Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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somewhat after midday, and the coldest part of the night is toward morning. The four
seasons of temperate r-gions are distinguished by the phenomena of nature which
characterize them, an 1 w lich are of the greatest importance in relation to the wants ami
labors of man. But the renewal of vegetative activity in spring is not to be ascribed
entirely to tha increasing warmth of the sun's rays. Plants are so constituted that a.
period of rest is followed by new activity, and this new activity very generally begins in.
the fresh circulation of sap and enlargement of buds while the cold of winter still con-
tinues unabated, or before it has reached its greatest intensity. A similar remark may
be made with regard to some of the phenomena of animal life, which may as well be said
to herald the approach of spring as to attend its first days of genial weather.




SEATON", WILLIAM WINSTON, 1785-1866; b. Va. ; educated under private tutors
and in a printing office; edited papers in Petersburg, Va., and Raleigh. N. C. ; removed
to Washington, 1812, and wi;h his brother-in-law Joseph Gales published the Natioiuil
Intelligencer, which for 50 years made their names honorably known throughout the
United States. I'hcy were also public printers for many years. Mr. Seatonwas fre-
quently elected mayor of the city, and held other offices there; was a regent, of the Smith-
sun ian institution; and was highly esteemed for personal merit as well as editorial power.

SEATTLE, a t. and capital of King co., Washington territory, 60 m. n.e. of Olym-
pia, on the Seattle and Walla Walla railroad; it is near the moutli of Dwamish river on
Puget's sound; pop. '70, 1107. Seattle is the seat of the tcrritorhl univer>, founded
in 1872. A large trade is done with the mining and lumber camps and fisheries. Lum-
ber is the chief export.






SEBASTIAN, a co. in w. Arkansas, bounded on the n. by the Arkansas river; about
590 sq. m.; pop. '80, 19.5601587 colored. The surface is hilly and heavily wooded.
The soil on the prairies is fertile. The principal productions are corn and cotton. Bitu-
minous coal is found. Co. seat, Greenwood.

SEBASTIAN, SAINT, a very celebrated martyr of the early church, whose memory fc
venerated in both branches of the church, east as well as west (although the scene of 'his
martyrdom was the city of Rome), and whose story has formed one of the mo^t popu-
lar themes of Christian artists from the earliest times. His history is contained in UHJ
so-called acts of his martyrdom, which, although partaking of the legendary tone, are
regarded as authentic, not only by Baronius and the Holland ists, but. also by'Tillemout
and others of the more stringently critical schools of ecclesiastical history. " Sebastian,
according to this narrative, was born at Narbonne and educated at Milan.' Although ^
Christian, he entered the Roman army, without, however, revealing his religion, and
with the view of being enabled, by his 'position, to assist and protect the Christians in
U. K. XIII. 20

gebastjan. 306


the persecution. In this way he supported and comforted many of the martyrs in
Rome; and he even converted Nicostratus, the keeper of the prison in which the martyrs

tian rose to high

Caius n-uned him "Defender of the Church." At length came the time for Ins open
profession of his faith. Diocletian used every effort to induce him to renounce the
Christian creed, but in vain; and in the end he was condemned to be put to death by a
troop of Mauritanian archers, who transfixed him with numberless arrows, and left him
as dead. But a Christian lady, Irene, finding that life was not extinct, had the body
removed to her house, where life was restored; and although the Christian community
desired to conceal his recovery, Sebastian again appeared in public before the emperor,
to profess his faith in Christianity. Diocletian condemned him to be beaten to death

called by liis name. The elate of his martyrdom was January 20, 288. By the Greeks
the feast is held on the 20th of December. The festival was celebrated with great solem-
nity in Milan as early as the time of St. Ambrose; and it was observed in the African
church in the 4th century. There is another saint of the same name, who is said to have
suffered martyrdom in Armenia.

