Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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inch of his final surface. As, however, there can be no putting on of any of the sub-
stance of stone once reduced by inadvertence, the artist commonly makes his sketch or
design, in small, in clay. This is subsequently enlarged and then studied from "the
life;" that is, men, horses, draperies, etc., the most suitable to the artist's present pur-
pose are selected, and with these before him he corrects his design and perfects it while
the material is soft. A mold is then taken, as in the case already described, and with,
a plaster instead of a metal cast before him, the artist proceeds to work on his marble.
The cast being placed on one block and the marble on one precisely similar, workmen
proceed to place a needle on a measuring-rod, the rod resting against the block till it
touches a point of the cast. The needle is then applied to the block on which the mar-
ble stands, and this is bored into till the needle touches it as it did the cast. In this
way the distances of the various surfaces of the future figure from the outside of the
unshaped marble are ascertained, and the -workmen rough out the figure down to those
measurements. The sculptor then gives the final and delicate touches that finish it him-
self. Finally, it is brought smooth with pumice-stone or sand. Michael Augelo and
some of the ancients actually polished their statues. This, however, is generally
objected to, as the sharp points of reflected light injure the general effect of the form.

We must notice one other question relative to sculpture before proceeding to a short
review of the art historically, that is color. The ancients that is, Egyptians, Nine-
vites, and others did color their statues, intending, probably, to do so up to " life"
that is, to a direct imitation. The Greeks, too, employed color on their statue?, cer-
tainly on their architecture. To what extent they colored their statues, is uot very easy
to determine. Partly, indeed, time has so altered, and partly so obliterated the color-
ing material, that we can only form an approximate judgment. It seems probable that
the coloring was conventional, that is, that color was used to add to the splendor and
distant effect of the work, rather than to attempt any positive imitation of real life. A
bead in the Elgin room of the British museum has been colored, the hair full red. The
eyes are completely cut out, so as to show dark and shadowy hollows, even with the
face colored. Gilding, too, was used for the hair. Color was extensively used in the
middle ages. Many, if not most, interior sculptures were colored during that period.
Quite in our own days Mr. Gibson has colored female statues. It is open to doubt
whether they can be called successful as far as the color goes. Other means, however,
were used to give color in late classic times, as may be seen in the Vatican, where a bust
retains both enameled eyes and black ej^elashes inserted into the marble. To the mix-
ture of marbles to obtain the effect of color we have already alluded.

Speaking of sculpture generally, we may say that a great deal has come down to us.
Of the best work known, that of Phidias, our readers will see notices under the head of tlis
ELGIN MARBLES. The majority of portable works are statues. Of these, some calcula-
tions reckon as many as 60,000 of one kind and another.

Fragments of these have various terms applied to them. " Busts" are heads, or heads
and chests; a "torso" is a figure without head or limbs. These are perhaps fragments.
Horace, however, is supposed to allude to a recognized form of such pieces of sculp-
ture in the words " mediam minervnm." Statues are called " terminal" when they con-
sist of a head only made out, the body being represented by a square post. These were
set up as boundary marks, to invoke favorite deities for the owner's prosperity, and
hence the name "terminal."

We nov,- proceed to a very summary survey of the history of sculpture. We have
said that ancient nations, both of profane and sacred history, were well used to sculp-
ture. Of tlic^c, the Egyptian and ilieNinevite are best known. The Egyptian sculpture
goes back as far as I'.OO, or even, in the case of the pyramids, to 2,000 years before
Christ (Gardner Wilkinson, Ancient Egyptians). Bolh sculptured the human form, the
Egyptians with most knowledge and refinement; both were restricted by religious tra-
ditions from arriving at a full representation of the human form; both used mixed forms
of man-headed .bulls, or man-beaded and ram-h -aded lions. Usually these were colossal.
The Egyptians, besides this, covered the walls of their sepulchres and temples with spir-
ited and amply* detailed historical representations.

The next great nation of whose productiors we can judge was the Etruscan. They
were of Greek origin. There is a great oriental influence or character in their work
It is also to some extent conventional, but often full of sublimity, and the figure quite
correct in outline. This also is illustrated^ by their pottery, covered with figure designs,
of which great abundance has been excavated in various parts of Italy. All these
schools, including the Etruscan, are stiff and dry in execution that is, wanting in the
ease, fullness, and movement of the human form. They are called "archaic," mean-
ing by that term unformed and undeveloped, belonging to an age uniustructed in tech-
nical knowledge.

