Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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Scotland.

The closing years of this century, and the first half of the next, were distinguished
by poets of still higher name. Foremost of these is William Dunbar (q.v.), author of
The Thrmill and tfie Rois, The Goldyn Targe, and many smaller poems, both serious arid
satirical, of very high merit. The only complete edition of his works is that by Mr.
David Laing, which was published in 1834. Gawin Douglas (q.v.), a son of the earl of
Angus, and bishop of Dunkeld, was contemporary with Dunbar. He wrote several
original poems, but his principal work is the translation in which he first gave "rude
Scotland Virgil's page." A magnificent edition of Douglas has just been published
under the editorship of Mr. Small (Edinburgh: Paterson, 1874). The last remarkable
writer of this age is sir David Lindsay (q.v.), who died in 1555, and whose poetical works
were published in 1808 by George Chalmers, and again in 1871 by David Laing. The
16th c. also produced the first Scottish prose-writers. Among these is the anonymous
author of The Complaynt of Scotland, recently edited by Mr. Murray, from whom we have
quoted above; and John Bellenden, archdeacon of Moray, the translator of Boece's
Swtonnn Hiatorice, and of the first five books of Livy.

With Lindsay ceased that succession of poets writing in the Scottish dialect which
had continued without interruption from the time of Barbour. It was more than a cen-
tury and a half before another made his appearance. Most of the scholars of that timo
wrote in Latin; but for one vernacular prose work of great merit as a composition, Ths
History of the Reformation of Religion within the Realms of Scotland, we are indebted to
the leader of the movement, John Knox (q.v.).

We may close our account of this first period by the statement, that down to tho
period of the reformation every Lowland Scot knew that his language was " Inglis," and
the only one who did not speak of it as such was Gawin Douglas. The accession or'
king James to the crown of England was unpropitious to the vernacular literature of
Scotland. The parliament still met at Edinburgh, but the capital had ceased to be the
residence of a court, and the language began to be looked upon as a vulgar dialect of
the English. The best authors composed in the classic English of the south. It was in
that language Drummond (q.v.) of Hawthornden wrote his verses, archbishop Spottis-
wood (q.v.) and bishop Burnet their histories, and archbishop Lcighton (q.v.) and Henry
Scougal their theological works, so far as they were not in Latin.

It might have been expected that the union of the kingdoms, by which Scotland was
deprived of a legislature of her own, would have soon extinguished the cultivation of
the native literature; but as a matter of fact, it turned out to be otherwise. There was a
strong popular prejudice against the union, and this roused a deep feeling of nationality,
apart from the old religious divisions. At this time appeared the first Scottish poet of true
genius since the dark age of the country's literature set in Allan Ramsay (q.v.), author
of Tlie Gentle Shepherd, which was published in 1725. Ramsay had also the merit of
preserving some of those songs and ballads which have since become so famous, but
whose authors are quite unknown. How far these works are the productions of an
earlier age, and how far they are the composition of authors living in the 18th c., has
been keenly discussed. Reference may be made to The Romantic Scottish Ballads of Mr.
Robert Chambers on the one side, and to The Lady Wardlaw Heresy of Mr. Xofval
Clyne on the other.

To the deep attachment to the exiled line of kings cherished by a large party in Scot-
land, and to the interest awakened by the struggles in which this resulted, we owe the
exquisite Jacobite songs.

While these feelings were dying away under the influence of the mild government of
George III., the close of the century was made famous by the appearance of the most/
illustrious of Scottish poets. It is almost needless to say a word of Robert Burns (q.v.).
Admired by all ranks, he continues to be the chosen classic of the peasantry of the Scot-
lish Lowlands. It is as an English writer that sir Walter Scott (q.v.) is famous; but
many of his lyrical pieces, and the dialogues in his novels, where the speakers us? their
o'wn northern tongue, entitle him to be ranked as the last and greatest of Scottisli
writers.

There is, however, no doubt that in spite of the fine and various manifestation of
literary genius in the Scottish dialect during the 18th and 19th centuries, that dialect has
for the last 200 years been going through a process of uninterrupted decay. The intro-
duction of southern English as the standard or classic form of speech after the union of
the crowns, and still more after the union of the parliaments, slowly but surely ruined
the old Anglian tongue of Scotland, till most of its peculiarities disappeared, and a jar-



Scottish.
Screw.

eon grew up that was neither pure English nor pure Scotch, but of which neverthele?*
Scotchmen are curiously proud. Mr. Murray has happily characterized this jargon in
which Ramsay, Fergusson, Burns, Scott, Hogg, and Tanuahill wrote as "/'r//ry Scotch.'

