Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

. (page 66 of 203)
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contrasting strongly with the surrounding paleness; the eyes are gray or blue, and the
eye-lashes long and silken; the hair fine and light-colored or reddish; and the ends of
the fingers broad and expanded, with convex nails bent over them; the intellect is
lively and precocious, and there is often considerable beauty. In" the phinjmatic variety
the skin is pale or ruddy, dark, and often harsh; the general appearance dull and heavy;
the hair dark and coarse; and the mind usually slow and torpid.

Children in whom the scrofulous constitution is strongly marked often present that
narrow and projecting form of the chest to which the term "pigeon-.breastod " is com-
monly given; moreover, the abdomen is enlarged, the limbs wasted, and the circula-
tion languid, in consequence of which they are especially liable to chilblains. The
digestive organs are so commonly affected as is evidenced by irregulf.r action of the
bowels, fetid breath and evacuations, furred tongue, capricious appetite, etc. that, in
the opinion of the late Dr. Todd, "strumous dyspepsia presents a more characteristic
feature of this habit of body than any physiognomical portrait that has been drawn of
it." In the great majority of cases the* scrofulous disposition is hereditary; indeed,



Scroll. 284

Scudder.



tlKre is no disease which is nearly so often transmitted from parent to offspring as scrof-
ula There is howe\ er, M-arcely any doubt that it may be acquired under the action of
various unfavorable exciting causes, which may be ranked together "as causes of
debility " Among them mav be especially noticed (1) Insufficient and improper food;
(2) Impure air- (3) Insufficient exposure to direct sunlight; (4) Exposure to wet and
cold and to sudden changes of temperature, especially if the clothing be insufficient;
(5) Excessive and continued fatigue, whether bodily or mental; and (6) Intense and
prolonged anxiety or mental depression.

We shall first lay down the general principles of treatment to be adopted with the
vi >w of improviu"- tiie health in the case of a person presenting either merely the general
indications of a scrofulous habit of body, or some of its local manifestations, and we
shall then conclude with a brief notice of a few of those particular forms of the dis-
ease which most frequently come under the attention of the medical practitioner.

The diet should be nutritious and sufficiently abundant, and animal food should be
given at least twice daily. Dishes containing eggs and milk may usually be taken with
advantage. If the patient is not very young, a little bitter ale taken at an early dinner
will often promote digestion; if, however, it, causes flushing or sleepiness, it must be
discontinued. A mother with scrofula should always provide a healthy wet-nurse for
her child, as suckling in such a case is injurious both to parent arfd offspring. Flannel
should always (both in summer and winter) be worn next the skin during the day, and
the clothino-'must always be sufficient to keep the extremities warm. Constant residence
in pure and dry air should be enforced as far as possible. Unfortunately, the climate of
Great Britain is by no means favorable to those possessing the scrofulous habit, aud it in
often verv difficult for the physician to decide as to the choice of the most suitable resi-
dence. On this subject, Mr. Savory, in his essay on " Scrofula" in Holmes's System of
Surgery, vol. i., I860, remarks that " it is surely a mistake to suppose that a warm cli-
mate is the best adapted to all cases of scrofula. It is doubtless so in the great majority
in which the disease [in the form of pulmonary consumption] is far advanced; but in
many cases at an earlier stage, its further development is more satisfactorily arrested and
the general health improved by a more bracing air. Children with tuberculous glands,
but whose general health appears otherwise tolerably good, would perhaps profit less by
transportation to Madeira or Egypt than by residence in the s.w. coast of England,




cie-s and lungs in the open air should be insisted on in fine weather, and if this cannot
be taken, the best substitute is friction over the surface of the body with the flesh-brush.
Patients who can bear cold sea-bathing during the summer and autumn months will de-
rive great advantage fro:n it; but if a short immersion is not rapidly followed by a geni-d
glow after drying the skin, such bathing is injurious, m which case warm salt-baths will
be fouvid useful. Too much stress cannot be laid up >n the fact that i:i the case of chil-
dren tlie mind should be cheerfully occupied, but not overtasked. The medicines most
esteemed in the treatment of scrofula are iodine and its compounds, the salts of iron,
bark, sarsaparilla, the alkalies and mineral acids aud, above all, cod-liver oil. As the
choice of the individual remedy must b3 left to the physician, we will merely remark
that iodine and iron may often be advantageously prescribed together either in the form
of the syrup of the iodi le of iron, or of a well-known French preparation known as
Blancard's iodid'3 of iron pills; and that to derive full benefit from cod-liver oil, it must
be taken for a long time. As Mr. Savory remarks, the oil should, be regarded as an arti-
cle of diet rather than a medicine. A tablespooriful may be considered as a full dose for
an adult; but this quantity should be gradually arrived "at, the dose commencing with a
teaspoonful. It is most easity taken when floating on a mixture of orange wine, or
some other pleasant bitter fluid, with water The lightest and clearest oil is probably
the best, and in cold weather it should be slightly warmed before it is taken, for it is
thus rendered more liquid and more easily swallowed. If .what are commonly known
us " bilious symptoms" supervene, the use of the oil should be suspended for a couple of
days, anil a few gentle aperients should be prescribed.

