Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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church and state. But Episcopacy alone was restored; there was no attempt to intro-
duce a liturgy, or even to enforce the observance of the Perth articles, [he new pri-
mate, archbishop Sharp, was an able man, of good moral character, but ambitious ami
overbearing, and the covenanters never forgave his change from,
though he lia.l always belonged to the more moderate of the two parties into which the.
church was divided. He was almost the only one of the bishops who enjoyed political
influence; and, unfortunately for himself and the hierarchy, that influence was generally
us" 1 to encourage, not to restrain, that severe measures of the government. When the
primate was assassinated, the severity became a cruel tyranny, and many who had no
predilection for any particular ecclesiastical opinions were ready to welcome -the changa
which took place at the revolution.

When the Scottish estates met in 1689, to consider what course was to be adopted iu
the northern kingdom, the bishops declined to abandon king James. Whatever miirht
have been the consequences had they taken an opposite course, this resolution was fatal to
the Episcopal establishment. William and Mary were called to the throne, and prelacy
was declared to be an insupportable grievance, and was abolished. In the following
year Presbyterianism was re-established, and the Westminster Confession of Faith was
ratified as the national standard of belief, and the right of patrons to nominate to eccle-
siastical b;:nefices was taken away. In the end of the same year a general assembly was
held, the first which had been allowed to meet since its dissolution bv the order of
Cromwell. It was composed, as before, of ministers and elders from the various pres-
byteries, and of elders from the burghs and universities, and was presided over bv a lay
commissioner, named by the crown, and a minister elected by the members as modera-
tor. With the exception of some years iu the reign of Willinm. the assembly has con-
tinued to meet annually since the revolution, and to transact business duringihe periods
irlicn it w-is not in session by a commission named by itself for the purpose. See
ASSEMBLY, GENERAL. The other chief ecclesiastical events of William's reign were a
cries of vain attempts on the p irt of the sovereign to bring about a comprehension of
the Episcopal clergy with those of the establishment, and the passing by the assembly
in 1697 of what was called the " barrier act" (q.v.). which guarded against sudden leg-
islation, by providing that no permanent act should be passed until it had received the
Approbation of the majority of the presbyteries.

During the reign of queen Anne, and'in the year 1707. England and Scotland were
united into one kingdom. A special statute was passed for the security of the Protrst-
ant religion and Presbyterian church government in the latter countrv: providinsr that
these should continue without any alteration in time to come, and confirming the net of
William and Mary, which ratified the confession of faith, and settled the Presbyterian
form of church government.

In the year 1712. an act was passed by the British parliament which res'ored to
patrons in Scotland their right of presentation to benefices. This statute excited great
discontent among the members of the Established church, and for many years attempts
were made to obtain a repeal of it. These attempts were unsuccessful, but its provisions
were long practically disregarded. When at length the general assembly began to act
upon it, the dissatisfaction increased among those who held the divine right of the people
to choose their own ministers. The leader of the discontented party was a minister
named Ebenczer Erskine, and he with his adherents, in the year 1733, finally separated
from the Establishment, and formed a communion which took the title of the Associate



Presbytery, though its member? were popularly known as the Seceders. The Sect-tiers
tlu-mst-lvL-s were soon divided by a very absurd dispute into two bodies, called the
Burgher and the AiHiburgher Synods. In the year 1761, another secession from the
Establishment took place in connection with the law of patronage; j.ntl the .separated
bodv assumed the name of the Presbytery of Relief.

