Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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point of caravans and travelers trading with the interior of Asia. It occupies the site
of the ancient Chrysopolu; and about 2 m. to the s. lies the village of Kadikoi, the
ancient (Jhalcedon.

SCUTARI (Turkish Iskandere, the anc. Scodra), a considerable t. of European Turkey,
in northern Albania, capital of a sanjak of the same name, situated at the southern end
of the lake of Scutari, at the point where the Bojana, issuing from it, is joined by the
Drinassi. The lake is about 20 m.'long, and abounds in fish. Scutari is a fortified town,
with a citadel on a commanding height. It has manufactories of arms and cotton goods,
a bazaar, and yards for building coasting-vessels. It carries on a considerable trade.
The population is estimated at about 40,000, of whom about one-half are Roman

SCUTCH'EON, in carpentry, is the small metal plate used to form the protection and
ornament to the keyhole for locks; it is usually of brass, b\it in ornamental cabinet-
work, is often of ivory, mother of pearl, etc. See SHIELD.


SCTL LA AND CHARYB DIS. Scylla (Gr. Skullaiori), a rocky cape on the w. coast of
s. Italy, jutting out boldly into the sea so as to form a small peninsula at the
northern entiance to the straits of Messina. About the beginning of the olh c. (B.C.), a
fort was built upon the rock (which is about 200ft. high, and much hollowed out below
Ly the action of the waves), and in course of time a small town grew up, straggling down
the slopes toward the sea. The navigation at this place was looked upon by the ancients as
attended with immense danger, which, however, seems to have been much exaggerated,
for at the present daythe risk is not more than attends the doubling of any ordinary
cape. The rock, according to the Homeric legend, was the abode of a monster called
Scylla, possessing 42 feet, 6 long necks and mouths, each with 3 rows of sharp teeth,
and who barked like a dog. There are other accounts of Scylla, one of whic h represents
her as having once been a beautiful maiden, beloved by the sea-god Glar.cus. but who,
by the jealousy of Circe, was changed into a monster having the upper p;;rt of the body
that of a woman, while the lower part, consisted of the tail of a fish oy serp nt surrounded
by dogs. The modern Scilla or Sciglio is a fortified town in the province of Reggio-
Calabria, having large silk-works, the pop. being upward of 7,400, mostly sea-faring

Charybdis (modern name Galofaro), is a celebrated whirlpool in the straits of Messina,
nearly opposite the entrance to the harbor of Messina in Sicily, and in ancient writings
always mentioned in conjunction with Scylla. The navigation of this whirlpool is, even
at the present day, considered to be very dangerous, and must have been exceedingly so
to the open ships of the ancients. A modern writer describes it as bcimr "an agitated
water of from 70 to 90 fathoms in depth, circling in quick eddies." places it
immediately opposite to Scylla, probably taking advantage of the poetic license to
exaggerate the danger of the navigation, although it is not improbable that the whirl-
pool may have changed its situation since his days. The myth connected with it is. that
under a large fig-tree, which grew out of a rock opposite Scylla. dwelt the monster
Charybdis, who thrice every day sucked down the water of the sea, and thrice threw it
up again.


SCYTHIA, a name employed in ancient times to denote a vast, indefinite, and almost
unknown territory n. and e. of the Black sea, the Caspian, and the sea of Aral. But
the term is not so much geographical as ethnological, and the only interest attaching to
the barren catalogue of tribes and nations, which we meet with in the classical writers,
springs from the hope, of connecting these with a recognized race of modern times.
Litham argues successfully, as it appears to us for the Scythians being the ancestors
of the later Turk*, and maintains their central and primitive abode to have been Inde-
pendent Tartary, whence they spread w. round the Caspian into Russia, Transylvania,



and perhaps even eastern Hungary. Niebuhr and Neumann favor the hypothesis of a
Mo.igol origin for the Scythians; while others regard them as Finns or Circassians. In
their mode of life they were mainly nomadic and pastoral, though we read of some
trans-Danubiau and Euxine tribes that followed agriculture. Many of them were
Jiippem-lyi (" mare-milkers").

VPHOP'OLIS, the biblical Bethshan or Bethshean, belonging to the tribe of
Manasseh; 2 m. w. of the Jordan, and 12 m. s. of the sea of Galilee. The name Scy-
t'lopolis is not known at the present day, but the ancient town and name are found in
thfe 'modern Beisan. It was once the seat of a Christian bishop, and during the crusades,
of an arclibishopric. It contains now but 60 or 70 houses. Extensive ruins of the
ti.icieat city are found.