Excluding pulmonary consumption, in which the leading pathological feature is the
deposit of scrofulous matter or tubercle in the lungs, one of the forms of scrofula which
most frequently presents itself is in the lymphatic (/lands, especially of the neck. Th
gland or glands may first become enlarged, either from an attack of acute inflammation;
or from an indolent and paiidess deposit of tubercle. They may remain in this state
cither stationary or slowly enlarging for years, till from some accidental local irritation,
or from some constitutional disturbance, they inflame and suppurate. After the dis-
charge of the matter, the ulcerated skin usually heals with an ugly puckered dcatrix,
which generally remains as a disfiguring mark "through life. The local treatment con-
sists in attempting to disperse the tumor, if it is hard and painless, by painting it with
tincture of iodine, or by the application of iodine ointment. If it is soft, and likely to
suppurate, the process may be facilitated by the application of warm water dressing or
emollient poultice';. When there is undoubted fluctuation, indicating the presence of
pus or matter, i! is usually regarded as the best practice to open the abscess with a nar-
row-bladed bistoury; but some surgeons .still prefer allowing the matter to make its own



Scroll.
Sc udder.

way to the surface. The necessary internal treatment is that which has been already
described. The akin, especially behind the ears, about the mouth, nostrils, and eyelids,
and on the scalp, is liable to pustular diseases of a scrofulous origin. The free use
of soap and water, followed by the application of black wash or ziuc ointment, and
proper constitutional treatment, will generally effect a cure, except in the horrible form
of scrofulous ulceration of the skin of the face known as lupus (q.v.). Among other
well-known and very serious scrofulous affections must be mentioned acute hydroceph-
alus and rnesenteric disease, to which special articles are devoted. There is a peculiar at i
very intractable form of ulceration known as the scrofulous ulcer, which will be noti< I
in the article on ULCERS. The physical, chemical, and microscopical characters of i i
peculiar morbid deposit, to which reference has frequently been made in this artick,
will be found under the head of TUBERCLE and TUBERCULOSIS.

SCROFULOUS or tuberculous diseases are common among cattle, sheep, and pigs. In
early life the tubercle is laid down in the meseuteric glands, and occasionally about the
joints. Along the exposed eastern coasts of Britain, scrofulous swellings are also met
with about the head and neck; in some of the great grazing districts, the mucous mem-
brane of the bowels is affected, constituting dysentery; but, as in man, the lungs are the
most common site of tubercle, which here gives rise to pulmonary consumption. Scrof-
ula in all its forms is hereditary, hence animals with any such taint should be rejected
as breeding stock. It is induced and fostered by "breeding in and in." It may be de-
veloped, and is always aggravated, by debilitating influences, such as bad food, or expo-
sure to wet or cold. Prevention is iudured by breeding only from healthy vigorous
parents, and allowing the stock at all times adequate food and shelter.

SCROLL, an ornament of very common use in all styles of architecture. It consists
of a band arranged in convolutions, like the end of a piece of paper rolled up. The
Greeks used it in their Ionic and Corinthian styles (q.v.); the Romans in their composite;
and in mediaeval architecture, and all styles which closely copy nature, it is of constant
occurrence as in nature itself.

