Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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tions also are under sectarian administration, tlie Roman Catholics alone having about
100 parochial, private and conventual schools. The principal of these are the college of
the Christian Brothers, the academies of Loretto, the Sacred Heart, and the Visitation,
the Uredline convent, and the St. Louis university. The latter, founded in 1829. chartered
in 1832, is the oldest educational establishment 'in the city. It has a valuable museum
and library, and complete apparatus for the study of the natural sciences. There are
about 350 pupils. The Concordia college (German Lutheran) which includes a theo-
logical academy was established in 1839. Of unsectarian institutions the chief is Wash-
ington university, which includes the following departments: the college proper, the
law school, the polytechnic institute, and the Mary institute for the education of
women. There are 35 instructors and nearly 1000 pupils. The public school system
is at a high standard of efficiency; there are 104 school buildings, with an attendance
of 50,000 pupils in the day schools, and more than 6,000 in the night schools. Of news-
papers and periodicals there are 10 dailies (4 German), most of which publish also
weekly, tri-weekly, and Sunday editions; 28 weeklies (5 German and 1 French); 3 semi-
monthlies (1 German); 28 monthlies (2 German and 1 Spanish); 2 bi-monthlies; and two
quarterlies. There are many fine hotels, the chief of which are the Lindell, the Plant-
ers',' the Laclede, Barnum's and the Grand Central. The Southern hotel, one of the
largest and best, was destroyed by fire in 1877. A remarkable and magnificent structure
is the bridge which connects the city with East St. Louis, a city in St. Clair co.. Illi-
nois, on the opposite (eastern) bank of the Mississippi. The bridge, bcuun in 1869 and
finished in 1874, at a cost of nearly $10,000,000, is 2,225 ft. long and 54' ft. wide. The
superstructure ig of steel and cast iron, upon 4 piers of granite and limestone. The cen-
tral span is 520 ft., the longest in the world, and is raised 60 ft. above the level of the
water this permits the passage of steamboats in any state of the water. The designer
of the bridge, which is generally looked upon as one of the greatest triumphs of Ameri-
ican engineering skill, is capt. James B. Etuis.

As an industrial and commercial center, St. Louis ranks among the most important
cities in the United States. The total value of the products of its manufacturing estab-
lishments during the year 1880 is estimated at not far from $250,000.000. It is now
ranked as the third city in the union in general manufactures, while in the manufacture
of flour it stands first. The river aud railroad advantages which the city commands

01 Saint Louis.

Saint Mary.

make it one of the two chief centers of trade in the inland west. It is in direct com-
munication with more than 6,000 in. of navigable waters; and steamboats ply regularly
between St. Louis and nearly every important point along this route. In addition to
this its railroad facilities are almost uuequaled. Sixteen lines of railroad center here,
among others such important routes as the Ohio and Mississippi, the Atlantic and
Pacific, the Missouri Pacific, the St. Louis, Kansas City and Northern, the Chicago and
Alton; the Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific, the St. Louis, Iron Mountain and Southern,
the Illinois and St. Louis, the Indianapolis and St. Louis, and the Vandalia line.

SAINT LOUIS, the capital of the French possessions in Senegambia, is situated on a
small low island of the same name, at the mouth of Senegal river. The town covers
almost the whole island. With its fortifications, it presents an imposing appearance
from the sea, but the interior is mean and dirty. The harbor is good. The principal
building is the government house. There are 600 stores for goods. Saint Louis pos-
sesses a botanic garden, founded in 1822. Pop. about 18,00^).

