Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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the war of the rebellion this service was largely extended; its chief was a soldier with
the rank of a brig. -gen. of volunteers, and its power and authority under the
government were practically unlimited. This service is, since the close of the war,
represented by the bureau of special agents of the revenue department of the U. S.
treasury. These officials are charged with the investigation of suspected frauds in the
collection of the revenue, either through fraudulent invoices, undervaluation, or false
appraisement. They are authorized to inspect invoices and other records in the" various
custom-houses; and to investigate the books of mercantile houses, and require them to be
brought into court for examination, on susj^icion of fraudulent importation ot goods.


SECEO LE, a small t. of British India, in the n.w. provinces, 3 m. n.w. of Benares,
contains most of the civil establishments, the military cantonments, and the residences
of most of the British population connected with Benares. The residences or bungalows
are handsome and substantial, but are scatterd about among the groves and gardens
which surround the military cantonments. The latter, which are capable of containing
three or four regiments, are traversed by a small stream, the Buruah Nuddee. Among
the public buildings are a Christian church and chapel, a court of justice, the treasury,
the jail, and a mint. Secrole, which may be considered as the British quarter of Benares,
was the headquarters of the Benares division of the Bengal army, and here, on June 4,
1857, the 37th Bengal Native infantry, the 13th Irregular cavalry, and a portion of the
Loodianah Sikhs, in all 2,000 men, mutinied; but being charged by col. (afterward brig.-
gen.) Neill at the head of 240 men of the Madras and Queen's armies, and a few faithful
Sikhs and Irregulars, they were compelled to take to flight with the loss of about 200
men, after killing two of their own British officers and two privates of Neill's force.

SECTION, in architecture, the delineation of buildings on a vertical plane through
any part of them as a plan is the horizontal projection. Sections are of great use in
practice in showing the thickness of walls, the construction of floors, roofs, etc., and
the- forms and dimensions of every part of the interiors of buildings. Sections may
also be used to show the furniture, drapery, etc. of rooms. These are called furnished
sections. All moldings, cornices, etc., are drawn in section or profile, full size, for the
guidance of the workmen.

SECTOR, in geometry, is a portion of a circle included between two radii and the inter-
cepted arc of the circumference. The area of a sector is equal to that of a triangle whoss
base is equal in length to the intercepted arc, and whose perpendicular height is equal
to the length of the radius.

SECTOR, in practical mecJianics, an instalment of considerable utility in rough mathe-
matical drawing, consists of two strips of wood, ivory, or metal jointed together like a
carpenter's foot-rule. It is absolutely necessary for the correctness of the instrument
that the center of the axle of the joint should be accurately at the inner corner of each
slip, so that it will always be the vertex of a triangle of which the inner edges (and con-
sequently any of the corresponding pairs of lines drawn from the joint obliquely along
the rule) form the two sides. These oblique lines, which are drawn on both sides of the
instrument, and converge from the extremities of the two strips to the center of the
joint, are graduated in different ways, so as to give, on each limb, a line of equal p irts,
a scale of chords, scales of sines, tangents, and secants, a line of polygons, etc. (nil of
which are graduated from the center of the hinge, which is their zero" point), besides a
number of common scales on the blank portions of the sector. The special use of this
instrument is in the finding of a fourth proportional to three given quantities, and the
operation is performed as follows: If the fourth proportional to 18, "16, a;jd 81 is
required, find the graduation indicating 18 on each limb; then obtain, by means of a
pair of compasses, the length from to 16, and open out the instrument ti'll the two 18
points are as far apart as the distance given by the compasses; then, by measuring with
the compasses the distance of the two graduations indicating 81, and applying the com-
passes to the scale, we obtain the fourth proportional required. It will be seen that this
instrument merely supplies a mechanical mode of constructing two similar isosceles tri-
angles, one of which has all its sides, and the other has only its equal sides given, the
other side or base, which is formed by the sector, and read off by aid of the compasses
and ecale, being, from the very nature of similar triangles, the fourth proportion
required. This instrument becomes more inaccurate as the angle formed by the limb*
increases. The sector is said to have been invented by Guido Ubaldi about 1568, though
Gasper Mordente of Antwerp describes it in 1584, and attributes its invention to hi
brother Fabricius in 1554. It was described by several German and English writer*
in the same century, and again by Galileo, who claimed to have invented it in 1604.