SCROPHTJLARIA'CEJE, or SCROPHUI.ARI'NE^E, a natural order of exogenous plants,
consisting chiefly of herbaceous and half-shrubby plants. The calyx is inferior, per-
sistent, divided into five (sometimes four) tmequal divisions. The corolla is monopeta-
lous. more or less irregular, often two-lipped, exhibiting great variety of form; in the
bud it has five (sometimes four) segments. The stamens are usually four, two long ai:d
two short, sometimes two, rarely five. The ovary is two-celled, with many ovules; th '.
style simple, the stigma generally two-lobed. The lobes of the stigma sometimes display
much irritability. The fruit is a capsule, or rarely a berry. This order is a very laruj
one, containing almost 2,000 known species, which are distributed over the whole world,
both in cold and warm climates. Acridity and bitterness are prevalent characteristics,
and many species are poisonous. Some are root parasites. Some are admired and cul-
tivated for their flowers; some are used medicinally. Digitalis or foxglove, calceolaria,
tnimulw, mullein, antirrhinum or snapdragon, gratiola, sc-mphularia or figwort, veronica,
or speedwell, and cuphraxia or eyebright, are familiar examples. Very different from
these humble herbaceous plants is paiilowma imperialist, a Japanese tree, 30 to 40 ft. high,
with trunk or ;! ft. i:, diameter, and flowers iu panicles, about as large as those of the
common foxglove.

SCRUPLE (Lat. *rr//inlum, scrip! um, or s^rnp>tl>im) was the lowest denomination ot
weight among the Romans, and with thorn denoted the 24th part of :,n ounce (/nrin), or
the 288th of a pound (libra). As a measure of surface it was also the 24th part of the
uncia, and the 288th of an aero (jur/enu//); seeming, in fact, to he the 24th of the I2tli
part of any unit. In later Roman limes it be.came Hie name of the GOtli part of an hour,
and corresponded to our " minute." The " minute" being the i-crupnhn/1. the liOth part
of a minute was called a scrupulum secitudum (whence the derivation of our word
"second "), the 60th part of this ascrvp-itlum tertinm, and so uii. Lexicographers define
"scrupulum" to be a small pebble, such as would be likely to find its way between the
sandal and the foot, whence the use of the term to signify a small difficulty or objection.
The term at the present time is a denomination in that modification of Troy weight
which is used bv apothecaries; it contains 20 Troy grains, is the third part of a drachm,
the 24th of an ounce, and the 288th of a Troy pound.

SCUDDER. HORACE ELTSHA, b. Boston, 18CS; graduate ofTViir.-rns col! '.-go, IS.") 1 ;
resident of New York city, 1875; at present residing in Cambridge, Mass. He has con-
tributed to a number of quarterlies and reviews, and edited the Riverside Magazine, for
young people. He is author of Little People and their Friends, 1862-63; Dream Children ;
and Life and Letteis of David Coit Scudder. Of recent works there are The Direlk rx in
Five- Sisters' Court; and of juvenile books, Doings of the Bod!<>/ /'?/////// in Toi^n and
Country, with 77 illustrations, and the Bodlcy series. He is exceedingly popular as a
writer for the young.

SCUDDER, JOHX, 1793-1855; b New Brunswick, X. J. He gave up a medical
practice in New York, and the position of house surgeon of the city hospital, to go as a
mis-ionary physician to India. lie reached his field of labor in Ceylon <-.\r]y in 1820.
He was zealous in proclaiming the gospel, to the heathen, and was ordained to the miu-



Scudery.
Sculpture.

ivtry by his brethren of the mission soon after his arrival. In 18S9 he WPP removed to
Madras as associate of Mr. Winslow. In 1842 he visited the United States hnd labored
zealously in the churches to awaken interest in the heathen, especially srnong the
young. " He returned to Madras, and when on his way to America for the second t?me
on account of ill health he died at the cape of Good Hope. His eight sons devoted
themselves to the missionarj" work in Arcot. This family belonged to the Reformed
(Dutch) church, which formerly conducted its foreign missions in connection with tue
American board (Congregational).