There were no further secessions from the church; but its members were divided
into two parties, known as the moderates and the Evangelicals (q.v.), the former of
whom were favorable, the latter hostile to the law of patronage. For many years the
Moderates, headed by Dr. Robertson the historian and others of his school, and sup-
ported by the influence of the government, maintained an ascendency in the general
assembly and throughout the country. In the latter years of George III, and during
the reign of George IV., this ascendency began to decrease. The political excitement
which prevailed in the beginning of the reign of William IV. strongly ail'ected the
Scottish Establishment, which from its very constitution is peculiarly liable to lie moved
by the impulses of popular feeling. The two parlies in the general assembly engaged
in a struggle more fierce than any in which they had yet met ; and the subject of dispute,
as before, was immediately connected with the law of patronage. Dr. Chalmers, the
most distinguished minister in Scotland, added the whole weight of his influence to the
popular party, and in 18o4 an interim act of assembly was passed, known as the Veto
act, which declared it to be a fundamental law of the church that no pastor should be
intruded on any congregation contrary to the will of the people, and laid down certain
rules for carrying out this principle. The legality of tins act was doub'.ed; and in
connection with a presentation to the parish of Auchterarder, the presentee, on being
rejected by the presbytery in terms of the Veto act, appealed, with concurrence of the
patron, to" the court of session the supreme civil court in Scotland. 1 h;.t court
decided that the conduct of the presbytery in rejecting the prcstutie was illegal, and
their judgment was affirmed by the house of lords. Other cases of a similar nature
followed, and something like a conflict took place between the civil and ecclesiastic;;!
courts, the former enforcing their sentences by civil penalties, the latter suspending ;.nd
deposing the ministers who obeyed the injunctions of the court of se.-si< n. In the
general assembly of ltS4:5 the dispute can.e to a crisis. A large number of
and elders of the popular party left the assembly, and met apart in a similiar body,
of which Dr. Chalmers was chosen model alor. They formed themselves iuioa separate
cornnivuiion under the title of " The Free Church of Scotland," and gave up their
benefices in the Established church, and all connection whatever with that body. The
Free church carried off about one-half of the members of the Establishment, and
became a rival communion in most of the parishes.' See FKEE CHURCH. By an act
of parliament in 1874, patronage was abolished in the Established Church and the right
of choosing the minister transferred to the congregation. See PATUONAGE,

In 1820 the Burgher and Antiburgher Seceders were united inider the name of the
Associate Synod of the Secession church, ?>nd in 1847 this associate synod and the
relief synod were united underthe name of ''The United Presbyterian Church," (q.v.).
The recent negotiations for a union of the United Presbyterian church and the Free
church have led to no practical result.

A few remarks may be added on the history of Scottish episcopacy subsequently to
the revolution. It is a common but erroneous opinion that .almost ill the Episcopal
clergy were Jacobites from the time of the accession of William and Mary. The bishops
were so; but a large number, probably a considerable majority of the clergy, had at
first no objection to take the oath of allegiance to Ihe new government. During the
reign of queen Anne, the Episcopal clergy were well disposed to the government,
knowing the queen's good wishes to their communion. They were frequently harasse d
by the courts of the Establishment; but all who were willing to take the oaths obtained
an ample protection for their worshipon the passing of the Toleration act of 1712. On
the death of the queen, almost all the clergy, and most of the laity, were involved
directly or indirectly in the attempts to overthrow the Hanoverian dyr.a>ty, and it was
this which finally made the names of Episcopalian and Jacobite for many years to be
convertible terms.

In the meantime, the succession of bishops had been kept up by new consecrations,
and after some years the dioceses, though diminis'.iad in number, were regularly tilled.
An important change took place in the forms of worship. No longer trammeled by
their connection with the state, they adopted liturgical forms similar to those in the
English prayer-book, and in almost all cases identical, except that many of the congre-
gations used* an office for the communion modeled on that of the Scottish liturgy of
King Charles I. The Episcopalians took no such open part in the insurrection of 1745
as they did in that of 1715 but their sympathies were known to be with the house of
Stewart: and the government carried through parliament some intolerant acts, which were
put in execution with great harshness, and which for many years suppressed all public
worship in the Episcopal communion. It was only after the acccsMon of George III.
that these statutes ceased to be actively enforced : and it was not till 1792 that the
Episcopalians, who from the death of prince Charles had acknowledged the reigning
dynasty, were relieved from the penal laws. The act which gave this relief imposed
restrictions on their clergy officiating in England, and prohibited their holding benefices



in the English church. In 1804, the bishops and clergy agreed to adopt the thirly-uine
articles of the church of England, and in 1863, the "prayer-book was adopted as the
authorized service-book of the Episcopal church, permission being given in certain
cases to use the [Scottish communion office. The restrictions imposed on the Scottish
clergy by the act of 171)2 were modified by an act passed in 1840; and in 1864 they were
entirely removed, the right being reserved to bishops in England and Ireland to refuse
institution to a Scottish clergyman without assigning any reason, on his first presenta-
tion to a benefice in England or Ireland, but not after be should have once held such

The dioceses of the Scottish Episcopal church are seven in number, viz., Moray,
Aberdeen. Brechin, Argyle, St. Andrews, Edinburgh, and Glasgow. The bishops are
chosen by the clergy of the diocese, and by representatives of the lay communicants, a
majority of both orders being necessary to a valid election. One of the bishops, under
the name of primus, chosen by the other bishops, presides at all meetings of the bishops,
ami has certain other privileges, but possesses no metropolitan authority. The highest
judicial body is the episcopal college, composed of all the bishops. 'I he highest legis-
lative body is a general synod, composed of two houses, the one of the bishops, the
other of the deans and the representatives of the clergy.

