Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched,
and the persons or things lo be seized. Similar provisions are found in most of the sta; J

SEARCY, a co. in n. Arkansas; drained by a branch of Red river, and the Buffalo
fork of White river; about 815 sq.m. ; pop., 807,278 16 colored. The surface is hilly,
and heavily timbered. The soil is moderately fertile. The principal, productions are
corn and cotton. Co. seat. Marshall.

land, 1840; came by direct descent on the mother's side, from sir William Waller, of
Osterly Park, Middlesex, England. Her family removed to St. Louis, her father being
murdered in 1848. In Ibol she became totally deaf from illness, and soon after lost lier
speech. She began writii.g fcr publication in 1855, and became assistant editor of the
St. Louis 1'resbyierian a lew jears later. In 1860-62 she was Washington correspondent
of the Missouri ttcpuUiftin, > ud published Soluble Men of ihe 37th Congress, and hlyl* <>f
Battle a collection cf w;.r poems, lu 1865 she visited Europe, corresponding wilh the
Missouri RcpubKcttQ and I\e'v York Times. She continued to contribute to the press
after her return in 1867, ;;nd in 1874, pul.lished Sounds from Secret Chambers, a voluire
of poems. In 1871 .'ho entered the articulation school at Northampton, Mass.; where,
and at a similar school i i Mystic. Conn., and for a time with Prof. A. Graham Be 11, she
studied the new system ior teaching the dumb to talk; and with such success that she
regained intelligible speech in 1873^74. In 1876 she was married to Edward W. Searing,
a lawyer of New York, by whom she l;r.d u\o children, one of whom died; a daughter,
born 1880, still living. Since 1874 she has contributed poems to the leading magazines
and newspapers, but has published nothing in b( ok form. She is a versatile writer, spir-
ited and graphic in prose, and graceful and earnest in verse.

SEARLE, JAMES, 1730-97, b. New York; a merchant in Madeira, who settled in
Philadelphia in 1763. He was a signer of the non-importation agreement of 1705. a
member of the navy l.oard in 1778; a delegate to congress 1777-80, and then chair-
man of the commercial committee. He was in Europe, 1780-82, endeavoring, but unsuc-
cessfully, to negotiate a state loan for Pennsylvania.


SEARS, BARNAS. D.D., LI,. D., 1802-1880; b. Sandisfield, Mass., graduate of Brown
university, 1825; studied theology at Newton, was settled over the First Baptist church
in Hartford, Conn. In 1829 he was prof, in Madison university. New York, formerly
the Hamilton literary and theological seminary. He went to Germany in 1833, studied
at Halle, Leipsic, and Berlin. On his return lie was appointed prof, of theology at New-
ton seminar}', subsequently president residing there 12 years. He was at one time
secretary and agent of the Ka.'sachi:setts beard of education; succeeding Horace Mann.
In 1855-67, he was pres. of Brown university, resigning to become general agent of the
Peabody education fund for advancing education in the southern states. He edited tl.e
Christian Renew and contributed to ihe Bibhotheca Sacra, and published among
other works, Cic.emn.iann or the Prussian mode of Instruction in Latin (1844) ; >V iect Trratiws
of Martin Lnther in the Oriental German (1846); a revised edition of Ki,gd' Titeaaiirvt
(1854;; A Discourse on. the Completion of Ihe f^irst Century of Brown Uni-tei'tniy (1864).
He had high scholarship, and an admirable organizing capacity.

SEARS, EDMUND HAMILTON, D.D., 1810-76; b. Mass.: graduated at Union college in
1834, and Harvard divinity school in 1837: pastor of the First Unitarian church. Way-
land, Mass., 1839-40; at Lancaster, 1S40-47; at Weston, Mass., in 1805. He published
Regeneration Pictures of the Olden Time: Athnnasia: Fore-gleams of Immortality: the,
Fourth Gospel; the Heart of Christ; Christian Lyrics; Sermnnn and Songs of 1l<c Chris-
tian Life. He edited for several years with the rev. Rufus Ellis the Monthly Itel'ffio-us
Magazine. Boston. He was a man of eminently devout and spiritual mind, an evan-
gelical believer, a graceful and vigorous writer.

SE\RS. ISAAC. l<29-86: b. Conn.; commanded a privateer and cruised against the
French, 1758-61, but lost his vessel by shipwreck. He then engaged in the European
and West India trade. After the passage of the stamp-act he was the foremost of the
sons of liberty in New York, and was active during the war; was a member of the N. Y.
provincial congress and of the assembly in 1783.