SCUDERY, MADELEINE DE, a once notable French novelist, was born at Havre in
1607. Lett an orphan at the age of six, she, along with a brother named Georges, was
carefully educated by one of her uncles. While still young, she left Normandy for
Paris, was admitted to the hotel Rambouillet (fee RAMBOUILLET), and soon became one
of the oracles of the brilliant society that assembled there. It was in this famous but
showy circle that Mile. Scudery gathered that immense fund of watery senti-
inentalism, platonic gallantries, "polished" conversation, dull ceremonial incidents,
affectations of moral purism, etc., which make up the tedious contents of her romances
roman* de longe halcine (long-winded romances), as they have been felicitously nick-
named. Their popularity for a brief period was painfully wide. Everybody with the
slightest pretensions to "taste," except the Port-royalists, Bossuet, and a few critics of
the stricter sort, professed a boundless admiration for them. The bishops in general
as Camus, Mascaron, Huet, Godeau, Flechier, Massillon were in raptures, and studied
the stately trash with an ardor that considerably diminishes our respect for their under-
standing. When the troubles of the Fronde had broken up the gatherings at the hotel
Rambouillet, Mile. Scudery organized a literary circle of her own, which met
every Saturday at her house in the Rue de Beauee. These "Saturdays" began very
well; but gradually they degenerated and became ridiculous pedantic and blue-stock -
ingish they had been from the very first. Nothing further in Mile Scudery's life
calls for notice. She died at Paris, June 2, 1701, at the advanced age of 94, hon-
ored and respected to the last; and it is but fair to admit that she seems to have been
worthy of the regard in which she was held, being herself a perfect pattern of those
watery virtues and superfine excellences of demeanor that she loved to depict. Her
principal works (never again to be read in this world) are: Ibrahim, ou I'lllustre Bassa
(Par. 4 vols. 1641); Artamane, ou le Grand Cyrus (Par. 10 vols. 1649-53); Clelie, Histoir
liumaine (Par. 10 vols. 1656); Almahide, ou V Enclave Heine (Par. 8 vols. 1660); Let
1'emmes lUvstres, ou les Harangues Herdiques^Par. 1665); 10 vols. of Conversation* Nou-
telles, Conversations Morales, and Entretiens de Mormle (1680-92); besides Leltres, and
Poesies legeres, etc. Sec Victor Cousin's La Socitete Francais au Dixseptieme Siecle.

SCI7DO (Ital. shield), an Italian silver coin, corresponding to the Spanish piastre (q.v.)
the American dollar (q.v.), and the English crown (q.v.). It was so called from its
bearing the heraldic shield of the prince by whose authority it was struck, and differed
in value in the different states of Italy. In Rome, where it is called the scudo Romano
or scudo nvoTo, it is equal to 4s. 3d. sterling; and is subdivided into 10 paoli or 100
Itijiicchi. Tlfc Venetian scudo, or scudo della c.roce, was of higher value than the Roman
one; while, on the other hand, the old scudi of Bologna, Genoa, and Modena are inferior
to it in value. Scudi are now gradually disappearing from the provinces of the king-
dom of Italy before the new decimal coinage, but the name is sometimes given to the
piece of 5 lire, equivalent to a 5 franc piece in the French coinage. Scudi of gold were
also struck 'in Rome, the scudo d'oro being equivalent to 10 scudi di argento. See
PIASTRE.

SCULL SCULLING. A scull differs from an oar m size only. It is shorter, and loss
heavy. A man can only manage one oar; but he can pull with a pair of sculls, the ends
of which lap over very little, or else do not meet, within the boat.

SeuUing has two senses, a river sense and a sea sense. In its fresh-water acceptation,
sculling is the act of propelling a boat by means of sculls in pairs. Among sea- faring
men, however, to scull is to drive a boat onward with one oar, worked like a screw over
the stern.

SCULPIN. See BULLHEAD.

SCULP TUBE, the process of graving or cutting hard materials; from the Lat. Sffulpo,
in Gr. glypJw. Its common application is to artistic carving or cutting. Sculpture i*
the art of expressing ideas or images in solid materials. In this sense processes which
do not, strictly speaking, involve the cutting of hard substances are included in the
term. Sculpture, as an art, includes the molding of soft materials as well. Clay, and
even wax, have been in all ages of the art employed, sometimes for the purpose of
sketches or models for reproduction in marble or metal, sometimes as the material of
the finished work. The art of sculpture is as old as any that has been handed down to
us. The Scriptures allude to the working of brass and other metals in the beginning of
human society, and we read of the images of Laban carried off by his daughter. The
great nations of antiquity all practiced it, though only Nineveh and Egypt have left us
anything like a fair representation of the state of the art in those early "times. From the
nature of this art its productions have proved more durable than those of painting, and



00*7 Scmlery.

Sculpture

hare come down to us in more numerous instances even than works of architecture.
Wliilo the latter have been destroyed, and their materials used up, works of sculpture,
being smaller, have remained burled, and from time to lime have been reproduced for
the instruction and enjoyment of modern nations.

As an art. or means of recording facts and representing ideas, sculpture has many
disadvantages as compared with painting, neither color nor picturesque backgrounds
being properly admissible in sculpture. To this rule, however, we shall find exceptions
in tire works of Ghibvrti in the 15th century.