SEBASTIAN, DOM, 1554-78; b. Lisbon; came to the throne of Portugal in 1557.
In 1574 he led a successful expedition against Tangier. In 1578, with a fleet and a force
of some 20,000 men, he sailed to Morocco to support Muley-Moharumed against his
uncle Mule'y-Malek, in the contest for the throne of Morocco. Sebastian and Muley-
Mohammed were defeated by Muley-Malek, and all three died. The Portuguese refused
to believe in his death, and numerous impostors appeared, pretending to be Dom Sebus-

SEBASTIAN!, FRANCOIS- HORACE-BASTION, Marshal of France, was b. Nov. 10, 1772,
at Porta d'Ampugnano, a village near Bastia, in Corsica. He was the son of a tailor,
but his extreme vanity led him to declare himself of noble descent and a distant relative
of the Bouapartes. He entered the army as a sub-lieut. of infantry, Aug. 27, 1789.
His rise, due to his bravery in the field, was no doubt somewhat aided by his splendid
pli3 r sique, graceful manner, and facile diction. He became c/ief d'escadron in 1797, and
brigadier in 1799, and was one of Napoleon's most devoted partisans. He fought at
Marengo, executed some important diplomatic service in Turkey in 1802-03, after which
he became gen. of brigade (Aug. 1803), and was wounded at Austerlitz. On May 2,
1806, he was again deputed to Turkey, this time to break the alliance of the Porte with
Russia and England; and before he had been seven months at Constantinople, his mis-
sion had obtained complete success, and war was declared. The English fleet forced a
passage through the Dardanelles, and cast anchor before Constantinople, their presence
causing such terror among the sultan's ministers that a total reversal of foreign policy
was imminent, but Sebastiani, coming to the rescue, revived with his seducing eloquence
their failing resolution, and assuming an authoritative superintendence of the prepara-
tions for defending the coast, put the batteries in a state fit for action. In five days he
had the coast batteries manned with 600 guns, 100 small gunboats afloat, a line of vessels
laid along shore, each with a broaxlside ready to be discharged on the English fleet,
which at last gallantly ran the gantlet, losing two ships and 700 men. But the death of
the sultan, a*id the treaty of Tilsit, put an end to the French intrigues in Turkey, and
Sebastiani was recalled, June 1807, and decorated with the grand cordon of the legion of
honor. He subsequently commanded the fourth corps-d'armee in Spain. He distin-
guished himself in the Russian campaign of 1812, and at Leipsic. On the exile of Napo-
leon to Elba, he gave in his adherence to the Bourbon government, but joined his old
master on his return. After the revolution of 1830, he held for brief periods the port-
folios of naval (1830) and foreign affairs, and the embassies to Naples (April, 1833) and
London (Jan., 1835); but was more distinguished for his elegance and graceful demeanor
in the Parisian salons, than as a politician or administrator. He died at Paris, July 20,

SEBASTIANIS TAS, the name given in Portugal and Brazil to persons who believe in
the future return to earth of the king Dom Sebastian, who fell in the battle of Alcazar-
quebir, 1578 A. D., while leading on his army against the Moors. This belief has con-
tinued to be entertained by many in Portugal; but the Sebastianistas are said to be now
most numerous in Brazil. On the return of Dom Sebastian, they expect Brazil to enjoy
the most perfect prosperity and happiness.


8EBENICO, a small port on the coast of Dalmatia, 42 m. s.e. of Zara. It is built
on a steep slope, and rises in terraces, and was formerly defended by walls and towers.
T<s cathedral, a fine edifice, with a bold dome, was built 1443-1536. Its excellent har-
bor is defended by several forts. Pop. 14,238.

0/17 Sebastian.


SEBES'TEN, SEBESTAN, SEPTSTAN, or S. PLUM, the fruit of the cordia myxa, a tree
of the natural order cordiaceae, a native of the East ladies. The tree has ovate leaves,
and an egg-shaped fruit, which is succulent, mucilaginous, and emollient, with some
a.strii)L r ciicy. and was formerly an article of the European materia medica, being employed
for the preparation of a lenitive electuary and of a pectoral medicine. It is believed to
be the pcrxea of Dioscorides. It has a sweetish taste, and is eaten by the natives of the
northern Circars of India, where it grows.

SECCHI, PIETRO ANGELO, 1818-78; b. Italy: joined the Jesuits in 1833. He becam*
director of the observatory of the Roman college in 1850, and was permitted to remain
in that position after the expulsion of the Jesuits, 1870-73. His discoveries in the
departments of solar physics and spectroscopic analysis were numerous and important.
Amon<r his works are (Jutalogo ddle Stelle (1867); Aiovi Ricerchi uUe Protuberanze Solari
(IStity-'Fisica Solare (1869); and Le Soleil (1870).

SE-CHUEN', a province in China, drained by the Yang-tse-Kiang river; about
166,000 sq. m. ; pop. 21,435,678. Capital, Ching-Too-Foo.