See Craik's History of English Literature and the English Language (1864); David
Irving's History of Scottish Poetry (Edin. 1861); Cosmo Innes's preface to his edition of
Barbour's Brus (1856); and Murray's Essav in the Transactions of the Philological Society
(1873).

SCOTTISH MUSIC. Scotland is famed for a class of national airs of a peculiar styl
and structure, possessing a wild, dignified, strongly marked, and expressive character.
They are generally considered to be of great antiquity; the few notes on which the oldest
of them turn, and the character of the modulation, lead to the inference that they
originated at a time when the musical scale and musical instruments of the country were
in a rude state; but there is a deficiency of evidence regarding their early history. Xo
musical MS. of Scottish airs is now known to exist of an older date than 1627; and we
have no knowledge when and by whom the early Scottish melodies were composed, or
how long they continued to be handed down traditionally from generation to generation.
They may not improbably have been committed to notation in the loth and 16th cen-
turies; and their disappearance is not wonderful, when we take into account, first, the
strong measures resorted to, about 1530, by both civil and ecclesiastical authorities, to
put down all ballads reflecting on the Roman Catholic hierarchy, and afterward the ill-
will shown by the now dominant Presbyterians toward worldly amusements, including
not a few that were entirely innocent. The most valuable of now existing early collec-
tions of Scotch melodies is the Skene MS., in the Advocates' library, noted down by sir
John Skene of Kailyards about the year 1630. It contains a number of native airs,
mixed with some foreign dance-tunes upwards of a hundred in all. Many of the Scotch
melodies differ considerably from the more modern versions, presenting in general ;i
ruder outline; but often exhibiting beauties which the changes these airs have subse-
quently undergone have only tended to destroy.

Among the peculiarities which give its character to the music of Scotland, the most
prominent is the prevalent omission of the fourth and seventh of the scale, and conse-
quent absence of semitones, giving rise to such melodic forms us






Passages of this kind occur in all the airs of Scotland which havj any claim to popu-
larity, and form one of their most recognizable features. Anothe; characteristic is the
substitution of the descending for the ascending sixth and seventh in the minor scale, as
at the beginning of the air called Adeic, Dundee, in the Skene MS. :




A very prevalent course of modulation is an alternation between the major key and its
relative minor, the melody thus ever keeping true to the diatonic scale of the principal
key. without the introduction of accidentals. An air will often begin in the major key,
and end in the relative minor, or the reverse. The closing note is by no means IK crs-
sarily the key-note, a peculiarity especially remarkable in the Highland airs, which, if in.
a major key, most frequently terminate 'in the second; if in a minor, on ihe seventh.
Closes are also to be found on the third, fifth, and sixth. The peculiarities of modula-
tion of the music of Scotland have something in common with the modes of ancient
ecclesiastical music, to which it may be more correctly said to belong, than to the modern
major and minor keys; and the avoidance of the fourth and seventh may have origin-
ated in the imperfection of the ancient wind instruments; yet these peculiarities are not
to be found in the national airs of other countries where ecclesiastical music may be
supposed to have had the same influence, and the early instruments to have been equally
imperfect.

Among the more modern printed collections of Scottish melodies with words, the
most important are George Thomson's collection, with symphonies and accompaniments
by Pleyel. Kozeluch, Haydn, JBeethovcn. Hummel, and Weber (vols. i. iv., 1793-1805;
vol. v. 1826; and vol. vi. 1841). one distinguishing feature of which was the appearance
of Burnfe's words conjoined with the old melodies of the co;;n!ry; and a more recent col-
lection in 3 vols , published bv Messrs. Wood & Co , and edited, with historical, bio-
graphical, and critical notes, by Mr. G. F. Grnham (18-18-49).

On the subject of Scottish mn^ic generally, reference is made to Dauney's Ancient
Scottish Melodie* from a MX. of the Reignaf King James VI., icith an Introductory Inquiry
Illustrative of the History of the Mime of Scotland (Edin. 1838).

SCOTUS AND SCOTISTS. See Dcxs Sc<m:s.