Beginning with the early Egyptian times, this first period, called archaic, maybe
concluded with those of the Etruscans, and brings us down to about 600 B.C. From this
time a rapid growth in the art took place; schools were formed in Ihe <rreat cities of
Greece, bicyou, Egina, and Corinth; audwe read of Gallon, Oiiatas, Glaucuis, and oihej



names, culminating in Ageladas of Argos. These men sculptured on a colossal scale,
ami we have already alluded to the bronze for which the Greek cities had long been
famous. These schools produced the famous works known as the Egina marbles, four.d
in 1812, as well as those of Selinus, in Sicil}'. Casts of the former may be seen in the
British museum. The originals arc at Munich.

The great period of sculpture began about 484, when Phidias was born. Agel.-idr.s
was his master, as also of Polycletiis and Myron, of whose works copies arc now in
the Vatican and elsewhere, made by Greek artists in the times of the Roman empire.

Of the great work of Phidias we will not here treat, as it is described elsewhere.
Pericles did much to encourage the arts both of sculpture and painting.

For a century and a halt, or for two, sculpture continued very slowly to decline.
This great .school ended in Praxiteles, a sculptor of consummate powers. He carried
the representation of the human form further than Phidias and his scholars, and draper-
ies in his hands lost their severer character, and clung to the rounded limbs, which they
no longer concealed. His work may be seen in the casts of the Nike Apteros, or sculp-
tures of the temple of unwinged Victory, in the British and other museums. He is said
to have been the first to represent the female form quite nude, and to have contributed
by such sculptures to the enervation and gradual sensualizing of the art.

During the 5th and 4th centuries B.C., we have Agoracritos of Pares; Alcamenes of
Athens; Scopas, the author of the famous Niobe group now at Florence; Lysippus of
Sicyon, the favorite of Alexander; Chares, the author of the famous Colossus of Rhodes;
Agasias, who sculptured the "Fighting Gladiator;" Gly con of the Farnese Hercules-;
and many others.

The Roman conquest of Corinth under Mummius in the 2d c., and afterward of
Athens, brought this old art to an end. Thenceforth Greek artists were found all ovc r
the Roman empire, and the famous works of these former sculptors were reproduced
by them for their new masters. The Roman sculpture, indeed, is included in this phase
of Greek art the hist remarkable work that we shall notice of classic times being the
famous column of Trajan, in the early part of the 2d c. A.D. This is, in fact, a
tower over 100 ft. high, of white marble, entirely covered with bas-reliefs representing
the Dacian wars of Trajan. We here see the expiring effort of classic art. Skillful and
correct as the design, is, it is, as a whole, graceless, stiff, and without beauty, compared
with the old work.

Constantino, in the 4th c. of our era, carried off to Byzantium, his new seat of go% -
eminent, all the sculpture he could remove.

The art revived in Italy. As early as the 10th c., sculpture exhibited both des>n
and grandeur, though wholly different from that of older times. AuFolute frccd< m
from old conventionalities, vigor, dignity, and child-like freshness of mind, distinguishes
modern sculpture down to the 15th century. The most noted names we will mention
here are those of Niccolo of Pisa, in the 13th c., who executed the bas-reliefs at Orvieto;
after him, his son Giovanni. Andrea Pisano made one of the bronze gates of the baptis-
tery of Florence. Ghiberti, the author of the more famous doors of the same baptistiry,
is next to be named; then Donato di Betto Bardi, or Donatello. Some of his works are
in the church of Or san Michele, which the famous Orcagna, sculptor, painter, aud
architect, had built and decorated.