6ECKENDORF, an old and noble family of Franconia. VEIT LUDWIG, 1626-92; b.
near Erlan.iren; studied at the gymnasia of Coburg in 1638, and at Gotha, under the pat-
ronage of Ernest, duke of Gotha. In 1643-46 he studied in the university of Strasbourg,
and traveled in the Netherlands. He rose through successive grades of office till he
became privy-councilor and chancellor in 1664. In that year he left the duke's service
to enter that of Moritz, duke of Zeit, and was appointed to similar offices, resigning on
the duke's death, and retiring to his country-house near Altenburg. In 1691 he entered
the service of Frederick III., elector of Brandenburg, as privy -councilor at Berlin, and
chancellor of the university of Halle. He published several works in Latin and German;
also theological and historical works, discourses, and hymns. FRIEDRICH HEINRICH,
1673-1763; b. Konigsberg; grandson of Joachim Ludwig, entered the English and Dutch
service in 1695, fought against the Turks in the war of the Spanish succession under
prince Eugene; maj.gen. in the army of Augustus II. of Poland, and Saxony. He was
Polish ambassador to the Hague (1713), in the negotiations for the peace of Utrecht. He
became count of the empire in 1719; gov. of Leipsic in 1721, ambassador to Berlin in
1726. He concluded the treaty of Wusterhausen. He incurred the displeasure of Fred-
erick the great by the means he used to consummate the royal marriage with the princess
Elizabeth. He defeated the French at Klausen, 1735; was imprisoned three years in
the castle of Gralz. He commanded the troops of the elector Charles Albert of Bavaria
in 1744, and restored Munich to that prince, then Charles VII. of Germany. In 1745 he
was imprisoned at Magdeburg by Frederick the great, and released after six mouths'
confinement on paying 10,000 thalers.

SECKER, THOMAS, D.D., 1693-1768; b. England; studied for the dissenting
ministry, but doubting concerning some of the doctrines of Christianity, he resolved to
study medicine; went to London and Paris: was persuaded by Joseph Butler, an inti-
mate friend, to enter the church of England. After some deliberation he complied;
went in 1721 to Leyden. took his degree of M.D. ; returned to England; became rector
of Houghton-le-Spring \n 1723; prebendary of Durham and rector of Ryton in 1727;
chaplain to the king in 3732, rector of St. James in 1733; was made bishop of Bristol in
1735, of Oxford in"l737; dean of St. Paul's in 1750, and archbishop of Canterbury in

SECLTJ'SION (OF THE INSANE). This term has recently been narrowed so as to apply
to the removal of the violent insane from the ordinary wards and fellowship of an asylum
to an airing court, gallery, or room so situate and furnished that its solitary occupant can
neither injure himself, nor injure nor disturb others. Since the abolition of physical
restraint by chains and strait-jackets seclusion has become a favored and useful mode
of repression and treatment. That it should be resorted to exclusively as a remedial
agent, and by ths medical attendant, are now received as axioms. In 1854 the commis-
sioners in lunacy in England ascertained, by circular, the opinions of almost all those
entrusted with f/.e care of the insane in that country, as to the employment of such
means of cure, v.-hen it appeared that it was generally considered beneficial, if-used for
short periods. and during paroxysms of epileptic and violent mania. Even when not
absolutely required for the tranquillization of the individual, seclusion may become expe-
dient in orrj^r to secure the quiet, comfort, or safety of the patients with whom he is
associated. That such an instrument may be abused and adopted from the parsimony,
timidity, or ignorance of those around, is obvious. One of the lunatics liberated by
Pinel in 1792 had been incarcerated or secluded in his dark cell for forty years; and
occasionally even now the duration of the isolation maybe unduly prolonged eve"n under
medical sanction; but the instances of gross and cruel seclusion in garrets and cellars,
and outhouses, a^e "^v chiefly to be found in private families, and where, as in the
" Flushing case/' uo reV^r course is known to be practicable. Eighth Report of Commit-

Second. 308


sionersin Lunacy to Lord CJvmcellor.Ap-p. C, p. 123; Bucknill and Tuke. Psydiological
Medicine, p. 562; Browne, What Asylums Were, Are, and Ought to be, p. 137.