SCOUGAL. HENRY, 1600-78: b. Scotland; educated at the university of Edinburgh;
appointed professor of philosophy in Aberdeen in 1(509. and of divinity in Ki74: was
ordained and settled at Auchterless. In Ibis retired place he wrote, in 1677. The Liff of
God in the Soul of Man, a work distinguished fur its cr.rui^t piety and for the purity
and elegance of its style. It was edited by bishop Burnet, aad has been often reprinted,



0*7*7 Scott isli.

Screw.

SCOUT, a person sent out in the front or on the flank of an army to observe the force
and movements of the enemy. He should be a keen observer, and withal fleet of foot
or well mounted.

SCRANTON, a city in n.e. Pennsylvania, incorporated 1866; founded 1840 by a
family of that name in Luxerne co., on the s.e. bank of the Lackawauna river; pop. '80,
45,830. It is 150 m. from New York, 105 m. n.w. of Philadelphia, 18 m. n.e. of Wilkes-
harre. It is in a valley where the Roaring brook empties into the Lackawanna river, on
the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western railroad, the terminus of the Delaware and'
Hudson, and the Lackawauna and Bloomsburg railroad. It is handsomely laid out, has
gas-works, water supplied from two sources, and many substantial public buildings. It
is in the coal region, and is the depot and shipping point for the product of the n. anthra-
cite basin. Its trade in mining supplies and outfits is important, and its shipments are
immense. It has extensive manufactories of iron, mining machinery, machine-shop?,
rolling-mills and steel-works, breweries and gunpowder works; other manufactures are
coal screens, sieves, stoves, hollow ware, silk fabrics, leather, brass, etc.; and it has an
extensive wholesale trade. It contains 12 banks aggregate capital, $1,351,450; a hos-
pital, a home for friendless women and children, public schools, academies, and a valu-
able collection of Indian relics. It has a nunnery, an opera-house, 10 newspapers
(2 German and 1 Welsh), 31 churches (5 German and* 7 Welsh), a public library, a fire
department, and an elegant public park.

SCR ANTON, JOSEPH H , 1813-72; b. Conn.; removed to the coal region of the
Lackawanna valley in 1847, and built up Scran ton into a large city. He was long presi-
dent of the Lackawanna coal company, and of many railroads, banks, and iron-manu-
facturing corporations. His brother, GEORGE W., 1811-61, was also in the iron busi-
ness, president of several railroads, and member of congress from 1859 to his death.

SCRAP-METAL, a term applied to fragments of any kind of metal which are only of
xise for remeltiug. Copper and brass scrap consist of the turnings from the lathe, and
all useless and worn pieces, whether old or new. They are readily remelted. Scrap-tin
consists of the clippings and fragments of tinned iron and worn-out tinned vessels; these
are frequently dipped into hydrochloric acid, to dissolve off the tin-coating from the
iron; and the muriate of tin so formed is of commercial value for dyeing purposes.
Scrap-iron consists of any waste pieces of iron, although the term is usually held to
mean malleable iron only; and for many purposes it is particularly valuable, as it is
found that a greater strength can be obtained by welding small fragments of iron,
together than is found in large masses, the fiber being much more twisted and inter-
woven, from the mingling of pieces in every imaginable direction.

SC2EAEE2, Falamcdei, . a genus of birds of the order grallce, allied to the jacanas
(q.v.). The bill is rather short7 conical, curved at the extremity; there is a bare space
around the eyes; the toes are long; each wing is furnished with two strong spurs. The
HORNED SCREAMER, or KAMICHI (P. cormita), inhabits swamps in Brazil and Guiana, and
feeds on the leaves and seeds of aquatic plants. It is of a blackish-brown color, nearly
as large as a turkey, and has somewhat the appearance of a gallinaceous bird. It
receives its name from its loud and harsh cry. From the head, a little behind the bill,
there rises a long, slender, movable horn, of which no use has been conjectured. The
spurs of the Avings are supposed to be useful in defense against snakes and oiher ene-
mies. Close!}' allied to this genus is the genus cfiauna, or vpistohphus, to which belongs
the CIIAUXA, or CHESTED SCKEAMER (C. or 0. climaria), a native of Brazil and Para-
guay, the head of which has no horn, but is adorned with erectile feathers. The plum-
age is mostly lead-colored and blackish. The wings are armed with spurs. It is very
capable of domestication, and is sometimes reared with flocks of geese and turkeys, to
defend them from vultures, being a bold and powerful bird.

