but strife and discord were again
brought back on his assassination. One of the most calamitous features of the time,
was a succession of minorities in the sovereign. James himself had succeeded when a
child and a captive; James II., James III., James IV., James V., Mary, and James VI.,
nil succeeded while under age, and all, except James IV., when little more than infants,
The courage and ability shown by almost all the Stewart princes were insufficient to
repair the mischiefs done by others in the beginning of their reigns, and to abate the
great curse of the country the unlimited power and constant feuds of the nobles. The
last addition to the Scottish kingdom was made in the reign of James III., when the
islands of Orkney and Zetland were made over to him as the dowry of his queen. Mar-
garet of Denmark. The marriage of James IV. with Margaret of England was far
more important in its ultimate results, and brought about in the reign of his great-grand-
son that peaceful union with England which the death of the maiden of Norway had
prevented in the 13th century. Many good laws were enacted during the reigns of
the Jameses; but the wisdom of the Scottish legislature was more shown in framing
them than the vigor of the government in enforcing them. Among the most important
improvements of the period was the establishment of universities the first of which,
that of St. Andrews, was founded during the minority of James I. and the institution
of the college of justice in the reign of James V.

During the reiirn of the fifth James, religious discord ndded another element to the
evils with which Scotland \\as afflicted. The practical corruptions of the church were
greater than they were almost in any other country in Europe, and one of the conse-
quences was. that the principles of the reformation were pushed further than elsewhere.
The first great ecclesiastical struggle had hardly ceased, by the overthrow of the Roman
Catholic system, when the strife began anew in the reformed communion in the shape
of a contest between Episcopacy and Presbyterianism, the former being supported by
the sovereign, the latter by. the common people, the nobles throwing their weight into
either scale as it suited their policy at the time. James VI. struggled hard to establish
an absolute supremacy, both in church and state, in opposition to a powerful party,
which admitted no royal authority whatever in the former, and very little in the latter.
After his accession to the English crown, he was apparently successful in carrying out
his designs, but during the reign of his son, Charles I., the contest again broke out with
increased bitterness. The nobility, whose rapacity had been checked by the sovereign,
joined the popular party. The opponents of the crown bound themselves together, first
by the national covenant, and afterward in alliance with the English Puritans, by the
solemn league and covenant. Their efforts were completely successful, but their suc-
cess led to the utter overthrow of the monarchy by Cromwell.


The restoration of Charles IT. was welcomed by nil classes, wearied as they were of
a foreign and military rule, but especially by the nobles aud gentry, who had learned by
bitter experience that the humiliation of "the sovereign was necessarily followed 1-y the
degradation- of their order. Had the government of Charles II. and James VII. Ix/en
reasonably just and moderate, it could hardly have failed iu securing general support;
but unfortunately it was more oppressive and more corrupt than any which Scotland had
experienced since the regencies in the minority of James VI. The natural result was
the rvvoluiiou, which seated William and Mary on the throne.

Hardly had the majority of the nation been successful in this, when many of them
began to "repent of what "they had done, and Jaeobit ism became more popular than
royalist principles had ever been when the house of Stewart was on the throne. The
discontent was greatly increased by the fears entertained of English influence. The state
of mutters grew so threatening after the Accession of queen Anne, that the ruling Eng-

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 60 of 203)