SECOND (for the derivation of which see SCKUPLE) is the sixtieth part of a minute,
whether of time or of angular magnitude. See MINUTE. In old treatises we fiuJ sec-
onds distinguished as minute secund, from minutes, or minute priutce. The sixteenth
part of a second was called a third, but instead of this and succeeding subdivisions, deci-
mal fractions of seconds are now employed.

SECONDABY. in geology, is the designation given to that large section of the fossil-
iferous strata which includes the triassic, oolitic, and cretaceous rocks. It is synony-
mous with mesozoic. The, strata grouped under this title are separated from the inferior
and superior deposits more by their organic contents than their petrological structure,
and this separation is more evident between them and the older rocks than between liiem
and the newer; and yet recent discoveries have shown that the St. Cassian beds form a
connecting link between the Permian and triassic epochs. They contain a series of fos-
sils which are partly paleozoic and partly mesozoic in their fades.

The appearance of the great types of all subsequent organisms in the secondary rocks
has suffgested the grouping of the fossiliferous strata in respect of their fossils into only
two great divisions vfz., the paleozoic, and the neozoic this last term including the
secondary and tertiary periods.

SECONDING is a temporary retirement to which officers of royal artillery and royal
engineers are subjected when they accept civil employment under the crown. After six
months of such employment the officer is seconded, by which he loses military pay, but
retains his rank, seniority, and promotion in his corps. After being seconded for ten
years he must elect to return to military duty, or to retire altogether.

SECOND SIGHT, a superstition or belief once common in the Scottish highlands and
isles, where it is known by the Gaelic appellation taibhsearachd, signifying a spectral or
shadow v appearance. Certain persons, called seers or wizards, were supposed to pos-
sess a supernatural gift, by which they involuntarily foresaw future events, arid perceived
distant objects as if they were present:

As the sun,

Ere it is risen, sometimes paints its image
In the atmosphere, so often do the spirits
Of great events stride on before the events.
And in to-day already walks to-morrow.


This is to depict the lofty and poetical view of the subject, as illustrated in classic fable
and early history. The highland seer, however, was chiefly conversant with the scenes
and occurrences of ordinary life. "A man on a journey far from home falls from a
horse; another who pernaps is at work about the house, sees him bleeding on the ground,
commonly with a landscape of the place where the accident befalls him. Another seer,
driving home his cattle, or wandering in idleness, or musing in the sunshine, is suddenly
surprised by the appearance of a bridal ceremony or funeral procession, and counts the
mourners or attendants, of whom, if he knows them, he relates the names, if he knows
them not he can describe the dresses. Things distant are seen at the instant when they
happen" (Johnson's Journey to the Hebrides!). With respect to things future, Johnson
thought there was no rule for determining the time between the sight and the event;
but Martin, whose account of the western islands was first published in 1703, furnishes
data of this kind in his classification of the visions. If an object was seen early in the
morning, the event would be accomplished a few hours afterward ; if at noon, the same
day; and if at night the accomplishment would take place weeks, months, and some-
times years afterward; according to the time of night the vision was beheld. The
appearance of a shroud was an infallible prognostic of death, and the nearness or remote-
ness of the event was judged by the amount of the body that was covered by the ghastly
sheet; if it was not seen above the middle, adelay of a twelvemonth might be hoped for,
but if it ascended high toward the head, the mortal hour was close at hand. " The vis-
ion makes such a livel}' impression upon the seers," says Martin, " that they neither see
nor think of anything else except the vision, as long as it continues; the eyelids of the
seer are erected, and the eyes continue staring until the object vanish." The power of
the seer was involuntary and painful it was no source of gain. The gradation of sym-
bolical appearances we have mentioned, strikes the imagination and gives something
like a system to the supernatural phenomena. But if we turn to the cases described by
the historians of the second sight, we do not find such regular order and exactness. The
evidence is vague and confused, and the incidents are often of the most trivial charac-
ter. The revelations, indeed, were commonly made to poor illiterate men, predisposed
from the very nature of the country wild, dreary, and remote and from their half-idle,
solitary life, to melancholy and superstition. These causes must have led very early to
lelief in the second eight. We find it coloring portions of the story of Wallace and
Bruce, and associated with the tragic fate of the accomplished James I. of Scotland. A
Scottish seer is said to have foretold the unhappy career of Charles I., and another the
violent death of Villiers, duke of Buckingham. *In 1652 a Scottish lawyer, sir George
Mackenzie, afterward lord Tarbat, when driven to the highlands by fear of the govern-