SCREEN, in architecture, an inclosure or partition of wood, stone, or metal work. It
is of frequent use in churches, where it shuts off chapels from the nave, separates the
nave from the choir, and frequently incloses the choir all round. Such screens are oft< 11
much ornamented, the lower part being solid, and the upper very often perforated. The
rood-screen (q.v.) is that on which most labor is usually bestowed. In England many
beautifully carved screens in stone, enriched with pinnacles, niches, statues, etc., remain,
such as those of York, Lincoln, Durham, etc. ; and specimens in wood, carved anil
painted, are common in parish churches. In France the screen round the choir is some-
times the subject of beautiful sculptures, as t Amiens and Paris. In halls (q.v.) there
was usually a wooden screen at one end to" separate the entrance-door and a passage from
the hall. Over this was a gallery. The term "screen of columns" is also applied to an
open detached colonnade

SCREW, one of the mechanical powers (q.v.). is a modification of the inclined plane
(q.v.). as may be shown by wrapping a piece of paper in the form of an inclined plane
round a cylinder. In the screw, the spiral line, formed by the length or slope of the
plane, is raised up in a ridge, and a lever is attached for the purpose of working it, so
that the screw is really a compound machine, combining the lever and the inclined plane.
It may be used as an instrument for penetration, as in the auger, gimlet, etc., or as a
means of producing pressure, the latter being ils most important application as a ii'echjim-
cal power. For this purpose it is made to work in a " female screw" or nut (i. hollow



278

cylinder grooved on the inside, so as to correspond to the threads of the screw); the nut
is then firmly fixed in a massive frame, and the revolution within it of the screw causes
the lower extremity of the latter to advance or recede. The principle of the Screw's
application is the same as that of an inclined plane pushed further and further under a
heavy body so as to raise it up. Now in the inclined plane, P, the power or force, is to
W, the we'ight raised or the pressure overcome, as the height of the plane to its hase;
that is, in the screw, as the distance between two threads is to the circumference of tho
cylinder. But as the twist is not applied at the circumference of the cylinder directly,
hut by means of a lever, it follows that the power applied, P, is to W, as the distance of
two threads to the circumference described by P at the end of the lever. \V'e see, then,
that the power of the screw is increased by diminishing the distance between the threads ;
but as this cannot be effected without weakening the instrument, there is an evident
limit to the increase of power in this way. The power can also be increased by lengthen-
ing tb.3 lever; but the best mode is that proposed by Mr. Hunter (in the Phil. Tram. vol.
17), in whioh are employed two screws of different fineness, the coarser of them hollow
and grooved, to act as a nut for the other. The outer and coarser screw is the one to
which the power is applied by a lever, and it is adjusted in the manner before described;
the inner is so fastened as to be capable of vertical motion only. When the outer screw
is turned so as to move its extremity downward, the inner screw moves upward, bin not
to the same amount; thus, if the outer screw have 6 threads to the inch, and the inner
one 7, one turn of the outer screw depresses it \ of an inch, but as the inner cne
rises \ of an inch, the whole descent of the point which produces .pressure is only

, or of an inch ; hence the pressure applied is 7 times greater than could be given

by the outer, 6 times greater than coul^ be given by the inner screw, ,and equal to what
would be given by a screw with 42 threads to the inch, with the same power applied. The
advantage of Hunter's screw is that the threads may be any thickness, and consequently
each screw any strength we please, provided the difference be small enough. The screw
is one of the most powerful of the mechanical powers, but the friction generated by it
amounts to about of the force applied.

