Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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lish statesmen became satisfied that nothing short of an incorporating union between
the two kingdoms could avert the danger of a disputed succession to the throne, and
of a civil war. Supported by some of the ablest and most influential persons in Scot-
land, they were successful in carrying through their design, though it was opposed by a
majority of the Scottish people. The act of union was formally ratified by the parlia-
ment of Scotland on Jan. 16, 1707. It subsequently received the royal assent, and c;;me
into operation on May 1, of the same year. The union continued "to be unpopular in
Scotland for many years, and unpopularity increased liy the corrupt means ireely used
to carry it through. But the discontent gradually ceased, and the ultimate consequences
of the measure have been mostly beneficial to both kingdoms.

A few words may be added regarding the parliament of Scotlsnd. That body was
originally composed, like the English parliament, of three classes the ecclcMn.-'tics
(consisting of bishops, abbots, and priors), the barons, and the burgesses. The i-piritual
lords, duiiug the establishment of episcopacy after the reformation, were C( m] o.-cd of
bishops only. When Presbyteriauism was established at the lime of the covenant,
and when it was formally ratified by law at the revolution, the ecclesiastical tsu.te
ceased to have any place in parliament. The barons, or immediate vassals of the crown,
at first sat in their own right, whether holding peerages or not; but afterward the peers
alone sat. the others sending their lepresentatives. The burgesses were the representa-
tives of the burghs. All the three estates sat to the very last in one house, the sovereign
presiding in person, or through a commissioner named by him.

It would be impossible within reasonable limits to give a complete account of th*
original authorities for the history of Scothmd. The principal ones are tl.e following.
.For the period before the accession of David I. Venerable Bcde, the Early Lives of the
Saints, the Irish Annals, the brief Scottish Chronicles published by Innes and Pinker-
ton, and the ancient English Chroniclers. For the subsequent period down to the
reformation the Chronicles of Melrose ai d Laneicost, the Scotichronicon of Fordun
and Bower, Winton's Chronicle, Leslie's and Buch man's Histories, the English Chroni-
clers, and the Ecclesiastical Chartularies, and the Acts of the Scottish Parliament. For
the period from the reformation to the union Knox's, Calderwood's, Spottii-wood's
Histories, Baillie's Letters, Wodrow's and Burnet's Histories, the Acts of Parliament,
and the State Papers. The chief modern authorities are Innes's Critical Exsay on tlte
Ancient Inhabitants of Scotland, Pinkei ton's Inquiiy into tlie llialory of Scotland, Chal-
mers's Caledonia, Hailes's Annah, and Ty tier's, Robertson's, Lning's, and Burton's
Jlwton'at of Scotland, the Domestic Annals of Scotland, by R. Chambers, and fekcuc'i
Celtic Scotland.

SCOTLAND, a co. in n.e Missouri, adjoining Iowa; drained by the Wyaconda,
the north Fabius. and the middle Fabius rivers; on the Missouri, Iowa, and Kcbras-ka
railroad; about 425 sq.m. : pop. '80, 12.507 12.238 of American birth. The surface is
rolling and heavily wooded. The soil is fertile. The principal productions are corn,
outs, hay, aud live stock. Co. seat, Memphis.

SCOTLAND, CHURCH OF. An account has already been given of the conversion to
Christianity of the early settlers of Scotland. See COLUMBA, CUUDEES. NINIAN, Pirrs,
SCOTLAND. History. The doctrines of the ancient Scottish church were precisely the
same as those of the rest of western Christendom. In ritual there were some points of
difference, but they were so slight that the most important related to the time of observing
the Easter. festival. In these, also, the Scots gradually conformed to the usage of th
Roman and English churches. In one point, however, there continued for several cen-
turies to be a marked distinction between the Scots and the Irish on the one hand, and
the churches of England and the continent on the other. This was in reference to
ecclesiastical government. The Scots recognized the same orders of the ministry, bish-
ops, priests, and deacons, as other Christians did; and, like them, they held that ordin-
ation could be given only by bishops. But they acknowledged no such supremacy of
jurisdiction in the episcopal order as was held "by other churches. In Scotland, there
were neither dioceses nor parishes; but there were numerous monasteries, in which the
abbots, whether bishops or priests, bore the chief rule, all beinsr in subordination to the
successor of St. Columba, the presbyter-abbot of loua, who, m virtue of that office, was
priuiate of the Picts and Scots.