The chief original authorities for the ecclesiastical history of Scotland down to the
revolution are the same as those mentioned m.the article on the civil history (q.v.).
The chief modern authorities are: Cook's Hixtory of the Reformation and History of the
Church of Scotland; Cunningham's Church History of Scotland; Grub's Ecclesiastical His-
tory of Scotland.

SCOTLAND, ROYAL ARMS OF. The arms of Scotland are Or. a lion rampant gules,
armed and langued azure, within a double tressure flory covmterflory of fleur-de-lis of
the second. Supporters Two unicorns argent armed maned and unguled or, gorged
opeii crowns, with chains affixed thereto, and reflexed over the back of the last.

Crest A lion sejant af-
fronte gules crowned or,
holding in the dexter paw
a sword, and in the sinis-
ter a scepter, both erect

The lion is first seen on
the seal of Alexander II.,
and the tressure on that
of Alexander III. The
unicorn supporters do not
appear on any of the royal
seals of Scotland till the
time of queen Mary, on
whose first great seal
(1550) they are represent-
ed as chained and gorged
\vkli crowns. They were,
however, sculptured on
Mel rose abbey as early as

In 1603, in consequence
of the union of the
crowns of England and
Scotland, the Scottish
arms came to be quar-
tered wilh those of Eng-
land anil Ireland, while
one of the English lions
was adopted as a sup-
porter. Precedence was,
however, given withia
Scotland to the Scottish ensigns, which occupied the first and fourth quarters, and
the unicorn also obtained the place of honor, being dexter supporter. From about the
time of Charles I. to 1707, it became the practice to represent the unicorn as not merely
gorged with an open crown, but crowned wilh an imperial crown. The treaty of union of
1707 declared (art. 1) that the ensigns of the United Kingdom should be in future such
as her majesty should appoint "on all flags, banners, standards, and ensigns, both on
Beu and land;' I he same mode of marshaling being adopted in England and Scotland.
But art. 24 has been sometimes supposed to leave room for a different mode of mar-
shaling on the seals in use in matters relating exclusively to Scotland, and on t jc great
nnd other sea is of Scotland. Since, as well "as before the union, precedence has been
given to Scotland. The question of the proper marshaling of the royal arms within
Scotland was raised in Ito3 by a petition to the queen by the magistrates of Bretfbin; a

Royal Arms of Scotland, previous to the Union.

OP, Scotland.


reference was made by the home office in the first instance to Garter king-at-arms, and
Garter's report was transmitted to the office of the lord Lyon, where it was returned with
observations by the Lyon depute, who considered hroiland entitled to precedence on the
judicial seals of the country; and his views have since continued to be acted on.

SCOT AND LOT VOTERS. The old legal phrase scot (Aug. -Sax. sceat, pay) and lot
embraced all parochial assessments for the poor, the church, lighting, cleansing, aud
watching. Previously to the reform act the right of voting for members of parliament
and for municipal oilicers was, in various English boroughs, exclusively vested in payc tf
of scot and lot.

SCOTT, a co. in w. Arkansas, having a ridge of the O/ark mountains for its P.
boundary: 8GO sq.m.; pop. '80. 9.174 9,147 of American birth. 89 colored. It is drained
by the Fourche la Fave and other small 'streams. The surface is mountainous except in
the central portion where the river runs. It is nearly equally divided into prairie and
woodland, forests of yellow pine and other building timber alternating with groves of
tropical trees. Its soil is fertile, producing grain and providing excellent pasturage.
Co. seat, Waldron.

SCOTT, a co. in w. Illinois, bounded on the w. by the Illinois river, watered by
Sandy and Movestar creeks, traversed by the St. Louis, Rock Island and Chicago, and
the Wabasb, St. Louis and Pacific railroads; about 205 sq.m. ; pop. '80, 10.745 9.835
of American birth. .The surface is level and wvll wooded. The soil is fertile. The
principal productions are corn, wheat, oats, rye, and live stock. Bituminous coal is
found. There are saw-mills, manufactories of earihenware, of carriage*, etc. Co. seat,

SCOTT, a co. in s. Indiana, drained by Graham's fork; on the Ohio and Mississippi,
and the Jefferson villc. Madison and Indianapolis railroads; about 195 sq.m.; pop. '80,
8.343 8,188 of American birth. The surface is level and heavily timbered. The soil
is fertile. The principal productions are corn and pork. Co. seat, Scottsburg.