SAINT LUCIA, one of the windward division of the Caribbees (see ANTILLES), lies
about 30 m. to the s. of Martinique, having its southern extremity in lat. 13 41' n., and
long. 61 west. The island is of volcanic origin, and the crater of the Soufriere, or Sul-
phur mountain, is still in energetic operation. Saint Lucia is remarkable for its pict-
uresque and romantic scenery. Much of the surface is covered with hills, generally
well wooded, and occasionally rising to the height of nearly 3,000 feet. Area, 248
sq.m., or 158,720 acres, of which, in 1860, 9,026 acres were under crops. Pop. '71,
81.610, of \\hom837 were whites. As the coast abounds in secure, commodious, and
defensible harbors all the more valuable from their comparative scarcity in the neigh-
borhood the island has been perhaps, to an unexampled extent, an object of contention
between France and England. In 'the hands of the latter, however, it has remained
since 1803. In 1860 Lucia contained 18 schools, with 1470 scholars. In 1873 its revenue
was 19,908; its expenditure, 20,347; public debt, 18,000. The total tonnage of
vessels (exclusive of coasting trade) that entered and cleared the ports in 1873 was
37.589. The value of the total imports amounted, in the same year, to 116,037; the
exports to 151,012. The chief article exported is sugar. The exports to Great Britain
were 134,523; the imports from Great Britain were 38,855.


SAINT MALO, a fortified seaport of France, in the dep. of Ille-et-Vilaine, at the
mouth of the river Ranee. It stands on a small island less than three miles in circum-
ference, called Le Rocher d' Aaron, which lies close off-shore, and is connected with it
by a causeway, 650 feet long, called Le Sillon. The island is completely covered by
the town; the streets are narrow, filthy, and ill-ventilated, and the houses are built to
the height of five and six stories. The harbor is spacious and secure, but its entrance
is narrow, and is thickly set with rocks and shallows. It is perfectly dry at ebb-tide, but
the flood-tide rises here from 45 to 50 feet. Numerous strong forts, both on the main-
land and on the small islands that stud the roads, protect the harbor and town. The
harbor works were completed under the second empire, and cost nearly ^20 million
francs. Ship-building is the principal industry. On the island of Grand-Be, near the
ramparts, is the tomb of Chateaubriand (q.v.). Many vessels are employed in the
mackerel, cod, and whale fisheries, and active commerce is carried on. Saint Malo com-
municates with Rennes (the capital of the dep.) by railway. Pop. '76, 10,061. In the
year ended Oct. 31, 1872, Saint Malo sent exports to Great Britain of the value of 1,514-
415, chiefly butter, valued at more than 1,000,000.


SAINT MARTIN, one of the Lesser Antilles. West India Islands. It belongs partly
to France, and partly to the Netherlands. Area about 30 sq. miles. Its products
are sugar, cotton, tobacco, maize, etc., and large quantities of salt. Slavery was abol-
ished in 1863. Pop. '75, 6,500.


SAINT MARTIN'S, a parish in s. Louisiana; bounded on the s. by lake Chetimaches;
drained by Atchafalaya and Teche bayous; about 500 sq.m.; pop. '80, 12,6626,880
colored. The surface is level and well wooded. The soil is fertile. The principal pro-
ductions are corn, cotton, and sugar. Co. seat, St. Mai'tinsville.

Oxford, was founded for a rector and seven fellows, in 1427, by Richard Fleming, bishop
of Lincoln. In 1475 Thomas Scot, commonly called Rotheram, from the place of his
birth, then bishop of Lincoln, afterward archbishop of York, finished the building,
added five fellowships, and gave statutes to the society. The object of both founders
was to extirpate the Wycliffite heresy, by training up theologians for that piirpose. The
fellowships were restricted to the dioceses of Lincoln, York, and Wells. By the ordi-
nances under 17 and 18 Viet. c. 81, they are thrown open, the rector and fellows arc
empowered to reduce the number to ten. as vacancies occur, should this seem expedi-
ent, and their value is not to exceed 300. Various benefactors have bestowed scholar-
ships on the college to the number of 24. By the ordinances 16 of these arc thrown

Saint Mary. QQ

Saint Paul.

open, of about 80 per annum, and tenable for 16 years from matriculation, which may
be extended to 20 if the rector aud fellows think fit. This college presents to 10 bene-

SAINT MARY HALL, Oxford. In 1239 Henry Kelpe, a citizen of Oxford, presented
a tenement, on the site of the present St. Mary Hall, to the rector of St. Mary's church,
to be the parsonage house. In 1835 Edward II. gave the church, together with the
parsonage, to Oriel college. The college converted the parsonage into a place of educa-
tion, and it gradually grew into an independent hall. It possesses 4 scholarships of 60
per annum, tenable for four years, and 1 exhibition.