263



Scotland.



When lona was desolated by the Northmen, the primacy seems to have been trans-
ferred iu the. middle of the i)th c. to the abbots of Dunkcld, and about titty years after-
ward to the bishops of St. Andrews, who became known as epixco^i >'<,>,'//.///<, the bish-
ops of the Scots. Slowly at first, but gradually an assimilation to the English and
continental practices began, a change rendered more easy by the Scottish dominion
beinir extended over Lotuian, iu which ihe ecclesiastical system was the .same as that of
England. A great impulse was given in the same direction by the marriage of Malcolm
III., king of the Scots, with Margaret, the sister of Edgar Atheling. The king and
queen u.-ed tlieir utmost efforts to introduce the English usages in ecclesiastical as iu
oth r matters; and Margaret herself held repeated conferences for that purpose with the
chief Seotti.-h ecclesiastics, at which her husband acted as interpreter. The principal
points in which she attempted to bring about a reform were the commencement of the
Lent fast, the superstitious infrequeucy of receiving the communion, and the lax
observance of Sunday and of the Scriptural and canonical restrictions on marriage
between relations.

The reform begun by Malcolm and Margaret was fully carried out by their youngest
son, David I. These improvements were completed by his successors, and before the
en I of the 12th c. the ecclesiastical system of Scotland differed in no important point
from that of the rest of Europe. Some Scottish writers have lamented the change, as
being one from purity of belief and practice to superstition and immorality. This is
un loubtedly a mistake. The Celtic church had become very corrupt, and the clergy
were inferior both in learning and morals to their brethren in the south. King David
was a reformer in the best sense of the word, and it does not detract from the charac-
ter of his reformation, that as time went on the Scottish church became involved in
those superstitions with which the rest of Christendom was overspread.

The ritual of the Scottish medueval church was almost the same as that of England,
the Salisbury missal and breviary being the models of the liturgies and office books
used in Scotland. The external system of the church cathedral, parochial, and
monastic was also in almost every point identical. The chief monastic orders were
the Benedictine, and most important branches the Cluniac and Cistercian, the canons
regular of St. Augustine, and the reformed premonstratensiau canons. The Cluniacs
and Cistercians were in strict subordination to the mother-houses of their orders at
Cluuy and Ciieaux. In the 13th c. the Dominican, Franciscan, and Carmelite friars
were introduced into Scotland. The chapters of all the Scottish cathedrals, except
those of St. Andrews and Whithorn, were composed of secular canons the chief dig-
nitaries being a dean, archdeacon, chancellor, precentor, and treasurer. The prior and
canons regular of the Augustinian monastery at St. Andrews formed the chapter of
that see, and the prior and premonstratensian canons of Whithorn formed the chapter
of the cathedral of Galloway. There were twelve dioceses in the Scottish church, to
which Orkney was added on the transference of those islands to the Scottish sovereign
in the 15'h century. The twelve dioceses were Caithness, Ross, Moray, Aberdeen,
Brechin, Dunkeld, Dunblane, St. Andrews, Argyle, the Isles, Glasgow, and Galloway.
The larger of these dioceses were divided, like the English dioceses, into rural deaneries.
The single point in which the mediaeval church down to the 15th c. differed from that
of England and other churches of the west, was in its having no metropolitan. St.
Andrews, and next, to it Glasgow, had a certain precedence; the bishops of the
former see. and failing them the bishops of the latter, having the privilege of crowning
and nnnoint'mg tha sovereign. But they had no jurisdiction over the other sees, nor
did their bishops bear the style of archbishop This led to claims on the part of the
archbishops of York to metropolitan authority in Scotland, which had no foundation
except in regard to the southern portion of the diocese of St. Andrews, and the see of
Galloway, the bishops of which were for several centuries suffragans of York. The
court of Rome found it convenient, for the sake of its own privileges, to encourage
this anomalous System; but to provide for the meetings of the Scottish bishops in pro-
vincial council, a bull of pope Honorius III., in 1225, authorized them to meet iu
synod. In virtue of this bull, the bishops, abbots, priors, and other chief ecclesiastics,
with representatives of the capitular, collegiate, and conventual bodies, assembled
annually in provincial synod, sitting in one house, under the presidency of a conservator
chosen by and from the bishops. The chief government of the church under the
pope thus devolved on these synods, and their elective presidents. This continued
until the erection of St. Andrews into an archiepiscopal and metropolitan see, in
rirtue of a bull of pope Sixtus IV., in 1472. By this bull all the Scottish sees were
made suffragans to that of St. Andrews, whose bishops were now to be styled
archbishops.