SECULAR GAMES, a Roman festival held at distant but indefinite periods, and
deriving the name from the word scesnfum (an age). They were also called Ivdi Taren-
tini, from Tarentum, a place in the Campus Martius, where the games were held. Pro-
serpina and Dis were the divinities in whose honor the festival was instituted; but the


worship was not confined to them. It is said that the ludi sceculares were celebrated only
eight times under both the republic and the empire.

SECULARISM is the term applied to a system of ethical principles begun to be advo-
cated about 1846 by G. J. Holyoake. As the system has a considerable number of
adherents, and comes not seldom into public notice, a brief account of its leading doc-
trines is here given. As in similar cases, we allow a believer in the doctrines to speak
for himself.

The secular is aefiued as that which pertains to this life, and is treated as a thing
apart; as independent of, rather than as necessarily opposed to, any other mode of
thought and duty. Secularism, as regards opponents, claims that to ignore is not to
deny. As the geometrician ignores chemistry or metaphysics, without a thought of
denying them, so secularism, which concerns itself with this world, refuses to be held
as conflicting with that " other-worldliuess," which, if demonstrable, must be based on
an experience to which secularism makes no pretension, and toward which it considers
itself to incur no responsibility. Secularism commences by laying down the proposition
that intelligent sincerity is sinless. It does not maintain that even intelligent .sincerity
is errorless, but that it is without conscious guilt, even when it is, as it may be danger-
ously mistaken. The conscience thus educated, thought may be intrusted* to inquiry,
and the search for truth may be begun.

Secularism takes the term free thought as expressing the central idea which it incul-
cates. It defines free thought as the unrestricted application of the powers of the intel-
lect to any subject the absence of any threat or penalty, legal, spiritual, or social, for
the exercise of thought. The free thought it inculcates is not lawless thought; it is
guided by methods of logic, limited by evidence checked at every step by experience,
which is omnipresent, and corrected by the results of science. Free thought is not the
rebellion but the judicial action of the understanding. Reason the faculty of follow-
ing the pathway of facts does not despise intuition, nor instinct, nor the voice of
nature, nor authority; it uses, but revises them; it does not pretend to be infallible, but
to be the best arbiter we have. To the conception of free thought is also necessary the
free publication of opinion, for no one could profit by the thought of other minds un-
less it was freely communicated. Hence the diffusion of thought becomes an obliga-
tion on each thinker, and silence or supineness a social crime. Again, free thought
that would command respect must be submitted to free criticism. Thought is often
foolish, often mischievous, and sometimes wicked, and he alone who submits it to free
criticism gives guaranties to society that he means well, since by criticism comes the
exposure of false or foolish opinions; and the right of criticism is the sole protection of
the public from error. Free thought must end in the free action of opinion, since he
thinks to no purpose whose thought is inapplicable to conduct, and he withholds the
sign of his own sincerity who does not unite his thought with action. Such is that
education in free thought which secularism attempts.

It holds that skepticism is the pathway to affirmative truth. So far from being a crime,
skepticism is scrutiny. So far from being the end, it is the beginning of inquiry the firat
condition for the recognition of unknown truth. He who would be master of his own
mind, and know what is in it, and who would have no principles there but those which
are pure, true, and reliable, must refuse to believe anything until he is compelled to
believe it; it being no more safe to keep one's mind open to nil notions, than to keep
one's door open to all comers. It is clear that the use of free thought maybe a nui-
sance, a terror, or an outrage, unless courtesy takes care of it. Therefore secularism
provides that advocacy shall be directed to the exposure of error and the elucidation of
truth, without moral imputation upon those whose opinions .are controverted; and con-
tends that all advocacy, wanting in consideration toward others, shall be regarded ag
a crime against free thought. The quality of the thought, and not the motive of it, is
the proper and sufficient subject of discussion