SEA, in its general signification, denotes that large expanse of salt water which covers
the more depressed portion of the earth's surface, tills up each hollow and rift to
a certain uniform level, completing as far as possible the spheroidicity of the
glnb,% and divides its surface iulo two great and innumerable smaller portions the Old
'an 1 Xew Worlds and their islands. This immense body of water is not distributed with least approach to regularity, but here forms a huge "basin, there becomes a long and
tortuous inlet or strait, which narrows or widens as the configuration of the land-surface
0:1 each side per.nits; nor is it placed symmetrically to the earth's axis of rotation; for
t!i3 hemisphere of which the s.w. comer of England is the center or pole contains the
w.iole of the land surface, if we except the triangular portion of South America, s. of
I' .-;i', r u iv, Australia. New Zealand, the most of the East Indian islands, and the laud
around the s. pole (of unknown extent). The other hemisphere is, with these excep-
ti.).is. wholly water. . From this irregular distribution of the sea over the earth's surface,
a;ul fi-o.n the specific gravity of water being about of tiiat of the laud, it necessarily
follows tint the center of gravity of the whole globe does not correspond accurately
.with its center of figure. The extent of sea surface is estimated at 144,712,850 Euglisii
s [.in., or nearly of the whole of the earth's surface, an! its mass, on the supposition
of tin average depJi of 2 m., is about ^5 f lliat of tlie wl1 )le g |ol)e ; sucu estimates
however, can be considered at best as only rough approximations. One of tha most
remarkable features of the sea is its continuity or o.ieaass; for in spite of the fact that
ir.rivro-is large stretc'.ie.s of salt water, as the sea of Azof, Black, Mediterranean, au.l
Biltic seas, the gulf of Mexico, and others, have birely avoided becoming detaclu I
lak v-i, very few siuli are found on tha earth's surface; and with the excj^iioa oi' >i:m and Aral sea-;, they are of small size.

C imposition, S )jcijic Gravity, and Tein tsrature of the Sta. The ocean consists of salt
water, and from its continual motion, under the influence of currents and waves, pre-
serves, generally speaking, uniform saltnass. Under special circumstances, however,
we find tha saitnass increased, as by the excess of evaporation over the fresh-water
in3 ix in the M : literranean and Had seas, and about the northern and southern limits of
tha tropical bait; and decreased, by the contrary cause, in tha sea of Azof, Black sea,
Biltic sea, and in the polar regions. Sea TRADE-WINDS. The origin of the saltness of
tha sea is sufficiently accounted for when we consider that the chiorid; of sodium an I
other soluble salts which form constituent ingredient 1 ! of the globe are being constantly
washed out of the soil and rocks by rain an 1 springs, and carried down by the rivers;
and as the evaporation which feeds the rivers carries none of the dissolved matter back
to the land, the tendency is to accumulate in the sea. The principil ingredients found
in sea-water ore chloride of sodium, or common salt, together with silts of magnesia and
lima. A more exact analysis will be given under WATER. The average specific gravity
of the sea. out of reach of the exceptional action of the melting of snow, rain, or river-
water is (at 63 3 Farhr.) 1.02655. The slight variations in the saltness of the sea must
necessarily produce corresponding changes in its specific gravity; accordingly, on the
northern and southern limits of the torrid zone, the mean specific gravity of the sea is,
i.i different longitudes, 1 '02785, T0268; while at the equatorial calm belt it is 1.0252,
1.0267; and on the whole shows a tendency to diminish as the latitude increases,
Beechey having found it to be 1.0258 in lats. 55 to 60" n. and s. in the Pacific, and King
1 '025-1 in the corresponding latitudes of the Atlantic. It is considerably diminished
near the months of rivers, and in those inlets or semi-lacustrine arms which are the
depositories of more river-water than compensates for their evaporation, as in the Black
sea, where it is 1.0143, and in the Baltic, only 1.0086.