In 1492 Glasgow was raised to the dignity of a metropolitan see by a bull of pope
Innocent VIII., and the bishops of Dunkeld, Dunblane, Galloway, and Argyle were
made suffragans to its archbishop, an arrangement which was soon afterward altered to
some extent Dunkeld and Dunblane being re-annexed to St. Andrews, and Glasgow
having for its suffragan sees those of Galloway. Argyle, and the Isles. This last
arrangement continued until the reformation; and afterward, during the establishment
of Episcopacy the two Scottish archbishops occupying toward each other precisely
the same position as the archbishops of Canterbury and York, and being sometimes



Scotland.

involved in the same unseemly broils, in regard to jurisdiction and precedence, which
lougexisu-d between the English metropolitans.

bcotl;:ini siuiixd in all the errors of belief and superstitious practices in worship
to which the rest of Christendom was subjected, and the ignorance uixl immoral-
ity of the; deny were far worse than they were in England, or perhaps anywhere in
Europe, except in ti.e Scandinavian churches. The desire for reformation which led
to the plot-ceilings of Huss and Wiekhffe, produced similar effects in the Scottish king-
dom. As early as the year 1406 or 1407, James Reshy, an English priest, and a disci-
ple of V, ick.iiie, was burned at Perth; and in 1433 Paul Crawar, a German Hussite,
was burned at St. Andrews. The opinions of Wickliffe continued to be privately
taught, particularly in the s.w. counties, where his followers were known by the
name of the Lollards of Kyle. In the following century, the intercourse with the
continent was frequent and close, and the effects of Luther's preaching and
writings were soon tell in Scotland. In the year 1525 the importation of Lutheran
books, and the propagation of the reformers' tenets, were forbidden by an act of the
Scottish parliament; and in February, 15~8, Patrick Hamilton, abbot of Ferae, was
burned at St. Andrews for teaching and publishing Lutheran doctrines. The piety of
Hamilton, and the patience with which he bore his sufferings, induced others to follow
his teachinir and example. Several persons, both ecclesiastical and laymen, were sub-
sequently burned, and many more fled to England and the continent.

The persecution, though encouraged or permitted by the bishops, was disapproved
of by some ecclesiastics of learning and influence, who were desirous of effecting a
reform in the church without breaking off from communion witli the hierarchy. The
efforts of this school were unsuccessful, and the Scottish nation was gradually divided
into two parties one of which, headed by the bishops, and supported by the stute,
was determined to resist all change; and the other, composed of a considerable number
of the clergy both regular and secular, of the gentry, and of the burgesses of the large
towns, was disposed to carry its reforming principles far beyond what had been done
by Luther and and Melauchlhon. These two parties came into deadly conflict in 1546.
On Feb. 28 in that year George Wishart, the most eloquent of the reforming preachers,
was condemned to death by an ecclesiastical court at which cardinal Beaton, arch-
bishop of St. Andrews, presided and was burned. On May 28 following, the cardi-
nal was murdered by Norman Leslie and other adherents of the reforming party.
The struggle continued during the regency of the earl of Arran ami that of Mary
of Lorraine, the mother of Mary, the young queen of Scots.

In the year 1559 the reformers became strong enough to set the regent at defiance.
Various circumstances encouraged them to demand freedom for their opinions, particularly
the death of Mary of England and the accession of Elizabeth. They were further ani-
mated at this time by the return from Geneva of their chief preacher. John Knox. The
conflict was to be decided by other than spiritual weapons. The regent and the
reformed, now known by the name of the Congregation, met in open warfare. The con-
test was carried on for a twelvemonth, and ended in the triumph of the Congregation.
A parliament met at Edinburgh on Aug. 1, 1560. The reforming party had the com-
plete ascendency, and succeeded in passing several acts, by which the jurisdiction of the
S>pe was abolished, the mass was proscribed, and a confession of faith, drawn up by
nox and his associates, was ratified, the spiritual lords making a faint resistance.