Secularism further imposes upon the action of free thought the limit that every one
shall concede to others the liberty he claims for himself, and shall permit to others, and
shall recognize in each individual, " liberty of action in all things by which others are
neither injured nor damaged." Secularism, regarding the one object of nil free thought
as the attainment of truth, finds in the study of nature its immediate sphere of exer-
cise. Free thought is prompted by a desire to fathom the knowable; and nature and
human life are the immediate sources of truth and duty, which it most concerns man to
master. Therefore, respect for this life, respect for pure physical conditions, respect for
the moral capacity of human nature, are conditions of secular belief. Secularism is not
committed to denying that there is other good it does not meddle witli'that question; it
says whether there be other good or not. the good of the present life is good, and it is
good to seek that good. It holds that the secular is sacred, and seeks "to find that
material condition in which it shall be impossible for man to be depraved or poor." It
does not say that ajl things are material, or that there are no spiritual agencies; it does
not enter upon these propositions, but confines itself to showing that there are material
airencies in this life, whatever else there may be, and that these, as far as they can be
discovered, are the calculable forces of the world, which cannot be neglected without
folly or hurt, and that it is wisdom, mercy, and duty to attend to them. Without enter-

8*cnn<lera'bad. 31 fi


ing upon the question of the interference of Providence, secularism contends that sci-
ence is practically the providence of life; tli at conscience is higher than consequence;
that deliverance from calamity is more merciful than any system of consolation which
only acts when calamity has occurred; and that it is not the pursuit of happiness, but
the performance of duty, which is the end of life. Secularism proceeds in the path of
positive philosophy, not seeking for errors but for truth; not busying itself with nega-
tions but with affirmations. In sacred writ it seeks for guiding truth and thought which
commends itself to reason and experience, accepting the intrinsically true, without
entering upon the vexed questions of inspiration or authenticity, \\aiatever principles
secularism inculcates they are affirmative in their nature, relate to the welfare of human-
ity, and are determined by considerations purely human.

There is unquestionably a vast outlying class in every European country, and espe-
cially in our Indian territories, who are without the pale of Christianity. They reject
it, they dislike it, or they do not understand it. Secularism is intended for these, and
for all who find theology indefinite, or inadequate, or deem it unreliable. The object of
secularism is to afford these classes a knowledge of principles addressed to their com-
mon reason and intelligence, by an appeal to principles of a secular nature, common to
humanity in every state and clime. It may be a misfortune that the principles of the-
ism, or the acceptance of the Bible, cannot be rendered promptly acceptable to them.
Since, however, this is not the ease, it must be of advantage to interest them in rules
calculated for the moral guidance of their conduct. Upon these, Christianity maybe, if
shown to be tenable, subsequently superinduced. The principles of secularism are
intended to constitute an education of the working classes, which begins with their
reason, grows with their intelligence, and ends only with death.

Secularism is not an argument against Christianity, it is one independent of it. It
does not question the pretensions of Christianity; it advances others. Secularism does
not say there is no light or guidance elsewhere" but maintains that there is light and
guidance in secular truth, whose conditions and sanctions exist independently, act inde-
pendently, and act forever. Secular knowledge is manifestly that kind of knowledge
which is founded in this life, which relates to The conduct of this life, conduces to the
welfare of this life, and is capable of being tested by the experience of this life. Geom-
etry, algebra, botany, chemistry, navigation, political economy, ethics, aie secular sub-
jects of instruction (distinct albeit from secularism, which includes the education of the
conscience). They are founded in nature, they relate to the uses of this life, promote
the enjoyn.ent of this life, and ean be tested by personal experience. That which is
secular can be tested in time; that which is theological is only provable after death. If
a sum 1n arithmetic is wrong, it can be proved by a new way of working it: if a medical
recipe is wrong the effect is discoverable on the health; if a political law is wrong, it is
sooner or later apparent in the disaster it brings with it; if a theorem in navigation ie
erroneous, delay or shipwreck warns the mariner of the mistake; if an insane moralist
teaches that adherence to the truth is wrong, men can try the effects of lying, when the
disgrace and distrust which ensue soon convince them of the fallacy; but if a theolog-
ical belief is wrong, we must die to find it out.