SAINT MARY'S, a parish in s. Louisiana, having the Gulf of Mexico on the s. and
s.e.. Chetimaches lake on n. and n.e., Atchafalaya bayou on the e., the waters of the
gulf forming Cote Blanche bay and Atchafalaya bay in the s. and s.w. ; 430 sq.m. ; pop.
'80, 19,891 19,021 of American birth, 13,174 colore'd. It is intersected by the navigable
bayou Teche, and also drained by the Atchafalaya. Its surface is low and marshy and
subject to overflow, but in the arable portions having a fertile soil. In the marshes are
forests of live oak, with a thick undergrowth of cypress, gum, etc., and the soil pro-
duces large crops of grain, sweet potatoes, and sugar cane. The principal industries are
the manufactory of cooperage, bricks, and stoves, sugar and molasses.

SAINT MARY'S, a co. in s. Maryland, bounded on the e. by Chesapeake bay, on
the n.e. by the Patuxent river, and on the s.w. by the Potomac; about 360 sq.m. ; pop.
'80, 16,934 16,873 of American birth. The surface is level and heavily timbered.
The soil is fertile. Principal productions are corn, wheat, and tobacco. Co. seat,

SAINT MARY'S, a t. in s.w. Ontario, dominion of Canada, in Perth co., 22 m. n.
of London, 98 m. s.w. of Toronto, at the junction of the London branch with the Grand
Trunk railway; pop. '71, 3,120. It is pleasantly situated on the river Thames, and is sub-
stantially built. Limestone is found in great abundance in the vicinity, and quarried
for building purposes. It has 6 churches, a branch bank, 2 newspapers, several hotels,
and 2 railway viaducts. It has an active trade in grain, and the principal industries are
represented by manufactures of iron castings, agricultural implements, lumber, woolen
goods, leather, etc.

SAINT MARY'S STRAIT, or RIVER, the outlet of lake Superior, runs from the
e. end of the lake, takes a general s.e. course and is about 60 m. in length, entering lake
Huron by several channels. It forms the boundary between upper Michigan and the
province of Ontario, Canada. There is a ship canal on the Michigan shore, built to
avoid the rapids at Sault Sainte Marie where there is a fall of 21) feet. St. Joseph's, Sugar,
and Drummond islands, are the largest of several in the strait.

SAINT MAURICE, a co. in s. Quebec, dominion of Canada, having lake St. Peter
on the s., and the river St. Maurice, for its s.e boundary; 7,300 sq.m.; pop. '71, 11,144.
It is intersected by the North Shore railway and the Three Rivers branch of the Grand
Trunk railway, forming a junction at its co. seat. The surface is level and largely covered
with forests which supply lumber for an important trade. It is drained by Black Beaver
lake and other small lakes, and streams, and the soil is fertile. Its manufacturing
interests are of great importance, principally the manufacture and sale of lumber, tmd
iron, the immense forges at its co. seat having a wide reputation. Co. seat, Three