We begin the next period with Verocchio, in the 15th c., and the more famous
Michael Angelo in the 16th. A host of great names followed: Cellini, Torreginno (who
made the monument of Henry VII. at Westminster), Delia Porta, Giovanni di Bologna,
and Luca della Robbia, who also worked in enamelled terra-cotta on a large scale.
These are Italian names. We may add Jean-Goujon and Germain Pilon in France. In
our own country, splendid mediaeval w r orks are to be seen in the noble sculptures of
Wells's cathedral, and of that of Lincoln, coeval with those of the Pisani. Cibber, who
sculptured in England, was a Dane; Thorwaldsen, a native of Iceland; Canova, an
Italian; and lastly, Flaxman, bring us down to our own days. Of the latter, the finc-t
work is perhaps the Wellington shield, after the Homeric description of that of Achilles.
See the works of Winckelmann and Kugler, and Westmacott's Handbook of

SCULPTURED STONES. In Norway, Denmark, the Isle of Man, Wales, Ireland, and
Scotland, a class of monuments is to be found decorated with rude sculpture, and
belonging to the early periods of Christianity sometimes, indeed, showing the symbol"
of paganism in conjunction with those of Christianity. By far the most remarkably
stones of this description are those found in Scotland, which, with some points common
to them with the rest, possess the distinguishing feature of a class of characters or sym-
bols of mysterious origin, whose meaning yet remains an enigma to antiquaric s, and
which yet recur with such constancy in different combinations that it is impossible to
suppose their form to be the work of chance. Along with these symbols the figure of
the cross is often found on one side. Neither in Ireland, in Wales, nor anywhere else,
are the symbols in question to be met with. These monuments all occur within a cir-
cumscribed part of Scotland. None are to be found either within the ancient Dr.lradn.
or 8. of the Forth; their limit seems to be the eastern lowlands from Dunrobin to Larpo'
Law, or the part of Scotland inhabited by the Pictish race. From 150 to 200 of l! er.i
are known to exist. The most interesting as well as the most numerous specimens are
U. K. XIII. 19

Soup. 9Qft


in Strathmore, at Gla'mmis, Meigle, and Aberlemno. Among the various theories which
have been formed regarding these stones, one is, that they were boundary stones, the
cross denoting the possession of the church, and the mysterious figures having reference
to the lay lord; but those antiquaries who have devoted most attention to the subject,
including Mr. John Stuart, have come to the conclusion that they are sepulchral. The
practice of erecting stones to commemorate deceased persons of note, existed in Scot-
land in pagan times, and, like other pagan practices, it was turned to Christian purposes
by the earliest preachers of Christianity. Most of these monuments are of unhewn
stone, and more or less oblong in shape; a very few have the form of a cross. A
sculptured cross is met with on about half of them, the class without crosses belonging
chiefly to Aberdeenshire, though a few of them are to be found in the country n. of
Spey. Among the symbols to which we have alluded, one of the most frequent, which
has been likened to the letter Z, consists of a diagonal line, from whose extremities are
drawn two parallel lines terminating in some sort of ornament. This Z symbol is often
traversed with what has been called the spectacle ornament, consisting of two circles
decorated within with foliated lines, and united by two reversed curves, or occasionally
intertwined with a serpent. Another prevalent symbol is a crescent, sometimes appear-
ing by itself, more frequently with two lines drawn through it, diverging diagonally
from a point below its center, and terminating in a floral or other ornament. A mirror
and comb, a horse-shoe arch, a fish, and a figure like a fibula, are also all occasionally
met with. Similar devices to the above have been found engraved on certain silver
ornaments discovere.1 on Nome's Law, including a figure occurring on the Dunnichen
stone, which had been taken by ingenious theorists for the high cap of the Egyptian
Osiris, surmounted by a lotus, but which, as engraved on one of those silver relics,
appears to be the head of a dog or some other animal.

The earlier of the Scottish sculptured stones, such as the Maiden stone in Aberdeen-
shire, and the older of the stones at Aberlemno, have no sculptures except of the class
above described; the later combine these with devices of a more intelligible kind. An
elephant is not unfrequent, represented in such a fashion, that it is obvious that the
artist could never have seen one; and fabulous and grotesque figures abound, often
drawn with considerable spirit. We have centaurs, lions, leopards, deer, beasts of
chase, men shooting with a bow and arrow, men devoured by animals, processions with
men and oxen, and priests in their robes with books. Many of these figures are highly
interesting illustrations of the manners, customs, and dress of the period. On a stone
near Glammis is a man with a crocodile's head. On the cross at St. Vigeane, a hybrid,
half-bird half-beast, appears in the midst of a border of entwining snakes and fantastic
creatures. A stone of great interest at Meigle contains a representation of a chariot.
At Farnell is a group of figures that seems to be meant for the temptation. In but two
instances have inscriptions been known to accompany these sculptures; in the one case
the letters are so worn away as to be undecipherable; in the other instance, at St.
Vigeans, a few letters can be traced of the same Celtic character which has been found
on the earliest Irish monuments and the oldest tombs at lona.