The standard o* secularism is utilitarian. Utility is made the test of right, not the
utility which is sensual and selfish, but that which takes into account the highest attri-
butes and noblest aspirations of humanity (see UTILITARIANISM). It is not the agent's
own happiness, but the happiness of others which the utilitarian is bound to promote.
The adoption of this rule makes intelligence a necessity. Secularism is not skeptical.
It seeks everywhere positive truth, and regards doubt as a difficulty and a danger. It ie
not infidel, for that is a state of mind treacherous to the truth, and truth is the first
thing to which secularism teaches allegiance. It is not atheistic, atheism being alien to
secularism, which concerns iiself with the affirmative. Secularism might call itself
religious, if it were allowable to use the term without including some distinctive theory
of theism, which is equally excluded from the subject-matter of secularism, as not com-
ing within the region of positive knowledge. Nothing in secular morals can be insisted
upon with effect, save those statements which appeal to the common experience, and
with which you can dare the judgment of mankind; but if that may be called religious,
which appeals to demonstrative intelligence, which addresses itself to the conscience,
whieh inculcates love, and truth, and justice; which claims service and endurance from
nil men; which places happiness in duty, and makes the service of humanity the one
object of life, and the source of consolation in death, then secularism maybe so defined,
and in this sense it has been described in the following definitions:

Secularism is_ the religion of the present life: it teaches men to seek morality in
nature, and happiness in duty; guiding the conduct and educating the conscience of
those who do not know, or who, from conscientious conviction, stand apart from Chris-
tianity. Secularism teaches a man to acquit himself well in this world as the purest
act of worship, to study the truth, to judge by reason, to regulate human interests by
considerations purely human, and to act on that rule of utility which conduces to fie
greatest. good of others; thus endeavoring to deserve another life by the unhastiug,
unresting pursuit of duty in this.

SECUNDERABAD' (more correctly Sikandarabad). a large t., and an important British
military cantonment in the Nizam's dominions, India, 6 m. n. of Haidarabad. On the



n.c. arc two singular granite hills, large, hemispherical in shape, completely isolated,
and having on their summits the tombs of fakirs, which are visited by a great number
of pilgrims each year. The cantonment consists of a curved, irregular street, 3 in. in
length, with the officers' houses ranged on either side. There are numerous barracks,
and good hospital accommodation. There i:rc numerous tanks in the vicinity, and the
water is good. The mean annual temperature is 81 80', and the climate is unhealthy
though less so now than formerly during the rainy season. Pop. of Secuuderibad,

SECURITY, in law, means some deed affecting real or personal estate, the object of
which is to secure the payment of a primary debt. Such are bonds (q.v.) and mort-
gages (q.v ).

SEDA'LIA, a city in central Missouri, co. seat of Pettis co. ; pop. about 9,000. It
is 40 in. s. of the Missouri river, 189 m. w. of St. Louis; at the junction of the Missouri
Pacific railroad, the Lexington branch, and the Kansas and Texas railroads. It is oa
the level prairie, is adorned with trees, and has a court-house, a brick high-school build-
ing, erected at a of $40,000, 11 churches, 3 banks, and 7 newspapers. It contains a
public library, a gymnasium, and reading-room, several hotels, an opera house; ia
lighted by gas and supplied witli water by the Holly system, at a cost, for the works, of
$125,000.' "it has two banks with an aggregate capital of $500,000, and a grain elevator.
Among the manufactories are railway-car and machine-shops, iron-foundries, and fac-
tories for the manufacture of agricultural implements, machinery and wagons, flour and
woolen goods, and brooms. It is the center of a fertile region, and has an important
and constantly increasing trade. In the vicinity are rich coal mines.

SEDAN, a manufacturing t. and frontier fortress of France, iu the dcp. of Ardennes;
pop. in '76, 15,8C2. In 1G4G Colbert founded here the first of his famous cloth-factories;
and the fabrics of Sedan have now a European reputation, and employ many hands. '
There is also extensive industry in various branches of metallurgy; and there are coal
and iron mines in the vicinity. The fortress of Sedan has played a considerable part iu
military history ; and it has recently become noted as the place where (Sept. 2, 1870),
Napoleon III. 'arid au army of 90,000 men surrendered to the Prussians.