SEA-SERPENT, the name given to gigantic animals, presumedly of serpentine form,
which are believed by many naturalists to exist in the sea-depths, especially in tropical
oceans. The question of the existence of a sea-serpeut has long formed one of the knotty



problems of zoological science. But it seems reasonable to conclude that there exists a
certain basis for the supposition that undescribed mariue forms do exist in the sea-depths,
aad that the most reliable talcs of sea-serpcuts take origin from appearances of such ani-
mals Of such talcs, possessing a warrantable basis of fact, and emanating from authori-
tative sources, that of capt. M'Quhae is one of the best known. This acco-nt was
published in 1848. Capt. M'Quliae commanded H.M.S. Dcedalus, and encountered the ser-
pentine fo:-<n in lat. 24 44' s., and long. 9 20' e., and therefore in the s. Atlantic ocean,
near the tropic cf Capricorn, and not very far from the coast of Africa. It was not, as
in other cases, in bright and fine weather, but in dark and cloudy weather, and with a
long ocean swell. The animal was swimming rapidly, and with its head and neck abov
water. Capt. M'Quliae, in his report to the admiralty, describes it with confidence as
" an enormous serpent, with head and shoulders kept about 4 ft. constantly above the
surface of the sea;" and he adds: " As nearly as we could approximate by comparing
it with the length of what our maintopsail-yard would show in the water, there was at
the very least 60 it. of the animal dfleur d'eau, no portion of which was, to-our percep-
tion, used in propelling it through the water, either by vertical or horizontal undulation.

that had it been a man of my
and it
in the

slightest degree from its course to the*s.w. x which it held on at the pace of from 12 to 15
m. per hour, apparently on some determined purpose. The diameter of the serpent was
about 15 or 16 in. behind the head, which was, without any doubt, that of a snake; and
it was never, during the 20 minutes that it continued in sight of our glasses, once below
the surface of the water; its color a dark-brown, with yellowish-white about the throat.
It had no fins, but something like the mane of a horse, or rather a bunch of sea-weed,
washed about its back." Regret has been very naturally expressed that capt. M'Quhao
did not bestow a shot on it. Figures prepared from a sketch by him were pub
lished in the Illustrated London News, Oct. 28, 1848. About the same time, the testimony
of another witness, lieut. Drummond, appeared, and was found to differ in some impor
tant points from the account of the animal given by capt. M'Quhae, and the figures pub
lished with his approbation, particularly in ascribing a more elongated form to the head,
in the mention of a back fin, whereas capt. M'Quhae expressly says that no fins were seen,
and in a lower estimate of the length of .the portion of the animal visible. Lieut. Drum-
mond's words are: "The appearance of its head, which, with the back fin, was the
only portion of the animal visible, was long, pointed, and flattened at the top, perhaps
10 ft. in length; the upper jaw projecting considerably; the fin was, perhaps, 20 ft. in
the rear of the he.;d, and visible occasionally; the capt. al.-so asserted that he saw th:-
tail, or another fin about the samo distance behind it; the upper part of the head and
shoulders appeared of a dark-brown color, and beneath the under jaw a brownish-while.
It pursued a steady and undeviatinsj course, keeping its head horizontal with the water,
and in rather a raised position, disappearing occasionally beneath a wave for a very
brief interval, and not apparently for the purposes of respiration. It was going at thy
rate of perhaps from 12 to 14 m. an hour, and when nearest was perhaps 100 yards dis-
tant. In fact, it gave one quite the idea of a large snake or eel." Lieut. Drummond's
account is the more worthy of regard, as it is derived from his log-book, and so gives
the exact impressions of the hour, while capt. M'Quhae's was written from memory after
his arrival in England. Into the discussion which arose concerning this case, it is out
of our power to enter.

In 1875 a battle between a sea-serpent and a whale was viewed from the deck of the
good ship Pauline of London, capt. Drevar, when proceeding with a cargo of coals from*
Shields to Zanzibar, destined for her majesty's ship London. When the Pauline reached
the region of the trade winds and equatorial currents, she was carried out of her course,
and after a severe storm, found herself off cape Roque, where several sperm-whales were
seen playing about her. While the crew were watching them, they suddenly beheld a sight
that filled every man on board with terror. Starting straight from the bosom of ths.
deep, a gigantic serpent rose and wound itself twice in two mighty coils round the
largest of the whales, which it proceeded to crush in genuine boa constrictor fashion.
In vain did the hapless whale struggle, lash the water "into foam, and even bellow, for
all its efforts were as nothing against the supernatural powers of its dreadful adversary;
whose strength may be further imagined, from the fact that the ribs of the ill-fated
fish were distinctly heard cracking one after the other with a report like that of a smal.