ment of Cromwell, engaged himself in making inquiries concerning this supposed super-
natural faculty, and wrote a minute account of its manifestations addressed to the cele-
brated Robert Boyle, which, with other relations on the same subject, is published in
the correspondence of Samuel Pepys. Next came Martin's copious description; then a
highland minister, the rev. John Fraser of Tyree, collected Authentic Instances, which
were printed in 1707; and in 1763, appeared the ambitious treatise of Theophilua lunul-
/<*. or Macleod of Hamir, which contained the narratives of Fraser, of Aubrey, the
English antiquary, and other authorities, with the addition of a great number of cases
nearly a hundred gathered by himself from various sources, and also numerous let-
ters from highland ministers. This work exhausted the subject, but the wretched van-
ity, credulity and weakness of Theophilus covered it with ridicule. A fresh revival
took place after the memorable Journey to the Hebrides by Dr. Johnson, whose work was
published in 17M The second sight was sure to interest a melancholy, meditative
"rambler" like Jolmson. He had read of it in his youth in Martin's history, lie was
naturally superstitious. He had a stout courageous heart and strong nerves in all mun-
dane matters and positions, but he had a morbid fear of death, and an almost childish
eagerness to pierce the darkness of futurity, and to believe in the possibility of messages
from the other world. Johnson anxiously questioned the clergy and others respecting
the supernatural communications made to the seers, and would gladly have believed them
real. The evidence, however, was not complete or invincible; and with that love ot
truth, which was one of the strongest virtues of the sage of Bolt court, he confessed that
he never could "advance his curiosity to conviction, but came away at last only willing
to believe." On one occasion we find Johnson enunciating the true doctrine in such
cases. He observed, as Boswell reports, that "we could have no certainty of the truth
of supernatural appearances unless something was told us which we could not know by
ordinary means, or something done which could not be done but by supernatural power;
that Pharaoh, in reason and justice, required such evidence from Moses; nay, that our
Saviour said: ' If 1 had not done among them the works which none other man did.
they had not had sin.' " Undoubtedly works or facts, not merely appearances, are required
for conviction. Spectral sights may be caused by dreams or disease (see APPARITIONS),
by accidental optical illusions, or by the workings of a vivid imagination. It seems
degrading to the idea of divine power to suppose that special miracles were wrought to
announce the marriage or death of a highland peasant, the wreck of a boat, or the arrival
of a stranger in a remote island of the Hebrides. Ignorance is a great ally of super-
stition, as solitude is of gloomy egotism and melancholy; and since education has pene-
trated into the highlands and isles, and intercourse with other parts of the kingdom has
been facilitated by increasing trade and improved means of communication to say
nothing of the effects of that passion for highland scenery and sport which every year
takes crowds of visitors to the country the belief in second sight, as in astrology and
witchcraft, has almost wholly disappeared from the laud. It never had the crueC hard,
and revolting features of witchcraft formerly prevalent in the lowlands when scarcely
known in the Hebrides and it still seems picturesque enough to serve for the purposes
of poetry and romance.

SECRET (Lat. secreta, i.e., orntio, the secret prayer), one of the prayers of the mass
(q.v.), of the same general form with the " collect," but recited by the priest in so low a
voice as not to be heard by the people, whence the name secreta is derived. It follows
immediately after the oblation of the eucharistic bread and wine. This use of silent

Frayer in the public service is one of the subjects of controversy between Catholics and

SECRET, DISCIPLINE OF THE (Lat. Arcani Disdplina), a discipline of the early
church, founded upon the words of Christ, "give not that which is holy to dogs,
Matt. vii. 6, in virtue of which Christians fully initiated in the doctrine and practice of
the church withheld from pagans and catechumens in the preparatory stage the knowl-
edge of certain doctrines, and the liberty of presence at certain rites connected with the
most solemn mysteries of the Christian religion. This practice originated in the obloquy
which was drawn upon the doctrines of the church from the false and monstrous con-
ceptions of these doctrines which were circulated among pagans. Against these
calumnious misconceptions the earliest of the so-called "apologies" are addressed: and
it seems certain that at the time at which Justin wrote his tirst apology, the middle of
the 2d c., no objection existed against speaking openly of the mystery of the eucharist.

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 71 of 203)