The general style of ornamentation of these stones, judging by a comparison with
Anglo-Saxon illuminated MSS., has led to the conclusion that they were erected in the
8th or 9th c., a period when Christianity had but lately supplanted paganism amonf the
Scottish Picts.

A stone differing in character from those described, now erected near the house of
Newton in Aberdeenshire, in the same neighborhood in which it was found, has been
a notable puzzle to archaeologists. It is not sculptured, but inscribed in a character
which seems unique. Besides the principal inscription, there is another running along
the edge, consisting of groups of short lines, and apparently in the Ogham (q v.)

The crosses in Ireland are the likest to these Scottish monuments. They are chiefly
found near churches and graveyards, and are generally cruciform, with a halo or circle
binding the arms and stem together. They usually taper to the top, on which a conical
capstone is fixed, and they are inserted in pedestals of stone, which ire frequently
covered with sculpture. Most of their subjects are from Scripture history, without any-
thing like the Scotch symbols.

1 he Welsh crosses are, for the most part, in the form of a small cross within a circle,
set on the top of a long shaft, the latter having at times interlaced ornaments in com-
partments. Many of them have inscriptions in the Romano-British character, relating
to the persons in memory of whom they were erected.

The sculptured crosses of Scandinavia and Man somewhat resemble the Scotch
monuments in their general style of ornamentation, though altogether destitute of the
peculiar Scottish symbols. On some of them are Runic "inscriptions. One inscription
on a Manx cross indicates that Gaut (probably a Norwegian) made this cross and all on
>lan. Another is to the effect that - erected this cross to his father Ufag. but
Giut Bjornaon made it. Professor Munch, from the character of the runes on these
crosses, assigns them for date the middle or end of the llth century. See RI;NKS.

A hundred and fifty of the sculptured stones of Scotland' have been carefully
engraved and described in a very valuable work contributed to the Spulding club by Mr.
John Stuart. Some of those belonging to the county of Angus had been previouoly

001 Scnp.

?* Scutage.

illustrated by the late Mr. Chalmers of Auldbar, in a volume forming one of the Banna-
tyue club series.


SCUPPERS are holes, lined with lead, in a ship's side, intended to carry off rain or
other water which may be shipped.

SCURVY, or SCOKBU'TUS, is a disease which is characterized by a depraved condition
of the blood. In consequence of this morbid state of the blood, there is great debility of
the syster< at large, with a tendency to congestion, hemorrhage, etc., in various parts of
the body, a - id especially in the gums. It is a disease that has probably existed from the
earliest times, but the first distinct account of it is contained in the history of the crusade
of Louis IX., in the 13th c., against the Saracens of Egypt, during which the French
army suffered greatly from it. In the 16th c. it prevailed endemically in various parts
of the n. of Europe, and it seems only to have abated about a century ago. It was in
badly fed armies, in besieged cities, and on board ship, that its ravages were most
appalling, and it is believed that more seamen perished from scurvy alone than from all
other causes combined, whether sickness, tempest, or battle. Whole crews were pros-
trated by this scourge, as in the well-known case of lord Ansou's memorable voyage.

Scurvy so closely resembles purpura in its general symptoms that it will be sufficient
for us to" refer to the article on that disease, and here merely to indicate the leading
points of difference between the two diseases, which, notwithstanding their similarity,
are essentially different. Scurvy is caused by a privation, for a considerable time, of
fresh succulent vegetables, while purpura often makes its appearance when there has
been no deficiency of this food, or special abstinence from it. Scurvy is most common
in winter or the early spring, while summer and autumn are the seasons for purpura.
In scurvy the gums are invariably swelled and spongy, and bleed readily; in purpura
this is not necessarily the case. In scurvy there is extreme debility and depression of
spirits, venesection and mercury do positive harm, while a cure is rapidly effected by
the administration of lemon-juice, or of fresh fruits and vegetables; whereas in purpura
there is little or no mental or bodily depression, venesection and mercury often give
relief, while BO marked and certain relief lollows the administration of the lemon-juice
and fruits that are all powerful in scurvy.