Of no less a ship than her majesty's yacht the Osborne, the capt. and officers, in June,
1877, forwarded an official report to the admiralty containing an account of a sea-ser-
pent's appearance off the coast of Sicily on the 2cl of that month. " The time was five
o'clock in t'.ie afternoon. The sea was exceptionally smooth, and the officers were pro-
vided with goo;l telescopes. The monster had a smooth skin, devoid of scales, a bullet-
shaped head, nnd a face like an alligator. It was of immense length, and along the back
was a rid<!-c of fins about ffteen ft. in length and six ft. apart. It moved slowly, and
was seen by all the ship's oih'cers."

This account was further supplemented by a sketch, from the pencil of lieut. W. P.
Uynes of the Osbornc, who to the above description adds, that the fins were of irregular


height, and about 40 ft. in extent, and "as we were passing through the water at ten and
a half knots, I could only get a view of it ' end on.' " It was about 15 or 20 ft. broad at
the shoulders, with flappers or tins that seemed to have a semi-revolving motion. "From
the top of the head to the parr of the buck where it became immersed, I should consider
about 50 ft., and that seemed about a third of the whole length. All this part waa
smooth, resembling a seal."

These instances are but examples of the many cases, in which narratives of the most
circumstantial character have been recorded, regarding the appearance of serpentine ani-
mals, usually in tropical seas.

As will readily be admitted, the chief point at issue is that of the zoological determi-
nation of the forms reported to have been seen. Gigantic cuttle-fishes, now proved to
have a veritable existence, might in maviy cases imitate an elongated marine form swim-
ming near the surface of the sea. Certain fishes, such as the basking shark (aelache
maxima) would also under certain circumstances appear as unusual marine forms; and
as Dr. Andrew Wilson, of the Edinbugh medical school, has pointed" out, the well-known
tape rishes (yyinnetruy Bitukm) would very accurately reproduce the features of a marine
snake, especially w lien these fishes, as is well known, are developed to an immense size.
The marine snakes or hydrophidce of the Indian ocean woulli also serve to^>ersouate the
"great unknown," if largely developed; and indeed, as* Dr. Wilson has poiuted*out, in
the idea of the immense development of ordinary marine animals may be found a proba-
ble clue to the sea-serpent mystery. Cases of mere serpentine appearances assumed by
certain animals are not to be confused with cases in which a single animal has presented
a serpentine aspect. Flocks of shags swimming close to the water's edge might personate
a sea-serpent swimming along the top of the water (see Nature, Sept., 1878); but a flock
of birds would have been readily detected by capt. M'Quhae, and by many other observ-
ers who have beheld the unknown form from a near distance. The reader who wishes
for a full discussion 'of the scientific aspects of this question may consult a paper entitled
" The Sea-Serpents of Science," in D/. Andrew Wilson's volume, Leisure Time Studies
(Chatto & Windus, London, 1878).

SEA-SHOEE, or land bordering on the sea, belongs partly to the crown, and the
public have certain rights in relation thereto. The soil or property in the sea-shore is
vested in the crown, and the limit on the land side is defined to be the medium line of
high-water of all the tides in the course of the year, or the height of the jnedium tides
in each quarter of a lunar revolution during the whole year. But though the crown is
prima facie the owner of the sea-shore, the owner of the adjoining manor has some-
times a grant of it, and he proves this grant by ancient use such as gathering sea-weed,
etc. The public have a right to walk on that part of the shore vested in the crown,
which holds it as a trustee for them. But the public have no right to trespass on the
adjacent lands in order to get at the shore, so that it is only where a highway leads to
the shore, or the public land from seaward, that the right can be made available. Thus
it has been decided that the public have no legal right to trespass on the adjoining lands
in order to get to the shore for purpose of bathing. The public have a right to fish
on the sea-shore if they get legal access to it, and may take all floating fish, but not
oysters or mussels which adhere to the rock, if the soil belongs to ,an individual. The
public have no right to gather sea-weed or shells, though, as regards the latter, it is of
so little consequence that nobody prevents them. Nor have fishermen a right to go on
that part of the sea-shore which is private property to dig sand for ballast, or to dry
their nets, or similar purposes, though in a few cases local customs permitting this have
been held valid. In Scotland the right to the sea-shore is also uested in the crown, but
when a crown grant gives land bounded by the sea-shore, this is held to give to the
grantee the fore-shore also.