SCOTT, a co. in e. Iowa, adjoining Illinois; drained by the Mississippi and the
Wapsipnicon rivers; on the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific, and the Davenport and
St. Paul railroads; about 475 sq.m. ; pop. '80, 41,370 '28, i74 of American birth. The
surface is rolling. The soil is fertile. The principal productions are wheat, corn, bar-
ley, and cattle. Bituminous coal is found. Co. seat, Davenport.

SCOTT, a co. in w. Kansas, drained by branches of Walnut creek and of Smoky
Hill river; about 700 sq.m. ; pop. '80, 43 all of American birth. This county is unor-

SCOTT, a co. in n. Kentucky, intersected centrally by the Cincinnati Southern rail-
road, the Cincinnati and Lexington division touching the extremes.; 300 sq.m. ; pop.
'80, 14.96514,778 of American birth, 5, 002 colored. It is drain-d by the North an I
South forks of Elkhorn creeks and branches of the K"iitucky river. Its surface is
uneven. Its soil produces grain, tobacco, and sorghum, and is acl ip";e'l to stwk raising
and daily products. It has an under stratum of blue Silurian limestone. Co. seat,

SCOTT, a co. in s.e. central Minnesota; bounded on the n. and n.w. by the Minne
Sflta river; on the Hastings and Dakota anil the St. Paul and Sioux City railroads;
about 380 sq.m.; pop. '70, 11,042 6,635 of American birth. The surface is rolling.
The soil is fertile. The principal productions are corn, wheat, and cattle. Co. seat,

SCOTT, a co. in central Mississippi, intersected by the Vicksburg and Meridian rail-
road; 550 sq.m.; pop. '80, 10,84510,813 of American birth, 4,213 colored. It is
drained by Strong and Long Warrior rivers, tributaries of the Pearl. Its surface is
uneven, a large proportion covered with timber and thick groves of tulip trees, magnolia,
etc. Its soil is a sandy loam, producing cotton and grain; and Jive stock is raised. Co.
seat, Forest.

SCOTT, a co. in s.e. Missouri; adjoining Illinois, bounded on the e. by the Missis-
sippi river: on the St. Louis, Iron Mountain and Southern railroad; about 380 sq.m. ;
pop. '80, 8,587 7,972 of American birth. The surface is uneven and heavily tim-
bered. The soil is moderately fertile. The principal productions are corn and wheat.
Co. seat, Commerce.

SCOTT, a co. in e. Tennessee, having the state line of Kentucky for its n. boundarj';
400 sq.m., pop. '80, 6,021 5.974 of American birth. 157 colored. " It is drained by the
Big South fork of the Cumberland river, Little White Oak creek, and New rivers. Its
surface is mountainous, and contains a portion of the elevation called the Cumberland
table land. Its soil produces grain, tobacco, and the products of the dairy. Live stock
is raised. Co. seat, Huntsville.

SCOTT, a co. in s.w. Virginia, having the state line of Tennessee for its s. boundary;
600 sq.m., pop. '80, 17.233 17.226 of American birth. 674 colored. It is drained by
Clinch river. Copper creek, and other streams. It is crossed in the w. and s. by Clinch
and Powell's mountains, is largely covered with forests of building timber; and by the
river banks are groves of sugar-maple, tulip trees, etc. Its soil is fertile along the water


courses, producing grain, flax, sorghum, etc., and is suitable for pasturage. Its mineral
products include bituminous coal, "iron ore, and limestone. It contains a natural tunnel
400 ft. long, and 75 it. high in the highest part of the arch. Co. eeat, Estillville.

SCOTT. -CHARLES, 1733-1813; b. Va. ; on the field as a non-commissioned officer at
Braddock's defeat, 1755; capt. of the first company in the revolutionary war which was
raised s. of the James, lie served with distinction at Trenton; brig. gen., 1777. He was
with Wavue at Stony Point, 1779; prisoner at Charleston, S.C., 1780. At Moumouth he
was the last on the battle field. In 1785 he removed to Kentucky. He shared the defeat
of St. Clair in 1791, had charge of a successful expedition to the Wabash, and took
part in '.he war with the Indians, 1791. In 1794 he was in command under Wayne at
the battle of Fallen Timbers. He was governor of Kentucky, 1808-12. A CO. and a
town in Kentucky were named in his honor.