SAINT MAURICE RIVER, in central Quebec, dominion of Canada, 400 m. long,
rising in lake Oskelanaio, forming the connecting link to a chain of lakes, and descend-
ing through the n. wilderness and the co. of Champlain, enters the St. Lawrence river
at the city of Three Rivers, 9 m. above lake St. Peter. Its source is 216 m. n. w. of Mon-
treal. Its drainage area is 16,000 sq.m., the length of its valley is about 223 m.. width
140 miles. Its banks present magnificent scenery, sometimes rising to the height of
from 200 to 1,000 feet. In its course it has many branches, expands into lakes contain-
ing small picturesque islands, and descends in falls and cascades, the most remark-
able of which are the falls of Grande Mere, and those of Shawnegan 22 m. above its
mouth. 160 ft. in height. It is navigable near its mouth, and after an interruption of
40m. is again navigable for 75 miles. The climate is too cold for the production of
grain, but it affords transportation for an extensive lumber region, in which 500,000 logs
are cut annually. It is crossed by 2 bridges, 1400 and 600 ft. in length.

SAINT MI CHAEL'S, the largest and most important of the Azores (q.v.), and with the
exception of St. Mary's the most eastern island in the group. Area 224 sq.m., or
143,000 acres; pop. about 105,404. The island is mountainous, and rises in its highest
summit to 3,560 feet. Of the whole acreage, 40,000 acres are arable, and about 5,000
acres are pretty equally divided between orange gardens and vineyards. Hot springs
ahound in many parts of the island, and in the western extremity are the Caldeiras or
boiling fountains, whence the water ascends in columns to the height of 12 ft. and then
disappears in vapor. In 1872 the total value of the exports by far the larger portion
of which consists of oranges, and goes to Great Britain was 85,279; and of the
imports, mninly from Great Britain, 91,943. The chief town is Ponta Delgacla (pop.
about 16,000).

00 Saint >Iarr.

Saiut raul.

SAINT MICHAEL'S MOUNT, a conical and isolated rock in Mount's bay, Cornwall,
3m. e. of Pei /mice. It communicates with the shore hy a causeway 400 yards long,
which, however, is covered with water 8 hours out of the 12. The mount is 193 ft.
high, is about one mile in circumference, and is crowned by an old and picturesque cas-
tle now used as a manorial resilience- surmounted by a tower, on one angle of which
there is a projecting .stone lantern, popularly called St. M,'/'/itr .'". r!mir. At the base of
the mount is a lishing village, of about 80 houses. This hill is to the geologist one of the
most curious of localities, and. indeed, it is said to have ''excited more I ! con-

troversy than any mountain of the world." At a very early period Saint .Michael's
mount was! he seat of a religious hou^c, and the apparition of St. .Michael is said to
have appeared on one of iis craggy heights. At the conquest the monastery of St.
Michael was annexed to the abbey of St. Michael in Nc.rmandy. It long remained in the
possession of the monks, and afterward became ihe rt sidence of several families in turn,
until it was sold in 1000 to it.- present proprietors, the < S Y. Anbyits.

SAINT MICHEL, MOST, an extraordinary rock in Cancale bay, in the n.w. of France,
7m. s.w. of Avranches. It is a solitary cone of granite. 5 m. in circumference at the
ba>e. and rising to the height of 400 feet. It rises sheer out of a level expanse of sand,
and though iis elevation is not great, its perfectly Hat environment and its pointed i rest
render it a most striking feature in the landscape. It is crowned by a church and cas-
tle, under which are conventual buildings, with their lofty turrets and high walls, and
lower down still are the houses of the small town, which seem to adhere to the steep
rock like limpets. A good road leads from the shore to the wide sands which surround
the mount, and which arc covered with water at every tide, except at neap-tides. At
low-water there is a dry and linn track, about a mile in length, across the sands; but
on both sides of it are dangerous quicksands. In the 8th c. an abbey which replaced an
ancient temple of Jupiter uas founded on the summit of the rock. A church, and an
almost impregnable fortress were afterward founded by the Xormans. After the revo-
lution the main building was changed into a prison. The castle has recently undergone