SEDAN CHAIR, a portable covered vehicle for carrying a single person, borne on two
poles by two men. The name is derived from the town of Sedan, in the n. of France,
where this species of conveyance is said to have been invented. It is said that the duke
of Buckingham was in the practice of using one in the reign of James I., a proceeding
which gave general offense, it being made matter of public remark that this royal favor-
ite used liis fellow-countrymen to do the work of boasts. The general introduction of
sedan chairs into England' dates from 1634, about the same period that hackney coaches
came into use. Sedan chairs were largely used during the greater part of last century,
being found very well adapted for transporting persons, in full dress, to public and
private entertainments. Not only were there numerous public conveyances of this kind
in London and all considerable towns, but the owner of every large mansions had his
private sedan handsomely fitted up. In Edinburgh, a century ago, sedan chairs were
far more numerous than hackney coaches, and were almost all in the hands of High-
landers. Sedans are now seldom seen except for the transport of the sick.

SED ATIVES are medicines which exert a direct or primary depressing action upon
the vital powers, without inducing any subsequent excitement. The disease in which
sedatives are employed are chiefly those of over excitement of the nervous and circulat-
ing systems; and as some of the members of this class (hemlock, ior example) act
directly on the nervous system, while others (foxglove, for example) more immediately
act upon the heart, it is necessary to be able lo determine the kind of sedative suitable
for each individual case. Inflammatory fever presents all the conditions in which
sedatives are likely to be of service. "The excited heart, elevated temperature, hard
and unyielding pulse, and the disordered state of the special nerves call for the adminis-
tration of remedies lilted to appease their excited energy, and the great improvement
which, in such a case, follows the use of blood-letting, tartar emetic, and digitalis bears
evidence to the correctness of our practice." (Ballard and Garrod's Elements of Materia
Medica, p. 11.) The following are the most important members of this class: aconite,
carbonic acid (applied locally in cases of irritable bladder or womb, or to painful ulcers),
chloroform (especially when inhaled), conium, digitalis, hydrocyanic acid, and tobacco.


SEDGWICK, a co. in s. Kansas; drained by the Arkansas, Little Arkansas, and
Ninne Scab rivers; on a branch of the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe railroads;
about 1000 sq.m. ; pop. '80, 18.75317,176 of American birth. The surface is level.
The soil is fertile. The pilucipal productions are wheat, corn, and cattle. Co. seat,

SEDGWICK, an American family, distinguished in politics, law, and literature. THEO-
DORE SEDGWICK, statesman and jurist, was b. at Hartford, Conn., May, 1746. He was
descended from Robert Sedgwick, a maj gen. of the array of Cromwell. Educated at
Yale college, he adopted the profession of law, and removed to the western part of Mas-
sachusetts, where he was a member of the colonial assembly. Though a loyalist ia


feeling, at the outbreak of the American revolution he took the part of his country, and
served as an aid-de-camp to gen. Thomas in the unfortunate expedition to Canada. In
1785 he settled at Stockbridge, Mass., where his descendants now reside, became a
member of the continental congress, and took an active part in suppressing Shay's
rebellion. He remained in congress as representative or senator until 1799, and in 1802
was appointed judge of the supreme court of Massachusetts, and was a prominent mem-
ber of the old federalist party, and an early opponent of slavery. He died at Boston,
Jan. 24, 1813. THEODORE SEDGWICK, American lawyer and writer, son of the preceding,
w as b. at Sheffield, Mass., Dec., 1780. Like his father he was bred to the legal profession,
and in 1801 settled at Albany, N. Y., where he remained in successful practice until
1821, when he retired to Stockbridge, advocating, as a popular speaker, the interests of
a scientific agriculture, free trade, temperance, and antislavery, and wrote Public and
Private Economy, Illustrated by Observations made in Europe in 1836-37 (3 vols. 12mo,
New York, 1838). He died of a stroke of paralysis, after making a public speech at Pitts-

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 73 of 203)