The new confession of faith adhered, in all essential articles of belief, to the ancient
creeds of the church. In regard to the sacraments it differed entirely from the recent
corrupt teaching of the western church; but its language, on the whole, was moderate
and conciliatory. In reference to ceremonies and Uie details of church polity, it
declared that such things were temporary in their nature, and not appointed for all
times and places, and that they ought to be altered when they fostered superstition and
ceased to be conducive to edification.

A book of discipline was soon afterward drawn up by the compilers of the confession,
which was generally approved of, but did not receive the sanction of parliament. It
followed out in detail the principles laitl down in the confession. In regard to the office-
bearers of the church various orders were mentioned, but three were specially of import-
ance ministers, elders, and deacons. Ministers were to be chosen by each 'several con-
gregation, but were to be examined and admitted in public by the ministers and elders
of the church. No other ceremony, such as imposition of hands, was to be used. The
ciders and deacons were to be chosen yearly in each congregation, and wen; not to
receive any stipend, because their office was only to be from year to year, and because
they were not to be debarred from attending to their own private occupations. In order
to the better provision for the wants of the time, certain persons, called superintendents,
were appointed in particular districts, with power to plant and erect churches, and to
appoint ministers within the bounds of their jurisdiction.

The chief governing as well as legislative and judicial power in the reformed church
was intrusted to a general assembly, which met half-yearly or yearly, and was composed
of the superintendents, ministers, and lay commissioners, and which gradually, by the
introduction of the system of representation, assumed the form ami more than the power
of a parliament

The worship of the reformed church was modeled on that established by Calvin at



265



Scotland.



Geneva. It was embodied in a formulary called the book of common order, which for
nearly a century continued to be generally used. It contained forms for the ordinary
urn-ship both on Sundays at;<l week days, and for the administration of the sacraments,
and for cenain other occasions. The minister was not absolutely restricted to these
forms. Except in the singing of psalms, the people took no direct part iu ordinary wor-
ship, and there was no distinction of ecclesiastical seasons, all holydays whatever except
Sunday being- abolished.

The form of church government established at the reformation did not remain long
undisturbed. Some of the most zealous Protestants thought the danger to which the
church was expo-id from stale tyranny and aristocratical oppression could best be
met by restoring the bishops to their ancient position both in the church and iu the par
liament; whiie others, of equal zeal and sincerity, saw in this only the Commencement
of a plan for bringing back all the errors of popery. A scheme of this kind was actually
establi-hed f. >r some time, and the sees were tilled with Protestant bishops set apart for
the office by their brethren of the ministry. It was almost immediately attacked by some
of the ministers, who soon found a leader in Andrew Melville, a scholar of considerable
eminence, who returned to Scotland in 1574, after a residence in Geneva, during which
lie had ardently embraced the new opinions as to ecclesiastical government maintained
by Be/a.

The struggle continued for some years, the bishops being encouraged by the sove-
reign and his advisers, whose support was frequently of little real advantage to them,
and Melville receiving the zealous assistance of many of the ministers, and of the great
body of the common people, who sympathized with him in his democratical theories of
civil and ecclesiastical government. ' Melville was at fnst entirely successful His opinions
\vere embodied in what was called the second book of discipline, which received the
formal sanction of the general assembly in 1581. This formulary differed very much
from the first book. It laid down authoritatively those principles in regard to ecclesias-
tical authority which the English Puritans were vainly striving to establish in the south-
ern kingdom, and was in reality an attempt to make the civil power subordinate to the
ecclesiastical, even in matters secular. It recognized four orders of office-bearers in the
church, the pastor, minister, or bishop, the doctor, the presbyter or elder, and the deacon,
'lliese were to be set apart by ordinal ion. and the in; position of the hands of the elder-
ship, but no one was to be intruded into any office contrary to the will of the congrega-
tion, or without the voice of the eldership. Four sorts of church courts, each rising
above the other, were sanctioned; first, of particular congregations, one or more; second,
of a province, or what wa afterward called the provincial synod; third, of a whole
nation; and fourth, of the universal church. What is generally regarded as the most
essential feature of the Presbyterian system the presbytery was not yet introduced iu
its proper form, the lowest court being a combination of what were afterward known a
the presbytery and the kirk-session. It was, however, introduced before the year 1592,
when the' privileges of general and provincial assemblies, presbyteries, and parochial
sessions were ratified by parliament, though the book of discipline itself did not receive
any formal sanction.