Although the virtues of lemon-juice in scurvy were known in this country as far
back as 1636,-when John Woodhall, master in surgery, published The Surgeon's Mate, or
Military and Domestic Medicine, this invaluable medicine was not made an essential ele-
ment of nautical diet till 1795. The effect of this official act maybe estimated from the
following numbers. In 1780 the number of cases of scurvy received into HaslerhoKpital(a
purely naval hospital) was 1457, while in 1806 there was only one case, and in 1807 only
one case. Many naval surgeons of the present day have never seen a case of the disease.
The potato possesses almost equally great antiscorbutic properties, and, fortunately,
potatoes when cooked are as active as when taken raw. The late Dr. Baly, to whom we
are indebted for this discovery, states that "in several prisons the occurrence of scurvy
has wholly ceased on the addition of a few pounds of potatoes being friade to the weekly
dietary." The salutary action of potatoes is probably owing to their containing a con-
siderable amount of tartaric acid, partly in combination with potash and lime, and
partly free. In addition to the dietetic treatment, which should include easily digested
animal food, potatoes, such ripe fruits as can be procured, and an abundance of lemon-
iade, little further need be prescribed. If necessary, constipation must be relieved by
mild laxatives, such as rhubarb and castor-oil; the appetite may be stimulated by bitter
tonics, and opiates given to procure rest in- case of pain or obstinate wakef ulness. When
the gums are very troublesome, solutions of tannin, chloride of lime, or of nitrate of
silver, may be applied to them. For an excellent account of this disease, the reader is
referred to the article "Scurvy" by Dr. Budd, in The Library of Practical Medicine.

SCURVY-GRASS, Cochlearia, a genus of plants of the natural order crucifcrcB, having
small white flowers, and turgid many-seeded pouches; the cotyledons accumbent. The
species are annual or biennial, rarely perennial, plants; of humble growth, with
branched smooth stems, smooth simple leaves, and terminal racemes of flowers. They
have an acrid biting taste, containing the same pungent volatile oil which is found in
horse-radish, and are valued for their antiscorbutic properties. COMMON SCURVY-GRASS
(C. officinalia) is sometimes a foot high; the rooi-leaves are stalked and heart-shaped; the
pouches globose, ovate, or elliptical. It is a variable plant, and some of the other
species described by botanists are probably not essentially different. They possess the
game properties. Scurvy-grass is very common on the shores of Britain, growing both
on rocks where there is little soil, and in muddy places. It is also'fouud on high moun-
tains. It is a very widely distributed plant, and being found on the shores of almost all
parts of the world, has often been of the greatest benefit to sailors, in times when the
modern precautions against sea scurvy were unknown.

SCU'TAGE, or ESCUAGE (Lat. scutum, shield), a pecuniary fine or tax sometimes levied
by the crown, in feudal times, as a substitute for the personal service of the vassal. No
scutage seems at any time to have been levied in Scotland.



SCU TAEI (Italian or Levantine form of the Turkish U>-kudar\ a t. of Asiatic Turkey,
on th2 eastern shore of the Bosporus, immediately opposite Constantinople, of which it
may be considered a suburb. It is built on the sides and summit of a hill, sloping
irregularly upward from the water's edge, and bears, both externally and internally, a
great resemblance to the Turkish capital. It contains several mosques, bazaars, and
baths, a college of howling dervishes, manufactories of silks and cotton fabrics, corn
. warehouses, and imaret* or kitchens for the poor. It has long been famed for its exten-
sive cem'eteries, adorned with magnificent cypresses, the chosen resting-place of many of
the Turks of Constantinople, from attachment to the sacred soil" of Asia, and the
traditionary belief that their race will one day be driven out of Europe. The population
is variously estimated at from 40,000 to 60,000 or 100,000. Tills town accidentally:
acquired great notoriety in connection with the English army during the Ki:ssiau w;;r
(1854-56), when the enormous barracks built by sultan Mahmud, on The southern out-
skirts of the town, were occupied as barracks and hospital by the English troops,
and formed the scene of Miss Nightingale's labors, A little to the 8. of the general
hospital, on the cliffs bordering the sea of Marmora, is the densely-filled English burial-
ground, where baron Marochetti's monument in honor of the troops has lately been
erected. Scutari is a place of considerable traffic, and is the rendezvous and sfarting-

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 67 of 203)