SCREW (ante). The common screw indispensable for carpentry, fitted with a coarsj
thread for insertion in wood, is called the wood-screw. Machine screws, or olherwiso
fine-thread screws, are used in metals. Screws were little known or used before 1S3G,
being rudely made by hand with imperfect tools. The head was forged or swedged up
by a blacksmith; the thread and nick 'were formed by the use of hand dies and hack
'screws. In 1836 American ingenuity was directed to the subject, and the old hand tools
were associated in machines having the capacity of imparting to each tool its proper
motion. The swedge hammer became the heading machine, receiving the end of a coil
of wire and regularly cutting the required length for a blank, which then received sucli
a blow as to ''set up" one end of the wire to form the head the operation continuing
automatically until the whole coil was made into blanks. These blanks were then
handled individually and presented to organized machines, first for shaving the head,
then for nicking, and lastly for cutting the thread. The above constitutes the second
era in this manufacture; and such machinery, partly automatic, was all that was in use
before 1846. Then a third era ensued, and an entire revolution was effected by consti-
tuting the machines entirely automatic. The blanks are by this system supplied in mass
by the operator, the machine separating and handling each blank respectively as the
nature of the operation demands, and producing with wonderful rapidity, regularity,
and perfection. Chief among the inventors and constructors of this machinery was
gen. Thomas W. Harvey (b. Vt., 1795; d. 1854), widely known for inventive genius in
many directions. After him, perfecting and developing, were Sloan, Whipple, Rogers,
and others; while the leading mind that organized this intricate business into probably
the most successful manufacturing interest in this country was the late William G.
Angel 1 of Providence, R. I., president of the American screw company. Gen. Harvey
was the first inventor of the partially automatic and of the entirely automatic machines.
It is noticeable that though he produced gimlet-pointed screws in 1836, it was not till
1846 that any considerable market was found for them. His son, Hayward A. Harvey
of Orange, N. J., likewise a skillful inventor in many departments, has made important
improvements in the automatic machines, and this American invention is now in use
throughout the world wherever screws are made. It is estimated that the consumption
of screws throughout the world is not far from 100,000 gross per day about 100 tons;
and about 500 tons of iron are required for the daily production of machine and wood
screws.

SCREW-DRIVER, a chisel-shaped tool, used for turning round, and so driving in
or drawing out the common joiners' screw-nails, the heads of which have a cleft made
to receive the edge of the screw-driver.

SCREW-PINE, PandanuH, a genus of plants of the natural order pandanacwp,, natives
of thclropieal parts of the east and of the South Sea islands. Many of them are remark-
able for their adventitious roots, with large cup-like spongiolen, which their branches
S'.Mid down to the ground, and which serve as props. Their leaves are sword-shaped,
with spiny edges, and are spirally arranged in three rows. In general appearance, when



279



Screw.



tmbrnnched, they resemble gigantic plants of the pineapple, whence their popular name.
P. odvr<itix*iiti'<x is a widely diffused species, a spreading and branching tree of 20 ft.
high, much used in India' for hedges, although it takes up much ground. In the s.
of India it is called the Kaldera bush. It grows readily in a poor soil, and is one of the
n'r.^t plants to appear on newly-formed islands in the Pacitic. The mule flowers are in.
long spikes, the female flowers in shorter branches. The flowers are frequently gathered
before expanding and boiled with meat. Their delightful and. very powerful fragrance
lias made the plant a favorite everywhere, and it is the subject of continual allusions in
Sanskrit poetry under the name Ketaka. Oil impregnated with the odor of the flowers,
and the distilled water of them, are highly esteemed East Indian perfumes. The seeds
re eatable, and the fleshy part of the drupes, which grow together in large heads, is
eaten in times of scarcity, as is the soft white base of the leaves. The terminal buds are
eaten like those of palms. The spongy and juicy branches are cut into small pieces a.s
food for cattle. The leaves are used for thatching, and for making a kind of umbrella
common in India, and their tough longitudinal fibers for making mats and cordage.
The roots are .spindle shaped, and are composed of tough fibers; they are therefore split
up by basket-makers and used for tying their work. More valuable, however, as a
fibrous plant is an allied species, P. mttivus or P. xacoa, the VACOA of Mauritius, which if
permitted grows to a height of about 30 ft., but from continual cropping of its leaves
is usually dwarfed to or 10 feet. The fibers of its leaves are used for making the
raciM bag.*, which constitute so considerable an article of export from Mauritius, rivaling
in cheapness and usefulness the gunny bags of India. The leaves are cut every second
year, and each plant yields enough to make two large bags. Immediately on being cut
off the leaves are split into tillets, which are nearly an inch broad at the base, but taper
to a point, and are 3 or 4 ft. long. One of these will support a bag of sugar of about
140 Ibs. without breaking. The a8rial roots of the vacoa are so fibrous as to be used for
making paint-brushes for coarse purposes.

SCREW-PROPELLER, THE, is of the same construction as the common screw (q.v.),
but with the narrow thread exaggerated into a broad, thin plate, and the cylinder dimin-
ished to a mere spindle. One complete turn of
such a screw is shown in fig. 1. Kow if a screw
of this form were turned round in an unyielding



Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 64 of 203)