SCOTT, DAVID, a remarkable Scottish painter, was born in Edinburgh, Oct. 10,
or 12, 1806. lie may be said to have commenced his career as an artist by an apprentice-
ship to his father, who was a landscape engraver; but endowed as he was witti a deep,
stern, somber genius, it was soon visible to all who knew him that he was meant to be
a painter. The first production that he ventured to send to the British institution, "Lot
and his Daughters Fleeing from the Cities of the Plain," was returned as loo large; but
Scntt was too "imperiously original" to take advice, and went on courageously painting
pictures which, it has been said, "would have required a hall for their exhibition, and
which the public would neither admire nor buy." In 1831 he exhibited the "Mono-
grams of Man," a series of singularly suggestive sketches; and the first of his illustra-
tions to Coleridge's Ancient Mariner, which are almost equal to the poem itself in weird
and vivid beauty. In 1832, among others, " Sarpedon carried by Sleep and Death," a
very fine work. In the autumn of the same year he set out for liome, visiting most of
the famous artistic cities on his way. Nothlig, however, that he saw in Italy or France
materially affected the bent of his genius, and his picture of "Discord, or the House-
hold Gods Destroyed," painted there, exhibits all the peculiarities of his style and
thought in a rampant and even repellent manner. In 1834 he returned to Edinburgh,
and resumed bis solitary brush. Passing over several interesting works, we may spe-
cially mention, as belonging to the year 1838, "Ariel and Caliban," and the "Alchymist,"
two of his best efforts in point of execution. Between 1840 and 1843 his chief pro-
ductions were "Philoctetes," "Queen Elizabeth in the Globe Theater," " The Duke of
Gloucester taken into the Water-gate of Calais," "Sileuus praising Wine,*' "Richard
III. ; " his illustrations (40 in number) of The Pilgrim's Pi-ogres*, in which, as in those of
Ti'<e Ancient Mariner, he rivals the genius of the author he illustrates. In 1847 he pro-
d iced the masterpiece of his whole career, "Vasco da Gama Encountering the Spirit of
the Cape." But Scott, always delicate, and even drooping in health, had now exhausted
himself, and on March 5, 1849. he died, when fame was only beginning to encircle
his name. Scott contributed some vigorous essays on "The Characteristics of
the Gr-at Masters" to Jllnckinood's Magazine. An unusually interesting Memoir by his
brother. W. B. Scott, was published iii 1850.

SCOTT, Sir GEORGE GILBERT, 1811-78; grandson of the rev. Thomas Scott, the
biblical commentator, b. Buckinghamshire; studied architecture, and was employed in
restoring many of the old English cathedrals, including Westminster abbey, and in
building churches, secular edifices, and colleges. Among his later works may be men-
tioned Glasgow university building-;, the Indian, home, colonial, and foreign offices,
London; and the national memorial to prince Albert in Kensington gardens, for which
he was knighted, 1872.

SCOTT, GURTATTTS HALL, b. Va., 1812; midshipman in U.S. navy. 1828; licut.,
1841; commander, 1856; capt. 18G3; commodore, 1809; rear-admiral, 1873; n tired,
1 M 74. He commanded steamer Keystone Stale, on special service, 1861; steam gunboat
Ma.'-(i f (inza, 1K62-63; steamer De S<>to, 1864; steam sloops Canandiiigua, blockade squad-
ron, 1865, and Saranac, Pacific squadron. 1866-67: and was light-house inspector, 1868.

SCOTT, JOHN MORIN, 1730-84; descendant of the baronial Scotts of Ancram; b.
New York: graduated at Ya'c col'ege, 1745; studied law and married Helena Rutgers;
was a duel-mined opposcr of colonial oppression, and IK cause of his advanced senti-
ments failed of election to congress, 1774; was an active member of the general commit-
tee for New York, and of the provincial congress, 1775; appointed a brig.gen., 1776; and
with his brigade, was in the battle of Lonir Island: secretary of the slate of New York,
1777-79, and a member of congress, 1780-83.

-SCOTT, LEVI, D.D., b. Del . 1802; was mainly self-educated; was principal of Dickin-
son erammar school, Carlisle, Penn., 1840-43; chosen bishop of the Methodist Episcopal
church in 1852.

SCOTT, Sir MICHAEL, a mediaeval scholar and philosopher of the 13th c., whose real
history is not only obscure but positively unknown. Boece identifies him with a Michael
Sco't of Bahveary, in the parish of Kirkoaldy, in Fifeshire, who, along with sir Michael
de \Vemyss, was sent to Norway in 1290, 'by the Scottish estates, to bring home the

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 62 of 203)