The temperature of the sea, where it is not affected by currents from a wanner or
colder region, necessarily corresponds to the normal temperature of the latitude; but this
is true only of the water at and near the surface, for it has been recently proved by the
observations made on deep-sea temperature by Carpenter, Wyville Thomson, and others,
that the temperature rapidly diminishes with the depth, particular!}' in tropical and tem-
perate regions, till at great depths ice-cold water is everywhere found. Thus, from the
extensive obse -vations made by II. M.S. Challenger in the North Atlantic during 1H73, it
is shown that at the equator, where the surface temperature is about 80, the decrease with
the depth is so rapid, thit at 60 fathoms from the surface the temperature is only 61. 5;
at 150 lathoms it is 50; at 700 fathoms, the temperature has fallen to 40; at about 1600
fathoms, to 36. Below this it diminishes at a much slower rate, till it falls nearly to

Sea. OCH


freezing at all great depths which arc connected by under-currents with the Antarctic
or Arctic seas. The sen- water of the upper 60 or 80 fathoms is affected by the solar
heat. Immediately beneath this sun-heated xipper stratum, it is remarkable that all the
water in the North Atlantic, as far as hit. 40, is warmer than that at the same depth
under the equator. The mean temperature of the upper 1500 fathoms in the North
Atlantic is 4 J .5 warmer than the same upper stratum at the equator. As regards the
temperature of the water at the bottom, at all stations between Bermuda and the equator
on the e. side of the Atlantic, the temperature is remarkably uniform at 35. 2; in the
bay of Biscay, to n.e. of this line, it is 1 warmer; s.w. of the same line, 1 colder;
-vhereas, further s. at the equator, on the western side of the Atlantic, it is 32. 4, or 2. 8
colder. This last fact is of very great importance, since, from the circumstance that at,
the equator the bottom temperature is 32. 4, and that at all stations to n. of it the bottom
temperature is warmer, it follows that the cold water at the bottom of the Atlantic as
far n. as the Azores and bay of Biscay, equally with that at the equator, is derived from
an Antarctic, and not from an Arctic source. This cold Antarctic current entering the
North Atlantic is found between 1700 fathoms and the bottom, a total thickness of 700
fathoms. Ice-cold water has also been found at the bottom in the Arabian sea. In
land-locked seas, such as the Mediterranean, whose deep water is not in communication
with that of the Atlantic, owing to the shallowness of the sea at the straits of Gibraltar.
the bottom temperature does not fall so low as that of the ocean. Thus the tempera-
ture of the Mediterranean at 1508 fathoms is 55, whereas at this depth in the ocean it is
so low as 36. See ISOTHERMAL LINES. The highest surface-temperature does not
correspond with the equator, but owing to the disturbing influence of currents in the fol-
lowing regions: Between Sumatra and the Zanzibar coast; e. of the Philippine islands,
to long. 170 e. ; e. of Cuba and Florida; and n.e. of cape St. Roque.

Color and Phosphorescence, of the Sea. The color of the ocean, when free from admixture
of foreign substances, as animalcules, vegetable organisms, excessive rain, or the tinted
waters of swollen rivers, is a pure deep blue, which becomes less marked where the
water is of less depth. A " different " color of sea-water is due to the presence of some
foreign substance; e.g., the red, brown, and white patches of the Pacific and Indian
oceans to the presence of swarms of animalcules, and the colors of the Red and Yellow
seas to mutters of vegetable origin. The Rhone, at its emergence from the lake- of
Geneva, and the lake itself, exhibit an intensity of blue far surpassing that of any sea.
The phosphorescence of the sea is due to the presence of myriads of invertebrula, espe-
i dally rhizopoda, tuuicata, etc. See LUMINOSITY OF ORGANIC BODIF.S.

Depth of the Sea. Till very recently, it might be said that, with the exception of
the more frequented strips along the coast, and such other portions as afforded anchor-
age ground, our knowledge of the depth of the ocean amounted to nothing. It is true
that deep-sea soundings had been frequently made, but from the necessary defective-
ness of the ordinary " lead" and inattention to the effect of under-currents in destroy-
ing the perpendicularity of the line, little dependence could be placed on the results
obtained. It is chiefly in the Atlantic that the new and trustworthy method of sounding
(q.v.) has been practiced, and the contours of its bottom may now be considered as fairly
ascertained. The greatest depth measured by the Challenger (in n. lat. 19 41', w. long.
65 T, was 3,875 fathoms, or 23,250 ft. (about 4.4 miles). Over a great extent of the
area the depth ranges between 2,000 and 3,000 fathoms. Along the middle runs an
Irregular ridge, on. which the depth is less than 2,000 fathoms, and n. of 50 a plateau of
similar depth extends, with little interruption, from Ireland to Newfoundland, on which