SAINT NAZAIRE. a thriving sea-port of France, in the dep. of Loire-Inferieure, at
the mouth of the Loire, on the n. bank of that river, and 88 in. w. of Xantes. with which
it is connected by railway. Almost unknown till within recen: years, it is now one of
the most important ports on the w. coast of France. In 1831 it contained 2.:Ji)l, in 1861,
6,500, and in 1S7(>, 14.761 inhabitants. Mere the government constructed a floating
dock of 23 acres area: and another dock, of double the area, i ; in progress. St. Xazaire
is the port for the transatlantic steamers to the West Indies and Mexico. One cause of
the rapid rise of this port is that the navigation of the Loire is becoming year by year
more diilicult, owing 10 the sand brought down by the river; so that the chief ship-
owners of Xantes prefer to leave their vessels at St. Xa/airc, and have the cargoes trans-
ported inland by railway.

SAINT NE'OTS, a small market t. in the co. of Huntingdon, 8 m. s.s.w. of the town of
that, name, occupies low ground on the banks of the Ouse. Its beautiful parish church
has a tower 136 ft. high. St. XcotV- has a large iron-foundry, an engine factory, brew-
erics, steam flour-mills, etc. About a mile from the town are large paper-mills. Pop.
'71, 3,200.

SAINT NICHOLAS, a flourishing manufacturing and market t. of Belgium, in e.
Flanders. 20 in. e.n.e. of Ghent, on the Ghent and Antwerp railway. It stands in the
midst of tin' Pays dc Waes. a densely peopled and produc'ive agricultural district, and
is said to be the seat of the largest flax-market in the world. The market is held in the
great square of the town, one of the laigest in Belgium, but which, however, is too
small to accommodate comfortably the immense numbers who crowd hither on market-
days. St. Nicholas is a manufacturing town of the tir-t class; and among the articles
largely manufactured are cotton, woolen, and silk stuffs, carpets, hats. lace, tobacco,
and pipes. There are print-fields, dyeworks, and tanneries, and a flourishing trade is
carried on in shawls, linens, and other manufactured goods, as well as in flax, corn,
hops, etc. Pop. "77, 23.440.

SAINT OMER, a t. of France, and fortress of great strength, in the deportment of
Pas-de-Calais, on the Aa, 26 m. s.e. of Calais by railway. It is surrounded by irregular
but well-appointed fortificalioiis, is well built amid marshes, and contains numerooi
fountains and more than one important ecclesiastical edifice. Woolen cloths, blankets,
pottery, and clay pipes are manufactured, and there is considerable general trade. Pop.
'76, 21,404. A college for the education of English and Irish Catholics was opened at
St. Omer during the penal times. It was closed, however, during the revolution; but
still exists as a seminary, and i-? attended by from 13 to 20 students.

SAINT PANCRAS, one of the northern suburbs of London (q.v.).

SAINT PAUL, a city, port of entry, and capital of Minnesota, is on both banks
of the Mississippi riveV, 2,080 m. from its mouth, and 9 m. below the falls of St.
Anthony; lat 4t" 32' 46" n., long 93' 5 west. It is chiefly built on the e. bank upon a
plain 80 ft. above the river, and 800 ft. above the gulf of Mexico. Hills near the city
abound with springs of excellent water. St. Paul is at the head of navigation for th
U. K. XIII. 3

Saint Paul. O A

Saint Petersburg.

large steamboats of the lower Mississippi and its branches, and the center of a large
and growing trade in flour, lumber, fur?, etc. It has a stale-house, cathedral, college,
38 churches, numerous hotels, 4 daily newspapers, and educational and charitable insti-
tutions. In 1846 there were 10 white inhabitants. Pop. 'GO, 10,277; '70, 20,000.