Sculptures are distinguished by different terms, according to the nature and com-
pleteness of the work. Groups or" figures completely represented arc said to be " in the
round." Those only partially detached from the mass or background are said to be
"in relief." This, again, is called "high" or "low relief," according as the figure
stands fully or slightly above the mass behind it. The ancient Egyptians employed
another kind of relief, their figures being sunk below the surface, and only the prom-
inent portions remaing level witli it. In this case the background or unoccupied space
is not cut away, but the figures are worked downward into it. Another process is
called "intaglio," the whole figure being regularly designed and molded, but "cut
into" the material and inverted. This is usually applied to the making of gems and
seals. Another sculptural process is that used in the treatment of metals. As metals
are both harder than stone and more valuable, it is not possible to cut or grave works
out of masses of metal as is done in stone or gems. The metal is fused by heat, and
the form is given it while in that stale. This is done by first forming or molding
the design in clay or other soft material. Round the model thus formed a mold is
formed of sand, which is prepared and pressed round it in a wet stale till it takes the
complete form of the mold, which is then removed, and the liquefied metal poured
in. It takes the exact shape of the model by this means. These are said to be "cast,"
because of the casting of the liquid metal into the mold. Other processes, however,
have in the liner works to be applied. The metal retains the rough surface of the
sand in which it has chilled. It is therefore worked over with a graving tool to give
it a final surface, and express every delicacy of form intend -jd by the artist. In 301113




of iron or bronze, or cold in the case of silver and gold, softer metals, is beaten on th:
anvil into its form. A coarser and deeper method of engraving is called "chasing,''
where deeper sinkings and bolder prominence are given to the different parU of tiu
design.

Of molding we have already spoken. We may now remark on the materials in use
for these various purposes. In sculpturing, or cutting designs or figures, we generally
find marbles have been employed, the most famous having been the "Parian," from
the isle of Paros, and the Pentelic, from the mountain of that name in Attica. Beside?
these, the ancients used numerous marbles white, and latterly colored; the late classi-
cal sculptors sometimes employing both white and black, or colored, in lumps on tho
same work, the colored marble being used for the dress or hair as it might be. Tha
Egyptians, besides the use of these materials and various k'nd^ of fine and coarse-
grained stone, employed porphyry, purple and black, an exceedingly hard and difficult
material to handle. The modern sculptors have used the white marble of Carrara in
Italy, an excellent material, but liable to veins and discoloralions, which are unfavora-
ble to the art. " Terra cotta," or burnt clay, Avas extensively in use both in ancient and
modern times; the clay being molded to the utmost delicacy while soft and then baked
to a red color. Singularly fine reliefs remain to us from the Etruscans and Greeks, as
well as from Egypt and elsewhere, as. may be seen in the British museum. It has also
been extensively used in modern times. The Egyptians modeled little figures in porce-
lain clay, and colored and enameled them after the fashion of porcelain, and vast num-
b-'.rs of" such are in most of our museums. The word "toreutic," from the Greek
word toreuo, to pierce or bore,' is usually applied to sculpture in metal. For this the
metal most appropriate and most generally used both in ancient and modern times, is
"bronze, ''a mixture of copper ami tin. It is also known as "brass." Other metals,
in small quantities, were also introduced, and various kinds of bronze have resulted
from this variety, as well as from the proportions of the two principal metals, the
method of fusion, etc. Egina, Delos, and Corinth made different kinds of bronze,
each of excellent quality. Besides this favorite metal, gold, silver, copper, and even
lead, and mixtures of lend and tin, "pewter," have been used for artistic sculpture.
In the celebrated period of Greek sculpture, gold and ivory were used together. These
statues, two of which were made by Phidias, were called "chryselephantine," that is,
of gold and ivory.

The ordinary modes of proceeding in sculpture have been very various; whether
the more celebrated sculptors of ancient times cut out their designs at once without
the previous rehearsal of a model, we do not know. It is, however, very probable.
The Egyptian bas-reliefs may still be seen in some of their tombs, lined out, and cor-
rected afterward by a master's hand previous to execution. Michael Angclo, the most
powerful of modern sculptors, is known to have worked many of his statues, without



Sculptured.

the use of any model, out of Ihe blocks. Florence and the , Louvre (Paris), contain
marble sketches or unfinished figures thus roughed out. The length and size of the
chisel-marks show how boldly this great master went to work to within one-eighth of an



Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 66 of 203)