assume its comparative shallowness; but this is far from being the case, for the islands rise
abruptly from the bottom, and very deep soundings have been obtained near their shores.
Over a great part of the area, the depth is over 2,000 fathoms; in the deeper pnrts it
ranges from 3,000 to over 4,000 fathoms. The deepest sounding got was 4,475 fathoms
(26,8;>0ft. or above 5m.), in n. lat. 11 24', e. long. 143 16', near the Ladrone islands.
*rom the remarkable gentleness of slope of the bed of the Arctic ocean to the n of
^iberia, the line giving only 14 to 15 fathoms at 150m. from the shore, and from its con-
figuration on the n. of Americ.-i, it is generally concluded to be by far the shallowest of
the oceans. "Of the depth of the Antarctic ocean, little is known, but it is supposed lobe
deeper than its antipodal kinsman. Near the Antarctic circle, s.e. from Kerguelen th
Umllenger took a few soundings varying from 1300 to 1975 fathoms. From all that has
hitherto been observed, it would seem as if the land-surface under water were the coun-
terpart as regards eminences and hollows, chasms, valleys, plateaus etc. of the land-
surface above.

Motion of the Sea. Theseaisina state of perpetual restlessncss.its motion being cither
a vertical oscillation, or an actual transference of its waters from one place to another.
The first motion, which constitutes waves, is due either to the attraction of the sun and
moon on such a mobile body as the sea (see TIDES), or to the impulsive action of the winds
winch blow over Us surface (see WAVES); the second arises from the sun, which,
directly tlireugh its heat, and indirectly by scorching dry winds, produces evaporation
to a great extent, of the parts most exposed to its influence* and by its similar action on th&


atmosphere (see TRADE-WIND), causes a transference of this vapor to remote latitudes,
where it descends as rain, and, destroying the equilibrium of the sea, gives rise iocur-
ri-Htx. The nature of these currents is described under GULF STREAM, and the chief
currents of each ocean are found under its own head. This constant motion of the sea.
is of great service in tending to equalize the temperature of different parts of the
globe; it also produces remarkable changes in the form of coasts, eating into rocks,
converting low-lying lands into shoals and sand banks, or carrying away the earthy
materials, and depositing them in some distant region. The erosive action of the sea is
generally almost imperceptible during several years, but in course of two or three cen-
turies the magnitude of the changes effected by it is almost incredible.

On the economic value of the sea as a purifier, and as a commercial highway, it is
unnecessary to dilate. For some of the peculiar phenomena of the sea, see ICEBERGS,
AURORA BOREALIS, WHIRLPOOLS, the five great oceans (q.v.), CORAL, etc.

The term sea is also applied in a more limited though indefinite sense to an offshoot
of one of the oceans, as to the Black, Baltic, Okhotsk seas, to any portion of an ocean
which from its position or configuration is considered deserving of a special name, and
to the two great inland salt lakes of central Asia, the Caspian and Aral seas.

SEA, SOVEREIGNTY OF THE. Blackstone lays it down that the main or high seas are
part of the realm of England, as the courts of admiralty have jurisdiction there: but adds
that they are not subject to common law. But the law of nations, as now understood,
recognizes no dominion in any one nation over the high seas, which are the highway of
all nations, and governed by the public law of the civilized world. Such a right has,
Lowever, long been claimed over the four seas surrounding the British isles. It
was strongly asserted by Selden, and denied by Grotius, and measures were taken to
vindicate the right in the reign of Charles I. Every nation has undoubtedly a ri:ht to
the exclusive dominion of the sea within a certain not very well-defined distance from the
shore, depending on the usage of the country. This right of lordship includes the right
to tree navigation, to fishing, to taking wrecks, the forbidding passage to enemies, the
right of flag, of jurisdiction, etc. By the law of England, the main sea begins at low-
water mark; and between low and high water mark the common law and admiralty have
a divided jurisdiction, one on land when left dry, the other on the water when it is full
pea. By the law of Scotland, the sea-shore is not considered to extend beyond the point
w hich the sea reaches in ordinary tides. See BLOCKADE, NEUTRALS.



SEABURY, SAMUEL. D.D., 1729-96: b. Conn.; graduated at Yale college in 1748;
?u:dicd medicine and theology in Scotland; ordained in London in 1753; pastor of
churches in New Brunswick, N. J. ; Jamaica, Long Island ; Westchester, N.Y., 1756-75;
suspected of being the author of seme tory pamphlets, was imprisoned for a while in
New Haven; resided during the revolutionary war mostly in New York; went to Eng-
land in 1784, nnd was consecrated bishop of Connecticut; chosen rector of St. James's
church, New London, Conn. ; took part in revising the Prayer-Book and preparing the
constitution for the American Episcopal church which was adopted in 1789.