SEA-SICKNESS is a variety of vomiting deserving of special notice. It is often
preceded by premonitory symptoms, which appear almost immediately after a suscepti-
ble person is exposed to the motion of rolling water in a vessel or boat, and are as dis-
tressing as the vomiting itself. Amongst these symptoms may be mentioned vertigo
and headache, with a peculiar feeling of sinking and distress about the pit of the
stomach. Vomiting, however, in general, soon comes on, accompanied with convulsive
heaving of the stomach, and such ah indescribable feeling of prostration as to render the
patient utterly regardless of what is going on around him, and almost indifferent to life.
Moreover, a deadly pallor, a profuse cold sweat, and diarrhea, are more or less com-
monly present. The susceptibility to this troublesome affection varies extremely in dif-
ferent persons. - Some nover suffer from it, others only on their first voyage, and others,
again, in every voyage they undertake; with some it continues but a few hours, while
others suffer almost continuously throughout a long voyage. In the great majority of
cases the sickness disappears in a few days, unless the weather be very boisterous. It
almost always ceases on landing, although more or less giddiness may prevail f >r some
hours, the patient when walking feeli:iif as if the earth were rising lip under his feet.
Infants and aged persons ;ire supposed to possess a comparative immunity from sea-
sickness, while, as a general rule, women suffer more than men. According to Dr.
Althaus. persons with a strong heart and a slow pulse generally suffer little from sea-
Sickness; while irritable people, with a quick pulse and a tendency to palpitation, are

Sea. QAJ.


more liable to be affected; and he thus accounts for different liability of different;cr.9
to this affection; "for, as a rule, the French and Italians, being of a more hritul,;e
temper, suffer most from the disorder, the Germans less, and the English least." ( ( .1
S-.'a-.sicki)e -s as a form of Hypersesthesia,' 1 \n Proceeding* of t fee Medico-Chirurgical S>->
vol. v. p. ~3.)

The primary cause (or rather condition) of sea-sickness is the motion of the ship; and
the pitching of a vessel, or alternate rising and falling of the bow and stern, is especially
apt to produce it. It is less fill in large and heavily ballasted vessels, because the move-
ments referred td are least perceptible in them. How this rauae operates is a subject
regarding "which there has been much discussion; and, without entering into the history
ot the views of different physicians on this subject, we may state that the most recent is
that of Dr. Chapman, who holds that the motions of. the vessel cause the accumulation
of an undue amount of "blood in the nervous centers along the back, ami especially -in
those segments of the spinal cord related to the stomach, and the muscles concerned in
vomiting." This condition is induced, as he maintains, in three different ways, viz.,
(1.) by the movements of the brain, which are much greater in a pitching vessel than on
land; (2.) by the corresponding movements of the spinal cord; and (3.) by the excessive
movements of the viscera within the abdominal and pelvic cavities. In one person the
brain may be mainly responsible in causing that preternatural afflux of Mood in the
spinal cord, on which (according to Dr. Chapman's hypothesis) sca-sickm ss depends; in
another, the spinal cord may be the main agent; and in a third, the al<d< minal viscera;
although each is always concurrent in some degree. Hence, the only scientific and really
effective remedy for this disorder must be one which has the power of lessening the
amount of blood in the whole of the nervous centers along the back, and this can be done
by lowering the temperature of the spinal region by the local application of ice. For a
description of Dr.-Chapman's "spinal ice-bags" (which may be obtained fn.m any respect-
able surgical instrument-maker), and for the method of applying them, we must refer to
his work On Sea-nickn&e; its Nature and Treatment, p. 37 (Loud. 1804). He gives the
details of 17 cases in which the ice-bags were of greater or less benefit ; in most of the
cases the result wns perfectly successful. Besides Dr. Chapman's evident e we have that
of capt. White, commander of one of the Newhaven and Dieppe boats, who states that
" in ordinary weather it [Dr. Chapman's remedy] is a success. 1 had some difficulty in
persuading passengers to try it, but those who did were benefited." Mr. Bradley, sur-
geon in the Cunard service, in a letter to The Lancet, Dec. 3, 1864, writes as fellow?: "I
have tried this remedy in revere cases vken olher remedies liavefmled (eh'oroform, iced
champagne, effervescing draughts, fresh air, dr.). and have very generally found it do
great good. In no case docs it do harm, but in the great majority of instances it soothes
the nervous irritability vhich so commonly accompanies severe sea-sickness, induces
sleep, and consequently relieves exhaustion." We are permitted to publish the follow-
ing extract of a letter from Dr. Hayle of Rochdale, to Dr. Chapman, dated June 3, 1865:
" I recommended a patient about to cross the Atlantic, to try one cf your ice-bags for sea-
piekness. The result was most satisfactory. He was never sick when wearing the bag.
Once he w r ent without it, and then, and then only 'was he sick. His iri nd, who had BO
ice-bag, was frequently sick." As an ancillary remedy, the drinkirg of iced water, or
the swallowing of small lumps of ice, may be recommended. Dr. CLaj man prefers the
ice. which, " brought in contact with the peripheral ends of the nerves of the stomach,
will act on the same principle as it does when applied to the spinal region."