SAINT PAUL (ante), a city in Ramsey co., s.e. Minnesota, incorporated 1854, its name
derived from a primitive chapel dedicated to that saint by a Jesuit missionary 1841;
pop. 't>0, 41,498. It is 10 m. e. of Minneapolis, 400 in. from Chicago, a terminus of 3
divisions of the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul railroad, of the St. Paul and Mani-
toba, the St. Paul and Duluth, the St. Paul and Sioux City, the Chicago, St. Paul and
Minneapolis, and the St. Paul, Stillwater and Taylor's Falls railroads. It is built on
terraced hills with a pleasing irregularity, the finest portion having l.cin bui.t within a.
few years, profiting by the impetus to progress in tasteful architecture given by a sud-
den and remarkable activity in trade. It is 5 in. below the mouth of the Minnesota
river which is navigable during 7 months of the year. Across the Mississippi liver a
bridge is thrown, connecting it with West St. Paul, which v, as taken from Dakota co. and
added to the city in 1874. Limestone, quarried in the vicinity, is much used for build-
ing purposes. It has a custom-house and post-office, an elegant granite structure. 2
theaters, several hotels, a court-house, a capital erected iNji!, subsequently enlarged,
ami seriously damaged by tire iu 1881, 4 public libraries with 124.000 volumes, and 4
private circulating libraries. It has 3 daily and 11 weekly newspapei-g. a number in the
Swedish and German languages. Its water supply is drawn from lake Phalon, 3 m.
from the city, without artiiicial pressure. It contains the state reform school, an
academy of natural sciences, a state historical society with a cabinet of 12t',00() speci-
mens, public schools, 2 orphan asylum* (one Catholic and one Protestant), a commercial
and a business college, ami Roman Catholic parochial schools with an attendance of over
2,000 pupils. It has a beautiful puMic park of 260 acres on the shore of lake Como,
and several public squares. Among its public institutions are the home for the friend-
Jess, and 2 Magdaleii reformatories. It is divided into wards; has a mayor, a council
of 3 members Irom each ward, and an efficient police force. It is lighted by gas, and
has a tire department with an electric alarm, and street railways. It has 2 eleva-
tors, and in one year there was shipped 1,458,800 bushels of wheat, and 180.112 barrels
of flour. The steamboat arrivals average over 800 annually. It has 6 national banks
with an aggregate capital of $2.150,000, 3 private banks, a savings bank, a tire, a marine,
and a life insurance company. The leading industries are the manufacture of machinery,
agricultural implements, blank books, ale and beer, furniture, carriages, boots and shoes,
lumber, sashes, doors, and blinds, etc. It has an extensive wholesale trade.

SAINT PAUL DE LOANDA, a considerable sea-port on the s.w. coast of Africa, the
principal Portuguese settlement in Lower Guinea, stands at the mouth of the river
Bengo. in lat. about 8 54' south. It is the largest and most important European settle-
ment on this coast, and contains 12.000 inhabitants, of whom 830 are white, 2,400 mixed,
and 9,000 black. 'The climate is comparatively healthy, the harbor is beautiful, and
protected by one large and two small forts. The houses are good, the strec ts unpaved,
and there are three r-hurches and three market-places. Abundance of fruit r.nd vegeta-
bles, bullocks, and goats are obtainable in the markets. Ivory and bees-wax are the
principal exports.

SAINT PAUL'S CATHZDKAL in London is noted from its being the largest and
most magnificent Protestant church in the world, and second only to St. Peter's in Rome
among the religious structures of modern times. The site of the present building was
occupied about 610 by a Christian church dedicated to St. Paul. This church continued
till 1083, when it was destroyed by fire. From its ruins arose a much more splendid
edifice (he immediate precursor of the present cathedral In 1137 the building suffered
severely from fire; but, that being the great age for splendid churches, it was soon
restored with great magnificence, the bishops and the people contributing most liberally
to defray the cose. Old St. Paul's was the largest church in the country, being 690 ft.
in length, 130 in breadd). and about 150 ft. high. The total height of the stone tower
and thr: spire, covered with lead, which Bill-mounted it, was 520 feet. The cloister was
90 ft. square, with a beautiful chapter-house in the center. In 1666 the great fire of
London completely destroyed the old cathedral, along with a large poriion of the city
and most of the churches; and thereafter sir Christopher Wren was employed to design

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 7 of 203)