King Jarnes had agreed to the establishment of Presbyterianism, but personally, and
as a sovereign, he disliked its discipline, and he soon endeavored to overthrow it. His
accession to the crown of England enabled him to do this with more authority. lie
gradually obtained from the general assembly a recognition of the civil rights of the
bishops, and this led to the restoration of their ecclesiastical privileges. His changes
were sanctioned by a general assembly whidi met at Glasgow in 1610. and in the course
of the same year Episcopacy was restored in reality, as well as in mime, by the conse-
cration of three Scottish prelates, by four of the English bishops, at London.

The king wished to assimilate the Scottish church, as far as possible, to that of Eng-
land, and his next important movement was the establishment of what are called the
Five Articles of Perth. See PERTH. THI-; FIVE ARTICLES OK.

These various changes excited great dissatisfaction in Scotland, particularly in the
southern counties, but it gradually, abated to a considerable extent, and might have
altogether ceased, had not further innovations 1 ecu attempted. It was the wish of
James to introduce a prayer-book like that of the English church", in place of the book
of Common Order, but he saw the danger with which the proposal was attended, and
gave it up or postponed it. His son Charles was as inferior to Ids father in prudence, us
lie excelled him in conscientiousness and religious zeal. During his first visit to Scot-
land he added another bishopric that of Edinburgh to the dioceses of the Scottish
church. Most unwisely, and most improperly, he endeavered by his royal authority to
introduce into that church a book of canons and a liturgy framed* on the model of those
of England. The king had many loyal supporters in all parts of Scotland, and in the
n. Episcopacy was preferred by the people to Presbyterianism. But the storm of popu-
lar indignation which was now roused swept everything before it. The king's oppo-
nents bonded themselves together by the national covenant, and at a general assembly
held at Glasgow abolished the Perth articles and Episcopacy, and re-established Pivsbv-
terianism. Charles attempted to maintain his claim by the sword, but was unsuccessful,
and obliged to ratify in parliament all that had been done by his opponents.

Had the covenanters been satisfied with the victory which they had won, Presby-



Scotland.

terianism might have remained the established religion of the Scottish kingdom. But
they could not resist the entreaties for aid from the English Puritans, or rather they
yiel'de 1 to the delusion of extending their own discipline over the churches of England
and Ireland. They just attempted, in an opposite direction, what .hum's and Charles
had failed to accomplish. For a time their policy seemed to triumph. The solemn
league and covenant of the three kingdoms, after having been approved by the general
a-scmblv in Scolland. was signed by the assembly of divines which the parliament had
summoned to meet at Westminster, and by the parliament itself. The ecclesiastical
documents which were afterward drawn up originated with the assembly of divines,
font were sanctioned by the assembly in Scotland. The principal of these were a direc-
torv for public worship, a confession of faith, and a larger ami shorter catechism. See
A<s ::,! ;I,Y OK DIVINES, and CREEDS AND CONFESSIONS. The fir.- 1 of these documents
wa< intended to supersede the book of Common Prayer in England, and. indirectly, the
book of Common Order in Scotland. It laid down certain general rules in regard to
public worship and the administration of the sacraments, but left very much to the dis-
cretion of the particular ministers and congregations.

The union between the Scottish and English Puritans was dissolved by the ascen-
dency of the independents. Scotland, distracted by civil and ecclesiastical disscn.-ion,
\va* unable to defend itself against Cromwell. It was conquered and kept thoroughly
under subjection by the English army, which forbade the meetings of the general assem-
bly, but left the other courts and the Vest of the church system a they were before. At
the restoration, the higher classes generally, who had suffered under the ecclesiastical
tyranny of the ministers, were zeidous for the re-establishment of Episcopacy. The
greater part of the nation, except in the south-western provinces, was indifferent; a:i I
the king experienced no difficulty in restoring the bishops to their former rigiils both in



Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 61 of 203)