Those who are susceptible to this distressing affection, and have i:ot the opportunity
of trying the ice-bags, may. at all events, diminish the severity of the vomiting by assum-
ing, and as long as poss^tle retaining the horizontal position," as nearly as possible in the
center of the ship's movement, and keeping the oyos closed. The compression of the
abdomen, by means of a broad tight belt, sometimes gives relief. A few drops of
chloroform on a lump of white sugar will sometimes check the tendency to vomiting in
persons who only suffer slightly. A little arrowroot, flavored with brandy or sherry, is
usually a kind of food that will most easily remain on the stomach, when the severity of
the symptoms is abating. Dr. Wood, one of the most eminent of the American phy-
sicians of the present day, asserts that he has " found nothing under such circumstances
BO acceptable to the stomach as raw salt oysters.''

SEA-SIDE GRAPE, Coccoloba uvifera, a small tree of the natural order polygoneix, a
native of the West Indies. It grows on the sea-coasts; lias orbicular, cordate, leathery,
binning, entire leaves, and a pleasant, subacid, eatable fruit, somewhat resembling a
currant, formed of the pulpy calyx investing a bony nut. The extract .of the wood is
rxtremeiy astringent, and is sometimes called JAMAICA KINO. The wood'itself is heavy,
hard, durable, and beautifully veined.

SEA-SLUG. See HoLornuniA.

SEASONING, a term in cookery for the materials used tr> add flavor to food. They
are chiefly salt, the spices, and pot-herbs. Salt is the most important, for it not only
Increases the sapidity of most kinds of food, but also adds to their wholcsomenesa. .

O.AS Sea.


SEASONS. In the article EARTH the motions of the earth on which the changes of the
seasons ultimately depend are explained. The chief cause of the greater heat of summer
and cold of winter is that the rays of the sun fall more obliquely on the earth in tha
latter season than in the former. See CLIMATE. Another concurrent cause is the greater
length of the day in summer, and of the night in winter. Within the tropics the sun's
rays have at no time so much obliquity us to make one part of the year very sensibly
colder than another. There are, therefore, either no marked seasons, or they have other
causes aitoge. her, and are distinguished as the wet and dry seasons. This is explained
in the article RAIN. But in all the temperate parts of the globe the year is naturally
divided into four seasons spring, summer, autumn, and winter. In the arctic and
antarctic regions, spring and autumn are very brief, and the natural division of the yeaf
is simply into summer and winter, the winter being long and the summerjshort; and this
is very much the case also in regions of the temperate /ones lying near the arctic and
antarctic circles. In subtropical regions the distinction of four seasons is in like man-
ner very imperfectly marked. This distinction is everywhere arbitrary as to the periods.
of the year included in each season, which really vary according to latitude, and partly
according to the other causes which influence climate; the seasons passing one into
another more or less gradually, and their commencement and close not being determined
by precise astronomical or other phenomena. The greatest heat of summer is never
reached till a considerable time after the summer solstice, when the sun's rays are mosk
nearly vertical, and the day is longest; the greatest cold of winter is in like manner after
the winter solstice, when the day is shortest, and the sun's rays are most oblique; the
reason in the former case being 'that as summer advances the earth itself becomes more
heated by the continued action of the sun's rays; in the latter, that it retains a portion
of the heat which it has imbibed during summer, just as the warmest part of the day is

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 70 of 203)