SEABURY. SAMUEL, D D. ; 1801-72: b. Conn.; ordained priest in the Protestant
Episcopal church in 1827; was missionary on Long Island; professor of languages at
Flushing institute, 1880-84; editor of The Churchman. 1834-49; rector of the church of
tie Annunciation, 1838-68: professor of biblical learning in the general theological
seminary, 1862-72. lie published The Continuity of the Church of England in the 16th c.;
Supremacy and Obligation of Conscience; The Theory and Use of the Church Calendar.






SEA-EAGLE. See ERNE, ante.





SEA-GRAPE. Kphedra, a genus of plants of the natural order anetacfte, a natural order
consisting of a small number of species, closely allied in botanical characters to the coni-
fers, and by many botanists united with that order, although differing much in appear-
ance. The fjntlacttv are small trees, or twiggy shrubs, with opposite or clustered branches
and jointed stems, whence they are sometimes called JoiNT-FiRS. They secrete not resin-
ous but watery matter. The development of the ovule is very peculiar; It has a project-
ing process formed from the intimate covering of the nucleus. '

SEA HAM HARBOR, a sea-port in the co. of Durham, 6 m. s. of Sunderland. Its
excellent harbor is furnished with wharfs, quays, and jetties, and the town contains hot-

lie-works. Wast furnaces, an iron-foundry, and chemical works. It communicates by
railway with collieries in the vicinity, and the principal articles of export are coals and
agricultural produce. The pwpulation of this thriving little sea-port town was, in 1871,
7,132. The population in 1851 being 3,538, it has accordingly more than doubled mean-


SEA-HOKSE, in heraldry, a fabulous animal, consisting of the upper part of a horse
' itli webbed feet, united to the tail of a fish. A scalloped tin is carried down the back.
' he arms of the town of Cambridge are supported by two sea-horses, proper tinned and
l.ianed or.



SEA-KALE, Crcmbe maritima ; see CRAMBE, a perennial plant with large roundish
fiinuated sea-green leaves, found on the sea-shores in various parts of Europe, and in
Britain. The blanched sprouts have become a very favorite esculent in Britain, although
as yet little known on the continent. The common people, on some of the shores of
England, have long been in the practice of watching them when they came through
the sand, and using them as a pot-herb, but the cultivation of the plant in the kitchen
garden became general only at a comparatively recent date. In requires a deep rich soil,
and the care of the gardener is bestowed upon the blanching, without which the sprouts
are not tender and agreeable, but even acrid. The blanching is accomplished in various
ways, by earth, sand, boards, earthenware pots, etc. Sea-kale is generally raised from

tap-root very deep into the ground.

SEAL (Lat. sigillum, Fr. sceau), an impression on wax or other soft substance made
..from a die or matrix of metal, a gem, or some other material. The stamp which yields
'the impression is sometimes itself called the seal. In Egypt, seals were in use at an
early period, the matrix generally forming part of a ring (see GS.M, RING). Devices of
a variety of sorts were in use at Rome, both by the earlier emperors and private indi-
viduals. The emperors, after the time of Constantino, introduced bidke or leaden seals,
and their us3 was continued after the fall of the western empire by the popes, who
attached them to documents by cords or bands. Ou the earlier papal seals are mono-
grams of the pope; afterward the great seal contained the name of the pope in full, r.nd
a cross between the heads of St. Peter and St. Paul, while the papal privy seal, impressed
not on lead, but on wax, known as the seal of the fisherman, represented St. Peler fishing.
In the 9th and 10th c.' we find Charlemagne, the Byzantine emperors, and the Venetian
doges, occasionally sealing with gold, and we have an instance as late as the 16th c. of
a gold seal appended to the treaty of the Field of the Cloth of Gold, between Henry
VIII. and Francis I.

Seals were not much used in England in Anglo-Saxon times, but they came into
general use after the Norman conquest. On the royal great seals was the king in arsiur
on a caparisoned horse galloping, his arms being shown on his shield after the period
when arms came into use; and the reverse represented the king seated on a throne.
The great seals of Scotland begin with Duncaa II. in the end of the llth c.. and have
also for subject the king on horseback; the counterseal, with the seated figure, being
u.sed first by Alexander I., and the earliest appearance of the arms of Scotland being on

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 68 of 203)